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Bộ GIáO DụC Và ĐàO TạO Trờng đại học kinh tế quốc dân LÊ tHùY HƯƠNG NGHIÊN CứU CáC NHÂN Tố ảNH HƯởng đến ý định mua thực phẩm an toàn c dân đô thị lấy ví dụ thành phố Hà nội Chuyên ngành: quản trị kinh doanh (marketing) Mã số: 62340102 62340102 Ngời hớng dẫn khoa học: PGS TS trơng đình chiến Hà Nội 2014 iii MC LC LI CM N i LI CAM OAN ii DANH MC T VIT TT vi DANH MC BNG BIU vii DANH MC HèNH V ix CHNG 1: GII THIU CHUNG V NGHIấN CU CC NHN T NH HNG N í NH MUA THC PHM AN TON CA C DN ễ TH - LY V D TI THNH PH H NI 1.1 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 Tớnh cp thit ca ti nghiờn cu Mc tiờu, cõu hi nghiờn cu v nhim v nghiờn cu ca lun ỏn Mc tiờu nghiờn cu Cõu hi nghiờn cu Nhim v nghiờn cu 1.3 i tng, phm vi nghiờn cu ca lun ỏn 1.3.1 i tng nghiờn cu 1.3.2 Phm vi nghiờn cu 1.4 1.5 1.5.1 1.5.2 Khỏi quỏt phng phỏp nghiờn cu Nhng úng gúp mi ca lun ỏn 10 Nhng úng gúp v mt lý lun 10 Nhng úng gúp v mt thc tin 11 1.6 B cc ca lun ỏn 11 CHNG 2: C S Lí THUYT V Mễ HèNH NGHIấN CU CC NHN T NH HNG N í NH MUA THC PHM AN TON 12 2.1 Cỏc khỏi nim c bn 12 2.1.1 Thc phm an ton 12 2.1.2 í nh mua 13 2.1.3 í nh mua thc phm an ton 14 2.2 2.3 C s lý thuyt - Lý thuyt hnh vi hp lý (TRA) v lý thuyt hnh vi cú k hoch (TPB) 15 Tng quan cỏc mụ hỡnh nghiờn cu cỏc nhõn t nh hng n ý nh mua thc phm an ton 21 iv 2.3.1 Tng quan cỏc mụ hỡnh nghiờn cu cỏc nhõn t nh hng n ý nh mua thc phm an ton nc 21 2.3.2 Tng quan cỏc mụ hỡnh nghiờn cu cỏc nhõn t nh hng n ý nh mua thc phm an ton ngoi nc 24 2.4 Mụ hỡnh nghiờn cu, cỏc gi thuyt v thang o 32 TểM TT CHNG 50 CHNG 3: PHNG PHP NGHIấN CU 52 3.1 Thit k nghiờn cu 52 3.1.1 Phng phỏp nghiờn cu 52 3.1.2 Quy trỡnh xõy dng bng hi 53 3.1.3 Mu nghiờn cu 54 3.2 Nghiờn cu nh tớnh 55 3.1.1 Mc tiờu ca phng sõu 55 3.1.2 Phng phỏp thc hin phng sõu 56 3.1.3 Kt qu nghiờn cu nh tớnh 58 3.1.4 Din t v mó húa thang o 60 3.3 Nghiờn cu nh lng 64 3.2.1 Nghiờn cu nh lng s b 64 3.2.2 Nghiờn cu nh lng chớnh thc 72 TểM TT CHNG 77 CHNG 4: KT QU NGHIấN CU 79 4.1 Thng kờ mụ t mu nghiờn cu theo bin kim soỏt 79 4.2 ỏnh giỏ thang o 81 4.2.1 Thng kờ mụ t bin c lp v kim nh dng phõn phi ca cỏc thang o bin c lp 81 4.2.2 Thng kờ mụ t bin ph thuc 84 4.2.3 Kim nh giỏ tr ca thang o 84 4.2.4 ỏnh giỏ tin cy ca cỏc thang o 89 4.3 Kim nh gi thuyt nghiờn cu 95 4.3.1 Kim nh h s tng quan 95 4.3.2 Kim nh gi thuyt v phõn tớch hi quy 97 4.4 So sỏnh nh hng ca cỏc nhúm mi bin kim soỏt ti ý nh mua thc phm an ton .103 v 4.4.1 Kim nh Independent- sample T-test gia bin kim soỏt Gii tớnh v bin ph thuc í nh mua 104 4.4.2 Kim nh Anova gia bin kim soỏt Tui v bin ph thuc í nh mua 105 4.4.3 Kim nh Anova gia bin kim soỏt Trỡnh hc v bin ph thuc í nh mua 105 4.4.4 Kim nh Anova gia bin kim soỏt Thu nhp v bin ph thuc í nh mua 107 TểM TT CHNG 108 CHNG 5: KT LUN V KIN NGH 109 5.1 Túm tt kt qu nghiờn cu .109 5.2 Tho lun kt qu nghiờn cu 112 5.2.1 Tỏc ng ca s quan tõm n sc khe 112 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.2.5 5.2.6 Tỏc ng ca nhn thc v cht lng 113 Tỏc ng ca s quan tõm n mụi trng 114 Tỏc ng ca chun mc ch quan .114 Tỏc ng ca nhn thc v s sn cú ca sn phm .115 Tỏc ng ca nhn thc v giỏ bỏn sn phm .115 5.2.7 Tỏc ng ca tham kho-giỏ tr bn thõn 116 5.2.8 Tỏc ng ca tham kho-tuõn th 116 5.2.9 Tỏc ng ca tham kho- thụng tin .116 5.2.10 Tỏc ng ca truyn thụng i chỳng 117 5.3 Mt s xut v kin ngh 118 5.3.1 Mt s xut cho cỏc nh qun tr .118 5.3.2 Mt s kin ngh v mụ 120 5.4 Hn ch ca nghiờn cu v gi ý cho nghiờn cu tip theo 122 5.4.1 Hn ch ca nghiờn cu 122 5.4.2 Gi ý cho nghiờn cu tip theo .122 TểM TT CHNG 123 DANH MC CC CễNG TRèNH KHOA HC C CễNG B Cể LIấN QUAN CA TC GI 124 TI LIU THAM KHO .125 PH LUC vi DANH MC T VIT TT TPAT : Thc phm an ton TPB : Theory of Planned Behaviour TRA : Theory of Reasoned Action vii DANH MC BNG BIU Bng 2.1 Thang o í nh mua thc phm an ton 37 Bng 2.2 Thang o s quan tõm n sc khe 38 Bng 2.3 Thang o nhn thc v cht lng 39 Bng 2.4 Thang o s quan tõm n mụi trng 40 Bng 2.5 Thang o chun mc ch quan 41 Bng 2.6 Thang o s sn cú ca sn phm 41 Bng 2.7 Thang o giỏ bỏn sn phm 42 Bng 2.8 Thang o nhúm tham kho 43 Bng 3.1 Phng phỏp nghiờn cu 53 Bng 3.2 c im mu ngi tiờu dựng nghiờn cu nh tớnh 57 Bng 3.3 iu chnh cỏch din t thang o 59 Bng 3.4 Thang o hiu chnh v mó húa thang o 61 Bng 3.5 Kt qu ỏnh giỏ s b thang o bng Cronbach Alpha 66 Bng 3.6 Kt qu ỏnh giỏ li tin cy ca ba thang o chun mc ch quan, nhn thc v giỏ bỏn sn phm v nhúm tham kho 68 Bng 3.8 Kt qu thu thp phiu iu tra 76 Bng 3.9 Thng kờ phiu iu tra 77 Bng 4.1 Thng kờ mụ t mu theo gii tớnh 79 Bng 4.2 Thng kờ mụ t mu theo tui 80 Bng 4.3 Thng kờ mụ t mu theo Trỡnh hc 80 Bng 4.4 Thng kờ mụ t mu theo thu nhp 81 Bng 4.5 Mụ t thng kờ cỏc thang o bin c lp 82 Bng 4.6 Mụ t thng kờ cỏc thang o bin ph thuc 84 Bng 4.7 Kt qu phõn tớch nhõn t EFA 87 Bng 4.8 Kt qu ỏnh giỏ tin cy ca thang o 92 Bng 4.9 Kt qu kim nh h s tng quan 96 Bng 4.10 Kt qu phõn tớch hi quy 102 viii Bng 4.11 Kim nh Levene phng sai ng nht cho cỏc nhúm gii tớnh 104 Bng 4.12 Kim nh Levene phng sai ng nht cho cỏc nhúm tui 105 Bng 4.13 Kim nh Levene phng sai ng nht cho cỏc nhúm trỡnh hc 105 Bng 4.14 Kim nh Anova gia 106 Bng 4.15 Bng mụ t giỏ tr trung bỡnh í nh mua thc phm an ton gia cỏc nhúm Trỡnh hc 106 Bng 4.16 Kim nh Levene phng sai ng nht cho cỏc nhúm thu nhp 107 ix DANH MC HèNH V Hỡnh 1.1 Quy trỡnh nghiờn cu ca lun ỏn Hỡnh 2.1 Mụ hỡnh Lý thuyt hnh vi hp lý (TRA) ca Fishbein v Ajzen (1975) 17 Hỡnh 2.2 Mụ hỡnh Lý thuyt hnh vi cú k hoch (TPB) ca Ajzen (1991) 20 Hỡnh 2.3 Mụ hỡnh nghiờn cu ca Trng T Thiờn v cng s (2010) 22 Hỡnh 2.4 Mụ hỡnh nghiờn cu ca Nguyn Phong Tun (2011) 24 Hỡnh 2.5 Mụ hỡnh nghiờn cu ca Anssi Tarkiainen v cng s (2005) 25 Hỡnh 2.6 Mụ hỡnh nghiờn cu ca Sudiyanti Sudiyanti (2009) 27 Hỡnh 2.7 Mụ hỡnh nghiờn cu ca Jay Dickieson v cng s (2009) 28 Hỡnh 2.8 Mụ hỡnh nghiờn cu ca Victoria Kulikovski v cng s (2010) 29 Hỡnh 2.9 Mụ hỡnh nghiờn cu ca A.H Aman v cng s (2012) 30 Hỡnh 2.10 Mụ hỡnh nghiờn cu ca Justin Paul v cng s (2012) 31 Hỡnh 2.11 Mụ hỡnh nghiờn cu ca lun ỏn 36 Hỡnh 4.1 Mụ hỡnh nghiờn cu iu chnh 94 CHNG 1: GII THIU CHUNG V NGHIấN CU CC NHN T NH HNG N í NH MUA THC PHM AN TON CA C DN ễ TH - LY V D TI THNH PH H NI 1.1 Tớnh cp thit ca ti nghiờn cu Thc phm l ngun cung cp cht dinh dng nuụi sng c th v to nng lng cho hot ng ca ngi Tuy nhiờn, thc t cho thy thc phm nhiu li l ngun gõy bnh tt v nh hng ti sc khe ngi ú l nhng loi thc phm khụng an ton t quy trỡnh chn nuụi, gieo trng, sn xut ti quy trỡnh ch bin, bo qun v s dng khụng hp lý õy l gõy nhiu lo lng ngi tiờu dựng v ton xó hi Vit Nam nhng nm gn õy, chỳng ta ngy cng hi nhp vi th gii v m ca cho hng húa nc ngoi trn vo Cựng lỳc sn xut nc ngy cng phỏt trin, ú qun lý v cht lng thc phm li cha cht ch Trong thi gian qua, nh nc ó mt s chớnh sỏch v sn xut v kinh doanh thc phm an ton v mt s bin phỏp m bo an ton thc phm Song cỏc chớnh sỏch v bin phỏp ú cha c thc hin rng rói v an ton thc phm cha c gii quyt hiu qu Tỡnh hỡnh sn xut v kinh doanh thc phm khụng m bo cht lng, cú hi cho sc khe ngi tiờu dựng ngy cng ph bin Vic s dng cht bo v thc vt nh thuc tr sõu, dit c, húa cht tng trng v thuc bo qun khụng ỳng quy nh gõy ụ nhim mụi trng cng nh tn d cỏc húa cht thc phm gõy hoang mang tiờu dựng Ngi tiờu dựng ngy ang cnh giỏc hn vi nhng thc phm h tiờu dựng Bờn cnh ú, i sng xó hi ngy mt nõng cao, ngi tiờu dựng ngy cng quan tõm n sc khe hn v yờu cu thc phm ngy cng kht khe hn Thc phm hụm khụng ch tha v giỏc v cũn phi an ton v cú li cho sc khe Bi cnh ny l c hi cho nhng doanh nghip kinh doanh thc phm thay i t phng thc sn xut, thnh phn cu to sn phm, cỏch thc phõn phi tiờu th sn phm cho thõn thin vi mụi trng nht v cú li cho ngi tiờu dựng, doanh nghip v ton xó hi nht Tuy nhiờn, thc t cho thy ngi tiờu dựng cha nhn thc ỳng v thc phm an ton v h cha cú y thụng tin v loi sn phm ny Do ú, cn phi cú nhng nghiờn cu v lnh vc ny giỳp h tr doanh nghip thu hỳt c khỏch hng hn v ngi tiờu dựng tip cn tt hn vi sn phm Trờn th gii, ngnh sn xut v kinh doanh thc phm an ton t lõu ó c d oỏn l s tng trng ỏng k tng lai Theo Makatouni (2002), cú th thy rừ rng ngnh sn xut kinh doanh thc phm an ton l mt nhng khu vc cú mc tng trng nhanh nht th trng thc phm Chõu u, Nam M, Chõu c v Nht Bn Doanh thu t kinh doanh thc phm an ton trờn th gii tng ti gn nm t ụ la M mi nm v s ny ang cú nhiu hn s cũn tng cao hn vo nhng nm ti (Willer v Klicher, 2009) Transparency Market Research ó a bỏo cỏo v th trng thc phm an ton rng cu cho thc phm an ton cú giỏ tr l 70,7 t ụ la M vo nm 2012 v c d oỏn cú kh nng s tng lờn ti 187,85 t ụ la M vo nm 2019 vi t l tng trng l 15,5% mi nm t 2013 n 2019 (Organic food and beverage market, 2013) Theo bỏo cỏo ca Canada organic trade assosisation nm 2013, doanh s bỏn l thc phm an ton ti Canada t nm 2006 n nm 2008 tng xp x 30% mi nm v t nm 2008 n 2012 tng trung bỡnh 9% mi nm v luụn l ngnh dn u v t l tng trng (The BC Organic Market, 2013) Ti M, doanh s bỏn l thc phm an ton nm 2010 l 26,7 t ụ la M v nm 2011 l 29,2 t ụ la M vi t l tng trng nm 2010 l 7,7% v nm 2011 l 9,4% (GAIN Report, 2013) Vo nhng nm cui thp niờn 90, khỏi nim thc phm an ton ó c quan tõm ti Vit Nam Nụng dõn Vit Nam bt u sn xut thc phm an ton Ban u ch l nhng sn phm c thự nh tr xanh, cỏc sn phm gia v v du thc vt xut khu sang Chõu u Sau ny, nụng dõn Vit Nam ó phỏt trin sn xut nhiu mt hng hn nh rau, go, hoa qu, mt ong, tht, thy sn 124 DANH MC CC CễNG TRèNH KHOA HC C CễNG B Cể LIấN QUAN CA TC GI Phõn tớch cỏc nhõn t nh hng ti ý nh mua thc phm an ton., Tp Kinh t v d bỏo, S thỏng nm 2014 nh hng ca s quan tõm n sc khe, nhn thc v cht lng v quy tc ng x ch quan ti ý nh mua thc phm an ton ca c dõn ụ th Vit Nam - 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