Hedging treasury risk with forward foreign exchange contracts

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Hedging Treasury Risk with Forward Foreign Exchange Contracts Leslie Matthews Šulenta Director International Business Strategies, LLC, Zagreb September, 2005 Croatian Association of Corporate Treasurers Overview  FX forwards: definition, characteristics and features  Uses of FX forwards – Example 1: Hedging with forwards – Example 2: Deriving the forward rate  Problems and risks  Accounting for forwards – Example 3: Marking to market  Risk management Leslie Šulenta, International Bu siness Strategies, LLC FX Forwards: Definition, Characteristics and Features Forward Foreign Exchange Contract Definition: An agreement to exchange one currency for another, where  The exchange rate is fixed on the day of the contract, but  The actual exchange takes place on a predetermined date in the future Leslie Šulenta, International Bu siness Strategies, LLC Characteristics and Features of FX Forwards  Available daily in major currencies in 30-, 90-, and 180day maturities  Forwards are entered into “over the counter”  Deliverable forwards: face amount of currency is exchanged on settlement date  Non-deliverable forwards: only the gain or loss is exchanged Leslie Šulenta, International Bu siness Strategies, LLC Characteristics and Features of FX Forwards  Contract terms specify: – forward exchange rate – term – amount – ‘‘value date’’ (the day the forward contract expires) – locations for payment and delivery  The date on which the currency is actually exchanged, the ‘‘settlement date,’’ is generally two days after the value date of the contract Leslie Šulenta, International Bu siness Strategies, LLC Characteristics and Features of FX Forwards Forward Exchange Rates: “The Iron-Clad Law”  Forward exchange rates are different from spot rates, but they are not a prediction of what the spot rate will be when the deal settles! The difference between the forward exchange rate and the spot exchange rate is the interest differential between the two currencies Leslie Šulenta, International Bu siness Strategies, LLC FX Forwards: Uses Uses of FX Forwards (1) Hedge foreign currency risk (2) Arbitrage FX rate discrepancies within and between markets (3) Speculate on future market movements (4) Profit by acting as market maker  Financial institutions, money managers, corporations, and traders use these instruments for managing currency risk Leslie Šulenta, International Bu siness Strategies, LLC Two Types of Hedging Corporations engaged in international trade  Hedge payments and receipts denominated in foreign currencies – For example, a Croatian corporation that exports to Germany and expects payment in Euro (EUR) could sell EUR forward to eliminate the risk of a depreciation of the EUR at the time that the payment arrives  Hedge the translation of foreign earnings for presentation in financial statements Leslie Šulenta, International Bu siness Strategies, LLC 10 FX Forwards: Problems and Risks Problems with FX Forwards  Finding counterparties who want to take exactly the opposite position: – Most companies (potential counterparties) are “in the same boat” (i.e., importers from the eurozone) – One of the parties to the transaction might want to trade a different amount, or have a different settlement date – Transaction costs can be large (bank’s spread) Leslie Šulenta, International Bu siness Strategies, LLC 18 Problems with FX Forwards  Liquidity risk: A party in a forward contract may find it difficult to exit the position Alternatives: – If counterparty agrees, cancel the forward for a fee – Assign the contract to another party This requires some compensation – If an exact opposite position can be taken, offset the obligation and suffer only the price differential Leslie Šulenta, International Bu siness Strategies, LLC 19 Problems with FX Forwards  Default risk: There is an incentive for the counterparty who lost on the forward contract to default on the agreement – Forwards are a zero sum game Each counterparty that gains is balanced by a counterparty who loses the same amount Leslie Šulenta, International Bu siness Strategies, LLC 20 FX Forwards: Accounting Accounting for FX Forwards  IAS 39 applies (Accounting for Financial Instruments – derivatives accounting) – The deal has no immediate value – Off-balance sheet accounts are used initially to record the deal on the books Leslie Šulenta, International Bu siness Strategies, LLC 22 Accounting for Forwards  Fair value of the forward changes over time with movements in the foreign exchange rate  Unrealized gain (loss) is measured by applying today’s market rates at the forward date Leslie Šulenta, International Bu siness Strategies, LLC 23 Example 3: Marking to Market  After one month’s time, the company has to mark-to-market a 3-month forward which is carried in the off-balance sheet accounts – On the date of the deal, the spot rate was 7.3000 – The forward rate for the deal is 7.3371 – The spot rate HRK/EUR is now 7.4150  What is the market value of the forward today? Leslie Šulenta, International Bu siness Strategies, LLC 24 Example 3: Marking to Market  The company bought EUR against HRK in 90 days  Today, the company could buy EUR 1,000,000 at the spot rate of 7.4150 and pay HRK 7,415,000  The company is committed to buy EUR 1,000,000 when the forward matures at 7.3371 and pay only HRK 7,337,100  Thus, the deal now has value Company records an unrealized GAIN of: HRK 7,415,000 – HRK 7,337,100 = HRK 77,900 Leslie Šulenta, International Bu siness Strategies, LLC 25 FX Forwards: Risk Management Risk Management Before using any type of derivatives, companies should:  Discuss the potential risks and benefits of derivatives with Management Board and Supervisory Board  Develop appropriate internal controls and limits  Prepare derivatives policy and procedures manual; tax and accounting manuals  Host training seminars for management and employees Leslie Šulenta, International Bu siness Strategies, LLC 27 Successful Risk Management DON’T WORRY, IT MAY MELT BEFORE WE GET THERE! Leslie Šulenta, International Bu siness Strategies, LLC 28 Successful Risk Management WE CAN DECIDE WHAT TO DO, IF AND WHEN WE HIT IT! Leslie Šulenta, International Bu siness Strategies, LLC 29 Successful Risk Management WE NEVER NEEDED TO USE LIFE BOATS BEFORE!! Leslie Šulenta, International Bu siness Strategies, LLC 30 Thank You Leslie Matthews Šulenta +385 98 355 258 Leslie.sulenta@consulting-mps com www.consulting-mps.com [...]...Example 1: Hedging With an FX Forward Hedged Item  Company must pay EUR 1,000,000 to a eurozone supplier in 3 months  Spot rate HRK/EUR: 7.3000  Treasurer believes HRK will depreciate during next 3 months – Exposure to FX risk: What will be exchange rate HRK/EUR in three months?? Hedging Instrument  Bank buys 1,000,000 EUR forward at forward rate of 7.3750 – FX risk: Company is protected... EUR forward at forward rate of 7.3750 Disadvantage of Hedge: Company is still exposed to FX risk if the HRK/EUR spot rate is less than 7.3750 in 3 months Effect of hedge is same as buying EUR today and holding in an interest-bearing account (Forward FX agreement is NOT a simple speculation) Example 1: Hedging With an FX Forward Unhedged Company  If in 3 months, spot rate is 7.4500… Effect of Hedging. .. EUR forward – Hedged Company will pay: – Unhedged Company must pay: 7.45 x 1,000,000 = HRK 7,450,000 7.375 x 1,000,000 = HRK 7,375,000 Money saved by hedging: 7,450,000 – 7,375,000 = HRK 75,000 Example 2: Deriving the Forward Exchange Rate  The spot rate HRK/EUR is 7.3000  A bank today sells a 3-month HRK/EUR forward to a company for a forward exchange rate of 7.3371  How did the bank compute the forward. .. Forward Exchange Rate OPTION 1 OPTION 2 Invest EUR 1 million at 1% for 3 months (91 days) Sell EUR 1 million spot at 7.30 Buy HRK 7.3 million Invest HRK for 3 months at 3% Interest earned EUR 2,493.15 Interest earned HRK 55,358.33 (7.3 million x 3% x 91/360) Value after 3 months EUR 1,002,493 Value after 6 months HRK 7,355,358 Forward Exchange Rate: 7.3371 FX Forwards: Problems and Risks Problems with. .. Strategies, LLC 19 Problems with FX Forwards  Default risk: There is an incentive for the counterparty who lost on the forward contract to default on the agreement – Forwards are a zero sum game Each counterparty that gains is balanced by a counterparty who loses the same amount Leslie Šulenta, International Bu siness Strategies, LLC 20 FX Forwards: Accounting Accounting for FX Forwards  IAS 39 applies... Strategies, LLC 22 Accounting for Forwards  Fair value of the forward changes over time with movements in the foreign exchange rate  Unrealized gain (loss) is measured by applying today’s market rates at the forward date Leslie Šulenta, International Bu siness Strategies, LLC 23 Example 3: Marking to Market  After one month’s time, the company has to mark-to-market a 3-month forward which is carried in... 7.3750 Example 1: Hedging With an FX Forward Hedged Item  Company must pay EUR 1,000,000 to a eurozone supplier in 3 months  Spot rate HRK/EUR: 7.3000  Treasurer believes HRK will depreciate during next 3 months Advantages of Hedge: Company knows its costs and can plan its finances accordingly Cost of the hedge is zero - No money is exchanged at inception of the forward FX agreement Hedging Instrument... when the forward matures at 7.3371 and pay only HRK 7,337,100  Thus, the deal now has value Company records an unrealized GAIN of: HRK 7,415,000 – HRK 7,337,100 = HRK 77,900 Leslie Šulenta, International Bu siness Strategies, LLC 25 FX Forwards: Risk Management Risk Management Before using any type of derivatives, companies should:  Discuss the potential risks and benefits of derivatives with Management... date – Transaction costs can be large (bank’s spread) Leslie Šulenta, International Bu siness Strategies, LLC 18 Problems with FX Forwards  Liquidity risk: A party in a forward contract may find it difficult to exit the position Alternatives: – If counterparty agrees, cancel the forward for a fee – Assign the contract to another party This requires some compensation – If an exact opposite position... exchange rate of 7.3371  How did the bank compute the forward rate? Leslie Šulenta, International Bu siness Strategies, LLC 14 Example 2: Deriving the Forward Exchange Rate  Three month interest rates are: – 1% on the euro – 3% on the kuna  A company with EUR 1 million and a need for HRK in three months should be indifferent, financially speaking, as to whether it: – Invests the EUR 1 million for 3
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