types of literature

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Types of Literature Genre – the type of literature, such as a novel or a short story Fiction – works of prose that have imaginary elements  Prose Nonfiction writing that deals with real people, events, and places Short Story  can usually be read in one sitting Generally, a short story has one main conflict that involves the characters, keeps the story moving, and makes it interesting Poetry  Type of literature in which words are chosen and arranged to create a certain effect Novel A long work that tells a complex story that unfolds through the actions, speech, and thoughts of the characters  Drama Literature in which plot and characters are developed through dialogue and action; in other words, drama is literature in play form Epic A long narrative poem about the adventures of a hero whose actions reflect the ideals and values of a nation or race A Memoir form of autobiographical writing in which a person recalls significant events in his or her life EXPOSITION gives background information about characters, conflict, and setting NARRATIVE HOOK  the point at which the author catches the reader’s attention – the reader becomes aware of the main character’s problem RISING ACTION  where the suspense builds because complications arise that make the conflict more difficult for the main character to resolve CLIMAX a turning point in the action when the reader’s interest reaches its highest point FALLING ACTION and RESOLUTION where the conflict ends and loose ends are tied up TYPES OF CONFLICT EXTERNAL  conflicts involve a character pitted against an outside force, such as nature, a physical obstacle, or another character A character may even find him/herself pitted against a supernatural force INTERNAL  one that occurs inside the character; the character must choose between two courses of action TYPES OF IRONY  Irony is the contrast between what is expected to happen and what actually exists or happens There are three types of irony: SITUATIONAL  the contrast between what a character or the reader expects to happen, and what actually happens VERBAL  when someone says one thing but means another A common form of this irony is sarcasm DRAMATIC  the contrast between what a character knows and what the reader or audience knows POINT OF VIEW  Point of View refers to the vantage point from which a story is told Point of view determines the overall tone of a story, how much the reader learns about the characters, and the reader’s opinion of the characters Fill in the chart below with information about the three points of view that writers use most  First Person  Third Person Limited  Third Person Omniscient [...]... organized in chronological order  Three types of narrative nonfiction are biography, autobiography, and certain kinds of essays  AUTOBIOGRAPHY  The writer’s account of his or her own life Almost always told from the first person point -of- view, it generally focuses on significant events and how those events and people affected him or her BIOGRAPHY An account of a person’s life written by another person... essays present arguments and attempt to convince readers to adopt particular points of view  PERSONAL - essays express writers’ thoughts and feelings about subjects Elements of Storytelling  Fiction, narrative nonfiction, poetry, or drama includes some or all of the following elements of storytelling: PLOT  The sequence of events in a story CONFLICT A struggle between opposing forces  The struggle... well as strengths, failures as well as achievements  ESSAY A brief work of nonfiction that deals with a single subject  In a formal essay, ideas are developed systematically and impersonally  An informal essay, which is less rigidly organized and more personal, often includes humor and anecdotes   There are three common types of essays:  EXPOSITORY - essays present or explain information and ideas... happened before the beginning of the story It often interrupts the chronological flow of a story to give formation that can help readers to understand a character’s present situation IRONY  The contrast between what is expected and what actually exists or happens CHARACTERIZATION Refers to the techniques used by writers to develop characters A writer may use any or all of the following methods: a)... POINT OF VIEW  Refers to the vantage point from which the story is told DIALOGUE  The written conversation between two or more characters SUSPENSE  The excitement or tension that readers feel as they get involved in the story and become eager to know the outcome FORESHADOWING  A writer’s use of hints or clues to indicate events that will occur later in the narrative FLASHBACK  An account of a... description b) a character may reveal his/her own thoughts, feelings, or actions c) the speech, thoughts, feelings, or actions of other Characters can be used to develop a character d) narrator can make direct comments about a character NARRATOR the character or voice that relates the  events of the story to the reader  PROTAGONIST  The central character, or hero  It is always the main character, and in most... always the main character, and in most cases, he or she is the character with whom the reader identifies ANTAGONIST A character who opposes the main character Sometimes, however, this is a force of nature or a set of circumstances against which the main character is pitted MOOD  The feeling, or atmosphere, that a writer creates for the reader It is intended to shape the reader’s emotional response to
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