Restoration literature

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Restoration Literature Lecture One: Introduction Time of Enormous Change  two revolutions,  a religious revolt  great strides in learning Great Writers Flourish  Milton  Pope  Dryden  Swift  Behn Where Does the Term “Restoration” Come from?  In 1649, King Charles I was executed by the Parliament  From 1649-1660 England was ruled by the Lord High Protector, Oliver Cromwell and Parliament  This period is called the Interregnum The Restoration  For a number of reasons England wanted no more of protectorates  Asked Charles II, the executed king’s son, to come back to England and rule First Stuart King  James VI and I, King of Scotland and England  Came to the throne 1603 when his cousin, Elizabeth I, the last Tudor monarch, died  Died 1625 Martyred King  Charles I  married Henrietta Marie de Bourbon, daughter of the King of France  Executed January 30, 1649 Restored King  Charles II  only 19 when his father is executed  restored to the throne May 1660  died 1685 Exiled King  James II, brother of Charles II  Married first, Lady Anne Hyde  Married second, Princess Maria de Modena  Abdicated 1688  Died in Paris, 1701 England’s Only Co-regnants  Mary II and William III  Mary is the daughter of James II and Lady Anne Hyde, Duchess of York  William is the son of King Charles II and King James’s sister Mary and her husband Willem II, prince of Orange-Nassau  Mary died 1694  William died 1702 Lucy Walter  Lucy Walter, mother of James Scott, the Duke of Monmouth  Lucy died in 1658, before Charles’s triumphant return to England  By then, Lucy and Charles had split and she lived a squalid, loose life  Shortly before she died, Charles actually had his 9-year-old son, James, kidnapped from her and brought to his mother in France  Though this sounds cruel, Lucy soon died of venereal disease, a terrible death, so it was probably for the best Many Mistresses  During his reign Charles had twelve other “important” mistresses  Seven bore him children  He had fourteen acknowledged children No Legitimate Children  Charles married Catherine of Braganza, the Infanta of Portugal, in 1662  never had children,  though by all accounts, the king and queen were happily married Queen Catherine Why James as Heir is a Problem?  James was a Roman Catholic  There was still great dear and suspicion against Catholics in England, and the people did not want a Catholic king James as King  James II came to the throne on a wave of popular sentiment after his brother’s death in 1685  in three short years he was deposed by his own Protestant daughter son-in-law and James II Religious Problems  Whether or not one chose the right religion meant the difference between spending eternity in Heaven or Hell  If the government did not support the proper religion, in their eyes it could mean the difference between a nation having God’s blessing or not Charles’s Balancing Act  Charles almost always successfully balanced the official Church of England Protestantism with the more radical brand of Puritan Protestantism on one side and Roman Catholicism on the other The Yorks as Catholics  James’s Protestant wife, Anne Hyde, Duchess of York, converted to Catholicism towards the end of her life  She died in 1671, and shortly after, James converted to Catholicism  By Charles’s royal decree, the princesses Mary and Anne were brought up Anglican Further York troubles  In 1673 James married the Italian princess Maria of Modena, who was also Catholic  They had four children before James became king  All died before he took the throne Prince James Francis Edward Stuart  As long as James and Maria had no son, Princess Mary, by James’s first marriage, was still second in line for the throne  June 1688 James Francis Edward Stuart born  James’s reign was already troubled, and the thought that a Catholic prince was next in line for the throne was intolerable to Parliament and most of the English population as well Abdication or Coup?  December 1688: William of Orange arrived in England with a large force  James fled for France, in fear of his life  Remember, James had been a young man of 16 when his father was executed  Like his brother, he spent most of his early life facing danger and possible death  Parliament saw this as an abdication, and named William and Mary joint rulers The Pretenders  James never accepted defeat, and claimed the throne for the rest of his life, as did his son,“The Old Pretender” and  his grandson,the “The Young Pretender,” or Bonnie Prince Charlie as he’s often called in literature Final Uprising  Many Scottish people never accepted the House of Orange, and were persecuted because of it until a final revolt in 1745, which the English finally crushed for once and for all William and Mary  The new co-regnants Bloodless Revolution  Technically the second civil war in England  Although it’s called bloodless, James continued to attempt to regain the throne until the decisive Battle of the Boyne in Ireland, July 1690  Blood was spilt, but very little for such a large overthrow of a king [...]... up with little hesitation, resigning or "abdicating" after a demand by the Parliament This was the beginning of a short period of restoration of the Commonwealth of England, but led to a state of anarchy that resulted in the return of the exiled King Charles II and the restoration Unlike his father, Richard was not held accountable for the death of King Charles I He retired to obscurity, going into... lived by the “inner light” - the voice of God in the heart - and to “hear” this voice it was necessary to conduct the most scrupulous self-inquiry Spiritual Auto-biography  From this came a form of literature known as the “spiritual autobiography,” which became very popular during this period  John Bunyan’s Grace Abounding To The Chief Of Sinners is one of the most famous examples (can be found
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