Explaining second language learning

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EXPLAINING SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING I by Lis a Kaci, Jos e phin Obe rhokam p, He ndrik Fitz ne r & Cam illa Hone rlage Table of content Questions Behaviourism  The innatist perspective   Universal Grammar “Monitor Model” Psychological theories     Mimicry and memorization Cognitivist/developmental perspective Information processing Connectionism The competition model Discussion Questions What are the steps with which Behaviorism explains language? Name them and give an example What are the two different theories about the nature of Universal Grammar? What are the hypotheses of Krashen’s “Monitor Model? Explain two of them briefly To what refer “declarative knowledge” and “procedural knowledge”? What does the Competition Model explain? Behaviourism  Theory of learning  Very influential between the 1940s and 1970s  Nurture  Environment has great importance Behaviourism  Explains learning in terms of:  Imitation  Practice (mimicry)  Reinforcement  Formation of habit =language development Behaviourism  Video: Learning English, Spanglish  Video: Some funny guy learning English Behaviourism  Influence on development of audiolingual teaching and material  great emphasis on mimicry and memorization Behaviourism  Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis assumes: Firs t and targ e t lang uag e s imilar Targ e t lang uag e is le arne d with e as e First and target language different Target language is learned with difficulty Behaviourism  But: learners did not the predicted errors All learners made nearly the same errors  Influence of first language is the process of finding similarities Criticism on Behaviourism and CAH  Behaviourism +Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis are inadequate explanations for second language acquisition Psychological theories: cognitivist/developmental perspective  Theories:  Information processing  Connectionism  The competition model Information processing  Norman Segalowitz:  Second language acquisition as the building up of knowledge for automatic use of speaking and understanding  Learner first pays attention to any aspect of language for understanding/production  controlled processing  Experience/practice  easier process of information  quicker automatic access Information processing Co ntro lle d pro c e s s ing    Slow access Under control of attention Limited in capacity Auto matic pro c e s s ing    Quick access Requires little attention Needs little capacity to perform Information processing  Robert DeKeyser:  Second language acquisition as “skill learning”  Learning starts with declarative knowledge  Becomes procedural knowledge through practice  Processes become proceduralized/automized like other skills  Parallel to development from controlled to automatic processing Information processing De c larative kno wle dg e   Involves acquisition of isolated facts and rules  knowing that e g knowing that a car can be drive n Pro c e dural kno wle dg e    Requires practice Involves processing of longer units and increasing automization knowing how e g knowing ho w to drive a car Information processing  Example: car driving  Begin learning to drive a car Close attention to every action/decision  Aware that performances can easily be disturbed (e.g talking)   Practice   skill improves Automization  Experienced driver  Able to pay attention to previously disturbing events Information processing  Restructuring  Changes in language behavior  Quality changes in learner‘s knowledge New forms are not just added to old  Regular systematic reorganization and reformulation   Sudden burst of knowledge  or backsliding Systematic aspect of learner‘s language incorporates too much or wrong things  saw +ed Connectionism  Innate: only the simple ability to learn  Very important: the role of the environment Connectionism  Emphasis is on the fre que nc y  Encountering of specific linguistic features in the input  How often features occur together Connectionism  Knowledge of language built up through exposure  “c o nne c tio ns ” build up  Stronger connections the more often something is heard  chunks The competition model  Explains first language and second language acquisition  Hypothesis: “language acquis ition occurs w itho ut the ne ce s s ity of a le arne r‘s focus e d atte ntion or the ne e d for any innate brain m odule that is s pe cifically for language “ The competition model  Language use and language meaning important  Learners understand how to use “cues”  word order, grammatical markers and animacy of nouns The competition model Two /thre e ye ar o ld Uses cues of animacy and their knowledge of the way things work in the world Fo ur ye ar o ld Children will give a SVO interpretation to strings of the words  Example: „Box push boy“  Depends on the mother tongue, how second languages are learned  Example: “Il giocattolo guardail il bambino” Questions What are the steps with which Behaviorism explains language? Name them and give an example What are the two different theories about the nature of Universal Grammar? What are the hypotheses of Krashen’s “Monitor Model? Explain two of them briefly To what refer “declarative knowledge” and “procedural knowledge”? What does the Competition Model explain? Bibliography Doughty, C J & Long, M.H (eds.) (2003) The Handbook of S e cond Language Acquis ition Malden, MA: Blackwell Gramley, S & Gramley, V (eds.) (2008) Bie le fe ld Introduction to Applie d Linguis tics Bielefeld: Aithesis Lightbown, P M & Spada, N (2006) How Language s are Le arne d 3rd Edition Oxford: Oxford University Press Mitchell, R & Myles, F (1998) S e cond Language Le arning The orie s London: Arnold Richards, J C & Rodgers, T S (2001) Approache s and Me thods in Language Te aching 2nd e dition Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Saville-Troike, M (2006) Introducing S e cond Language Acquis ition Cambridge: Cambridge University Press [...]... same in first language acquisition and second language acquisition  Universal Grammar that is present to second language learners has been altered in its nature by acquisition of other languages Monitor Model  Stephen Krashen  Model of second language acquisition  Influenced by Chomsky‘s theory of first language acquisition Monitor Model Based on 5 hypotheses: 1 2 3 4 5 Acquisition -Learning Hypothesis... linguistic knowledge which consists of a set of principles common to all languages  Explanation for second language acquisition? Universal Grammar  Lydia White:  best perspective for second language acquisition; but nature of Universal Grammar is altered  Robert Bley-Vroman/J acquelyn Schachter:  Not a good explanation for second language acquisition: critical period is passed  Vivian Cook  Learners... something is heard  chunks The competition model  Explains first language and second language acquisition  Hypothesis: language acquis ition occurs w itho ut the ne ce s s ity of a le arne r‘s focus e d atte ntion or the ne e d for any innate brain m odule that is s pe cifically for language “ The competition model  Language use and language meaning important  Learners understand how to use “cues”... theories: cognitivist/developmental perspective   Since 1990 central role in second language acquisition Computer as metaphor for mind  Capacities   for storage, integration and retrieval No specific module in brain for acquisition /learning UG as explanation for first language acquisition  Less successful for second language acquisition Psychological theories: cognitivist/developmental perspective... attention Limited in capacity Auto matic pro c e s s ing    Quick access Requires little attention Needs little capacity to perform Information processing  Robert DeKeyser:  Second language acquisition as “skill learning  Learning starts with declarative knowledge  Becomes procedural knowledge through practice  Processes become proceduralized/automized like other skills  Parallel to development...  Theories:  Information processing  Connectionism  The competition model Information processing  Norman Segalowitz:  Second language acquisition as the building up of knowledge for automatic use of speaking and understanding  Learner first pays attention to any aspect of language for understanding/production  controlled processing  Experience/practice  easier process of information  quicker... ld Children will give a SVO interpretation to strings of the words  Example: „Box push boy“  Depends on the mother tongue, how second languages are learned  Example: “Il giocattolo guardail il bambino” Questions 1 2 3 4 5 What are the steps with which Behaviorism explains language? Name them and give an example What are the two different theories about the nature of Universal Grammar? What are the... & Long, M.H (eds.) (2003) The Handbook of S e cond Language Acquis ition Malden, MA: Blackwell Gramley, S & Gramley, V (eds.) (2008) Bie le fe ld Introduction to Applie d Linguis tics Bielefeld: Aithesis Lightbown, P M & Spada, N (2006) How Language s are Le arne d 3rd Edition Oxford: Oxford University Press Mitchell, R & Myles, F (1998) S e cond Language Le arning The orie s London: Arnold Richards,... backsliding Systematic aspect of learner‘s language incorporates too much or wrong things  saw +ed Connectionism  Innate: only the simple ability to learn  Very important: the role of the environment Connectionism  Emphasis is on the fre que nc y  Encountering of specific linguistic features in the input  How often features occur together Connectionism  Knowledge of language built up through exposure... Information processing  Example: car driving  Begin learning to drive a car Close attention to every action/decision  Aware that performances can easily be disturbed (e.g talking)   Practice   skill improves Automization  Experienced driver  Able to pay attention to previously disturbing events Information processing  Restructuring  Changes in language behavior  Quality changes in learner‘s
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