12 ling 122 21 language planning and language policy

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Ling 122: English as a World Language Language Planning & Language Policy Reading: Wiley (Course Reader) ‘English for the Children’ (Prop 227)   Debate Be it resolved that immigrant parents in the US should encourage their children to learn the language of the land as fast as possible, and parents should speak English with them at home Definitions   Language planning: deliberate efforts to influence the behavior of others with respect to the acquisition, structure, or functional allocation of their language codes Language policy: official policies resulting from language planning and imposed in a deliberate attempt to influence language behavior by means of official codes Types of Language Planning  Corpus planning: activities such as coining new terms, reforming spelling and adopting a new script; • the creation of new forms, • the modification of old ones, or • the selection from alternative forms in a spoken or written code Types of Language Planning  Status Planning: the recognition by a national government of the importance or position of one language in relation to others • The allocation of languages or language varieties to given functions      Medium of instruction Official language Vehicle of mass communication Language of international communication Etc Types of Language Planning  Acquisition Planning: planning directed toward increasing the number of users – speakers, writers, listeners, readers – of a language • Literacy education • Second & foreign language education efforts Language Planning as Problem Solving    Overt & covert goals Linguistic goals • • • Promotion of mass literacy Elimination of sexist language Need for technical terms • • • • • • • • Consumer protection Scientific exchange National integration Political control Economic development Creation of new elites or preservation of old ones Pacification or cooption of minority groups Mass mobilization of national or political movements Non-linguistic goals Language Policy & Planning in the U.S  The founders of the U.S chose not to designate English as the official language • • •  Dominance of English was self-evident Respect for linguistic diversity & minority rights Support for minorities who supported the revolution English has functioned as if it were the official language History of the Status of English in the U.S  British Colonial Period to 1789 • English dominant among European languages • Other immigrant languages tolerated differentially • English-only practices & English illiteracy statues imposed on slaves • Native Americans viewed as separate & subordinate nations   Missionaries attempted to promote English 1775 – Continental Congress allocated funds for Indian education - pacification History of the Status of English in the U.S  1789 – 1880 • Territorial expansion & annexation of languageminority peoples • Great tolerance for use of European immigrant languages • Compulsory illiteracy laws for African Americans until 1865 • Pacification of Native Americans through education  Some Native Americans (Cherokee) ran own schools & achieved high levels of NL literacy & biliteracy History of the Status of English in the U.S  1880 – 1930s • Height of US imperialism (Hawai’i, Philippines, Puerto Rico) • Attempts at language restriction • Height of immigration through 1920s • WWI: restrictions on use of German & other European languages in schools • Meyer v Nebraska: SC ruled against an English-only restriction on the use of foreign languages in Nebraska schools, but affirmed the state’s right to mandate that English be the common & official language of instruction History of the Status of English in the U.S  World War II – present • Civil rights movement influenced language policy – provisions made for other languages in voting, education • 1974 – Lau v Nichols – Supreme Court acknowledged that school had to provide proactive means of education   Lau remedies ESEA Title VII Bilingual Education Act Bilingual Education Types  Transitional • Purpose: to transition to an all-English curriculum  Maintenance • Purpose: to maintain & develop the first language  Enrichment • Purpose: to develop an appreciation for & fluency in the heritage language  Two-way immersion • Purpose: to develop 2nd language proficiency among mainstream students & to maintain & develop first language proficiency among minority students ESEA Title VII – The Bilingual Education Act     Grants to school districts for implementation of transitional bilingual programs (basic grants) Grants to IHEs for training teachers Grants to materials development centers to produce bilingual teaching materials Grants to Bilingual Education Service Centers to provide technical assistance Problems with ESEA Title VII  Conflicting goals • Transitional v maintenance  Inconsistent implementation • In use of each language • In qualification of teachers   Conflicting research results Political issues • Distribution of resources • Notions of the role of government (local, state, federal) in education The English-Only Movement & U.S English  Since 1980s – reaction against linguistic accommodations • 1981: S.I Hayakawa introduced constitutional amendment to make English the official language of the U.S • ‘U.S English’ formed to raise funds to promote English-Only amendments at both state and national levels The English-Plus Movement     Founded in 1987 To counteract the English-Only movement Purpose: to preserve and promote linguistic & cultural diversity Other critics of English-Only • • • • • TESOL LSA AAAL NEA Teachers Unions Criticisms of English-Only  English-Only Movement & U.S English • Ignore the civil rights traditions in the US • Fail to promote the integration of languageminority children • Neglect the need for American business to communicate with foreign markets • Restrict government’s ability to reach all citizens • Attempt to disenfranchise minority citizens • Promote divisiveness and hostility toward those whose 1st language is not English California Propositions     1986: Proposition 63 declared English as sole official language of California Propsition 187 attempted to limit benefits for undocumented immigrants Proposition 209 sought to end affirmative action programs for underrepresented minorities 1998: ‘English for the Children’ (Prop 227) ‘English for the Children’ (Prop 227)  Rationale • English is the language of opportunity – dominates science, business, technology • Immigrant parents want their children to learn English • Schools have a moral obligation to teach English • For the previous two decades, CA school have performed poorly in educating immigrant children, - high drop-out rates • Young children acquire 2nd languages easily ‘English for the Children’ (Prop 227)  Since 227, several issues have posed major challenges for schools & parents: • It imposes English-Only instruction which is normally 180 days of specially designed instruction in English • It doesn’t allow bilingual education, unless language-minority parents request a waiver from English-only instruction and request bilingual education  But still no guarantee they will receive it Some Current Language Policy Issues in the U.S      To what extent can / should room be made for the existence of other languages? How are language minorities advantaged or disadvantaged by policies involving language rights, accommodations, or restrictions? What are the advantages / disadvantages of intergenerational language shift to English? How is the monolingual language majority affected by these language policies? What kinds of language policies would assist the English-speaking majority? [...]... allow bilingual education, unless language- minority parents request a waiver from English-only instruction and request bilingual education  But still no guarantee they will receive it Some Current Language Policy Issues in the U.S      To what extent can / should room be made for the existence of other languages? How are language minorities advantaged or disadvantaged by policies involving language. .. influenced language policy – provisions made for other languages in voting, education • 1974 – Lau v Nichols – Supreme Court acknowledged that school had to provide proactive means of education   Lau remedies ESEA Title VII Bilingual Education Act Bilingual Education Types  Transitional • Purpose: to transition to an all-English curriculum  Maintenance • Purpose: to maintain & develop the first language. .. develop an appreciation for & fluency in the heritage language  Two-way immersion • Purpose: to develop 2nd language proficiency among mainstream students & to maintain & develop first language proficiency among minority students ESEA Title VII – The Bilingual Education Act     Grants to school districts for implementation of transitional bilingual programs (basic grants) Grants to IHEs for training... – reaction against linguistic accommodations • 1981: S.I Hayakawa introduced constitutional amendment to make English the official language of the U.S • ‘U.S English’ formed to raise funds to promote English-Only amendments at both state and national levels The English-Plus Movement     Founded in 1987 To counteract the English-Only movement Purpose: to preserve and promote linguistic & cultural... Philippines, Puerto Rico) • Attempts at language restriction • Height of immigration through 1920s • WWI: restrictions on use of German & other European languages in schools • Meyer v Nebraska: SC ruled against an English-only restriction on the use of foreign languages in Nebraska schools, but affirmed the state’s right to mandate that English be the common & official language of instruction History of... disadvantaged by policies involving language rights, accommodations, or restrictions? What are the advantages / disadvantages of intergenerational language shift to English? How is the monolingual language majority affected by these language policies? What kinds of language policies would assist the English-speaking majority? ... integration of languageminority children • Neglect the need for American business to communicate with foreign markets • Restrict government’s ability to reach all citizens • Attempt to disenfranchise minority citizens • Promote divisiveness and hostility toward those whose 1st language is not English California Propositions     1986: Proposition 63 declared English as sole official language of California... Grants to IHEs for training teachers Grants to materials development centers to produce bilingual teaching materials Grants to Bilingual Education Service Centers to provide technical assistance Problems with ESEA Title VII  Conflicting goals • Transitional v maintenance  Inconsistent implementation • In use of each language • In qualification of teachers   Conflicting research results Political issues... (Prop 227)  Rationale • English is the language of opportunity – dominates science, business, technology • Immigrant parents want their children to learn English • Schools have a moral obligation to teach English • For the previous two decades, CA school have performed poorly in educating immigrant children, - high drop-out rates • Young children acquire 2nd languages easily ‘English for the Children’
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