From syllabus design to curriculum design

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From Syllabus Design to Curriculum Design Kelly 9710001M Dora 9710011M From Syllabus Design to Curriculum Design The Quest for New Methods Changing Needs for Foreign Languages in Europe English for Specific Purposes Needs Analysis in ESP Communicative Language Teaching Emergence of a Curriculum Approach in Language Teaching The Quest for New Methods World War II  immigrants, refugees and foreign students  UK, Canada, US, Australia There was much greater mobility of peoples in air travel, international trade and commerce The Quest for New Methods Whites(1988,9) comments:  The emergence of the USA as an Englishspeaking superpower The industrial and technological developments of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries The Quest for New Methods Explore new teaching method  linguistics  organization & structure of language A new approach  Oral Approach  Situational Language Teaching  British The Quest for New Methods Situational Language Teaching in British A structural syllabus with graded vocabulary levels Meaningful presentation of structures in contexts PPP method- Presentation/ Practice/ Production The Quest for New Methods 1950s- Situational Approach British, Australia, Malaysia, India, Hong Kong 1960s- Audiolingual Method United States 1978s- Audiovisual Method Europe The Quest for New Methods Audiolingual Method in US Habits are strengthened by reinforcement Foreign language habits are formed most effectively by giving the right response Language is behavior Changing Needs for Foreign Languages in Europe  The upsurge in English language teaching (since the mid-1950s~1960s)  A Language Teaching Revolution a) Introduce new methods and materials b) WHY/ HOW people learn a second language c) Evaluation results Jupp&Hodin(1975) Changing Needs for Foreign Languages in Europe  In 1969s-The Council of Europe a) removed language barriers b) modern language enrichment c) the modern Europe language  In 1970s- The Decision of school system In 1971s- The Unit-credit System for Adults Needs analysis in ESP The view of Stevens: (a) Restriction—Basic Skills of Understanding Speech, Speaking, Reading, and Writing (b) Selection—Vocabulary, Patterns of Grammar, and Function of Language (c) Themes and Topics—Themes, Topics, Situations, and Universes of Discourse (d) Communicative Needs—For Communication Needs analysis in ESP (a) Learner’s Needs are Communicative Ability (b) Preparation for Learners to Carry Out Tasks (c) Try to Perform a Role (Robinson) ex: waiters, food technology (d) Learners, Teachers, and Employers’ involvement (Richterich and Chanceril) Needs analysis in ESP Munby’s Systematic Approach:  Needs Analysis in ESP Course Design and Two Dimensions of Needs Analysis: (a) Specification for the Target-Level (b) Turning the Information into an ESP Syllabus Needs analysis in ESP Schutz and Derwing’s Summarizations for Profile of Communication Needs: (a) Personal Information (f) dialects (b) purpose (g) target level (c) setting (h) events (d) interactional variables (i) key (e) communicative way Needs analysis in ESP Profile of Communication Needs: Ex: waiter/waitress 1.personal: who the employees are, their ages , education; background 2.purpose: the types of communicative skills the clients need to develop 3.setting: restaurant 4.Interactional variables: waiter/waitress to customer Medium,mode,and channel: whether spoken or written; face to face 6.dialects:formal or casual styles 7.Target level: basic, intermediate, advanced level 8.Anticpated communicated events: greeting,taking picture 9.key: politely, quietly Communicative language teaching The Emergence of ESP The Interval Between 1960s and 1970s =>a replacement for structural situation and audio-lingual methods The Europe =>Grammatical  Communicative Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching Wilkins’s notional syllabus (a) semantico-grammatical meaning: e.g point of time, duration, time relations, frequency, and sequence (b) model meaning: modality, scale of certainty, scale of commitment (c) communicative function: request, complaints, apologies, suggestion Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching Yalden’s Descriptions for Communicative Syllabuses (1)Learner’s Purpose (2)The Setting (3) Learner’s Capacity (4)Participation (5)Language function (6)Notion (7)Skills (8)Variety (9)Grammar (10)Lexicon Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching A curriculum in a school context refers to the whole body of knowledge that children acquire in schools Rodgers(1989) Syllabi: the content to be covered by a given course, from only a small part of the total school program Curriculum: those activities in which children engage under the auspices of the school Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching Tyler(1949) -statements on the nature and process of curriculum development (1) educational purposes to be sought (aims and objectives) (2) educational experiences to be provided (content) (3) educational experiences to be organized (organization) (4)educational experience to be attained (evaluation) Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching The different opinions between Lawton and Tyler: Lawton’s Statement—Teacher’s Behavior for Educational Objectives Tyler’s Statement—Learner’s Behavior for Educational Objectives Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching Nicholls and Nicholls's description in 1972s: (a) The Careful Examination (b)The Development and Trial Use (c)The Assessment of the Extent (d)The Final Element (e)The Adoption in 1980s Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching The Focuses on the Curriculum Development: Needs Analysis Situational Analysis Learning Outcome Course Organization Selecting Teaching Material Preparing Teaching Material Providing for Effective Teaching Evaluation Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching Clark’s Statement on the Curriculum Development: The Review of Principles The Reworking of Syllabuses The Review of Strategies Embodying Appropriate Learning Experiences The Review of Assessment Designed The Review of Classroom Schemes The Review and Creation of Strategies Designed The Further Research The Review or Devising on In-service Education Designed Thanks for your listening [...]... part of the total school program Curriculum: those activities in which children engage under the auspices of the school Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching Tyler(1949) -statements on the nature and process of curriculum development (1) educational purposes to be sought (aims and objectives) (2) educational experiences to be provided (content) (3) educational experiences to be organized... Communicative Syllabuses (1)Learner’s Purpose (2)The Setting (3) Learner’s Capacity (4)Participation (5)Language function (6)Notion (7)Skills (8)Variety (9)Grammar (10)Lexicon Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching A curriculum in a school context refers to the whole body of knowledge that children acquire in schools Rodgers(1989) Syllabi: the content to be covered by a given course, from only... experiences to be organized (organization) (4)educational experience to be attained (evaluation) Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching The different opinions between Lawton and Tyler: Lawton’s Statement—Teacher’s Behavior for Educational Objectives Tyler’s Statement—Learner’s Behavior for Educational Objectives Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching Nicholls and Nicholls's... 1.personal: who the employees are, their ages , education; background 2.purpose: the types of communicative skills the clients need to develop 3.setting: restaurant 4.Interactional variables: waiter/waitress to customer 5 Medium,mode,and channel: whether spoken or written; face to face 6.dialects:formal or casual styles 7.Target level: basic, intermediate, advanced level 8.Anticpated communicated events:... (b) Selection—Vocabulary, Patterns of Grammar, and Function of Language (c) Themes and Topics—Themes, Topics, Situations, and Universes of Discourse (d) Communicative Needs—For Communication Needs analysis in ESP (a) Learner’s Needs are Communicative Ability (b) Preparation for Learners to Carry Out Tasks (c) Try to Perform a Role (Robinson) ex: waiters, food technology (d) Learners, Teachers, and Employers’... in 1980s Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching The Focuses on the Curriculum Development: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Needs Analysis Situational Analysis Learning Outcome Course Organization Selecting Teaching Material Preparing Teaching Material Providing for Effective Teaching Evaluation Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching Clark’s Statement on the Curriculum Development:... Development: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The Review of Principles The Reworking of Syllabuses The Review of Strategies Embodying Appropriate Learning Experiences The Review of Assessment Designed The Review of Classroom Schemes The Review and Creation of Strategies Designed The Further Research The Review or Devising on In-service Education Designed Thanks for your listening ... =>Grammatical  Communicative Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching Wilkins’s notional syllabus (a) semantico-grammatical meaning: e.g point of time, duration, time relations, frequency, and sequence (b) model meaning: modality, scale of certainty, scale of commitment (c) communicative function: request, complaints, apologies, suggestion Emergence of a curriculum approach in language teaching... Teachers, and Employers’ involvement (Richterich and Chanceril) Needs analysis in ESP Munby’s Systematic Approach:  Needs Analysis in ESP Course Design and Two Dimensions of Needs Analysis: (a) Specification for the Target-Level (b) Turning the Information into an ESP Syllabus Needs analysis in ESP Schutz and Derwing’s Summarizations for Profile of Communication Needs: (a) Personal Information (f) dialects...Communicative Language Teaching in Europe Whole context of teaching and learning  The need for society The need for learners English for Specific Purpose  To make the courses relevant to learners’ needs  The Language for Specific Purpose Movement The ESP approach concerns a) the need for Non-English background students b) the need for employment c) the need for business
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