BASIC ARITHMETIC

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1 A BASIC ARITHMETIC • • Foundation of modern day life Simplest form of mathematics Four Basic Operations : • • • • Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division plus sign minus sign x multiplication sign division sign Equal or Even Values equal sign Beginning Terminology • Numbers Numbers - Symbol or word used to express value or quantity Arabic number system - 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 • Digits Digits - Name given to place or position of each numeral Number Sequence Kinds of numbers • Whole Numbers Numbers - Complete units , no fractional parts (43) Whole May be written in form of words (forty-three) • Fraction - Part of a whole unit or quantity (1/2) Kinds of numbers (con’t) • Decimal Decimal Numbers Numbers - Fraction written on one line as whole no Position of period determines power of decimal B WHOLE NUMBERS Addition • Number Line Line - Shows numerals in order of value Number • Adding on on the the Number Number Line Line (2 + = 5) Adding • Adding with with pictures pictures Adding Addition (con’t) • Adding in columns - Uses no equal sign +5 10 Simple 897 + 368 1265 Answer is called “sum” Complex Table of Digits ADDITION PRACTICE EXERCISES a 222 + 222 c 444 b 318 + 421 739 a 813 + 267 1080 b 924 + 429 1353 c a 813 222 + 318 1353 b 1021 d 1021 c 611 611 1621 96 + 421 + 6211 + 861 2053 1568 8853 611 + 116 d 1021 + 1210 727 2231 d 411 618 + 946 + 861 1357 1479 Subtraction • Number Line - Can show subtraction Subtraction with pictures Number Line Position larger numbers above smaller numbers If subtracting larger digits from smaller digits, borrow from next column 53 -397 141 SUBTRACTION PRACTICE EXERCISES a - b - 3 a 11 -6 a 27 - 19 b c 12 - b 23 - 14 c 28 - c - 86 - 57 d - d 19 d 29 33 - e - e 41 - 26 99 - 33 e 66 33 72 - 65 SUBTRACTION PRACTICE EXERCISES (con’t) a 387 - 241 146 a 3472 - 495 2977 a 47 - 38 a b 372 - 192 b b b 180 399 - 299 c 100 312 - 186 63 - 385 - 246 c 126 c 55 c 139 847 - 659 419 - 210 47 - 32 219 - 191 188 d 732 - 687 d 209 d 3268 - 3168 59 - 48 15 d 28 45 368 - 29 100 11 339 10 Kilo Hecto Deka base unit deci centi milli Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones Tenths Hundredths Thousandths Changing to a Smaller Unit 15000 milliliters (ml) 15 liters = • Count the number of places from the base unit to “milli” There are places • Move the decimal places to the right 15 liters = 15.000 liters = 15000ml Changing to a Larger Unit 150 Kilograms (Kg) 150 grams (g) = _ • Count the number of places from the base unit to “Kilo” There are places • Move the decimal places to the left 150 grams = 150.00 grams = 0.150 Kg 73 Comparison and Conversion Practice Exercises 1000 liter = _ ml 6000 ml = _6liters 10 cm = _100 mm 5.0 500 cm = _ m Kg = _4000 g 55 ml = _.055 liters 8500 8.5 Km = _ m 6.2 cm = _62 mm .0562 0.562 mm = _ cm 750 10 75 cm = _ mm 74 Conversion Factors Conversion Table for Length Conversion Table for Area 75 Conversion Factors Conversion of Volume • Volume measures the total space occupied by three-dimensional objects or substances • Volume of six-sided spaces is calculated as “length x width x height” • Volume of spheres and cylinders is more complicated • Term “cubic” is used because it is a math function involving factors 2ft x 4ft x 3ft = 24 Cubic Feet English cubic inch = cubic inch cubic foot = 1728 cubic inches (12 x 12 x 12) cubic yard = 27 cubic feet (3 x x 3) Metric cubic meter = 1,000,000 cubic centimeters (100 x 100 x 100) foot = 305 meters and meter = 3.28 feet Factors can be converted before or after initial calculation 76 Conversion Factors (con’t) Conversion Table for Pressure Conversion Table for Weight 77 Conversion Factors (con’t) To convert between Celsius and Fahrenheit: Fahrenheit to Celsius (oF-32) x 5/9 = oC Celsius to Fahrenheit (oC x 9/5) + 32 = oF Conversion Table for Temperature 78 Metric System Practice Exercises Which one of the following is not a metric measurement? a b c d millimeter centimeter square feet cm Milli - is the prefix for which one of the following? 100 ones 0.001 unit 0.0001 unit 0.00001 unit How long are lines A and B in this figure? A = 53 mm, or 5.3 cm B = 38 mm, or 3.8 cm A B a b c d How long is the line below? (Express in metric units) 69 mm Convert the following: 1000 a meter = millimeters b 50 cm = millimeters c 1.2 12 mm = _centimeters d 700 7m = _centimeters 79 H THE CALCULATOR • Functions vary from one manufacturer to the next • Most have same basic functions • More advanced scientific models have complicated applications • Solar models powered by sunlight or normal indoor light Basic Keys: On/Off Key: Turns calculator on or off Solar unit will not have “off” key C/AC: Press once ( C ) to clear last entry - Press twice (AC) to clear all functions Key: Controls the division function X Key: Controls the multiplication function - Key: Controls the subtraction function + Key: Controls the addition function Key: Controls the square root function M+ Key: Adds a number or function to the memory register, to be recalled later M- Key: Subtracts number or function from memory register MR Key: Memory Recall recalls function stored in register MC Key: Memory Clear clears or erases all contents from memory % Key: Controls the percentage functions 80 Calculator Functions: • Cannot give correct answer if given the wrong information or command • Decimals must be placed properly when entering numbers • Wrong entries can be cleared by using the C/AC button • Calculators usually provide a running total ADDITION Add 3, 8, 9, and 14 Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Step 5: Step 6: Step 7: Step 8: Press “3” key - number appears on screen Press “+” key - number remains on screen Press “8” key - number appears on screen Press “+” key - running total of “11” appears on screen Press the “9” key - number appears on screen Press “+” key - running total of “20” appears on screen Press “1 & 4” keys - number 14 appears on screen Press the = key - number 34 appears This is the answer In step 8, pressing the + key would have displayed the total Pressing the = key stops the running total function and ends the overall calculation 81 Calculator Addition Exercise Use the calculator to add the following .06783 49160 76841 02134 + 87013 2.21931 154758 3906 4123 5434 + 76 168297 12.54 + 932.67 + 13.4 = 958.61 82 SUBTRACTION SUBTRACT 25 FROM 187 Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Press 1, 8, and keys - number 187 appears on screen Press “-” key - number 187 remains on screen Press & keys- number 25 appears on screen Press “=” key - number 162 appears on screen This is the answer In step 4, pressing the - key would have displayed the total Calculator Subtraction Exercise Use the calculator to subtract the following .0543 - 0532 0.0011 .0578 - 0463 0.0115 179853 - 4327 = 175526 83 MULTIPLICATION MULIPLY 342 BY 174 Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Press 3, 4, and keys - number 342 appears on screen Press “X” key - number 342 remains on screen Press 1, & keys- number 174 appears on screen Press “=” key - number 59508 appears on screen This is the answer Calculator Multiplication Exercise Use the calculator to multiply the following 2.45 x 16 40.64 60.8 x 19 1155.2 12.8976 x 43.7 x 12.01 = 6769.1376912 84 DIVISION DIVIDE 66 BY 12.3 Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Press the key twice - number 66 appears on screen Press “ ” key - number 66 remains on screen Press 1, 2, (decimal), & keys- number 12.3 appears on screen Press “=” key - number 5.3659 appears on screen This is the answer Calculator Division Exercise Use the calculator to divide the following .2961 = 0.05922 13.5678 11.1 = 1.22232 .1765 = 0.353 85 PERCENTAGES FIND 1.3% OF 50 Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Press the and keys - number 50 appears on screen Press “ x ” key - number 50 remains on screen Press 1, (decimal), & keys- number 1.3 appears on screen Press “%” key - number 065 appears on screen This is the answer Calculator Percentages Exercise Use the calculator to find the following percentages Find 5% of: Find 10% of: Find 26% of a 150 = 7.5 a 1250 = 125 a 260 = 67.6 b 675 = 33.75 b 871 = 87.1 b 212 = 55.12 c 100 =5 c 202 = 20.2 c 1817 = 472.42 86 87 [...]... 87 13 81 + 14 195 34 4 c 9 88 3 9 +5 14 -5 949 103 212 439 + 195 746 c 2793142 - 1361101 1432141 + 1361101 2793242 d 28 - 5 24 +5 29 d 21 + 83 104 - 83 21 # = Right # = Wrong 13 4 Multiplication • In Arithmetic - Indicated by “times” sign (x) Learn “Times” Table 6 x 8 = 48 14 4 Multiplication (con’t) • Complex Multiplication - Carry result to next column Problem: 48 x 23 +2 48 X 23 4 +2 48 X 23 144
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