Diffusion process (Conceiving, Developing and Managing Products) Evans and Berman chapter 13

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Conceiving, Developing, and Managing Products Evans & Berman Chapter 13 Chapter Objectives To study how products are created and managed, with an emphasis on the product life cycle To detail the importance of new products and describe why new products fail To present the stages in the new-product planning process To analyze the growth and maturity of products, including the adoption process, the diffusion process, and extension strategies To examine product deletion decisions and strategies Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Types of New Products ̈ ̈ ̈ Modifications: Modifications alterations/extensions in a company’s existing products, such as new models Minor Innovations: Innovations items not previously sold by a firm that have been sold by others Major Innovations: Innovations items not previous sold by any firm Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 The Product Life Cycle ̈ ̈ ̈ The product life cycle is a concept that seeks to describe a product’s sales, competitors, customers, and marketing emphasis from its beginning until it is removed from the market Companies often desire a balanced product portfolio portfolio The life-cycle concept can be applied to a product class, a product form, and a product brand Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Selected Product Life Cycles B Boom or Classic C Fad Sales A Traditional Time Extended Fad Seasonal or Fashion Revival Bust Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 The Traditional Product Life Cycle S a l e s Time Typical product: Black and White TV’s Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Four Stages in Traditional Product Life Cycle Introduction Growth Maturity S a l e s Decline Sales Profits TIME Profit is negative in Introduction, slowly rises in Growth, peaks and then declines in Maturity stage and in Decline stage Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Traditional Product Life Cycle and Advertising 13.5 34 34 16 Introduction Growth Maturity Decline Sale 40 30 20 10 Time Advertising Goals Inform Persuade Highly Competitive Reassess/go back Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Self-Fulfilling Prophecy ̈ ̈ Many firms may engage in a selffulfilling prophecy, prophecy whereby they predict falling sales and then ensure this by reducing or removing marketing support With proper marketing, some products might not fail Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Importance of New Products To assure a firm’s survival, new products may: ̈ Offer differential advantages ̈ Lead to sales growth or stability ̈ Increase profits and control ̈ Reduce risk through diversity ̈ Improve distribution ̈ Exploit technology ̈ Utilize waste materials ̈ Respond to consumer needs ̈ Be a result of a government mandate Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 New-Product Planning Process Product Screening Idea Generation Concept Testing Long-term planning is required to launch a successful new product Commercialization Test Marketing Business Analysis Product Development Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Idea Generation Continuous, systematic search for new product opportunities Idea Generation Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Product Screening Poor, unsuitable products weeded out and patentability determined Product Screening Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Concept Testing Present consumer with proposed product to measure attitudes and intentions Concept Testing Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Business Analysis Detailed review of demand, costs, break-even points, investments, and potential profits for each new product Business Analysis Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Product Development Converts product idea into tangible form and identifies basic marketing strategy Product Development Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Test Marketing Involves placing a fully developed product into one or more selected areas to observe it under a proposed marketing plan Test Marketing Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Commercialization The product’s introduction to its full target market, corresponding to the introduction stage of the product life cycle Great product Commercialization Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Growth Stage in Life Cycle ̈ ̈ With major innovations, growth may be very slow at first and then rise quickly, as with the microwave oven Minor innovations or product modifications have quicker growth from the start Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Adoption Process ̈ ̈ The adoption process is the procedure an individual consumer goes through when learning about and purchasing a new product The rate of adoption depends on consumer traits, the product, and the firm’s marketing efforts The five stages are: ̈ Knowledge ̈ Persuasion ̈ Decision ̈ Implementation ̈ Confirmation Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Diffusion Process ̈ ̈ ̈ The diffusion process describes the manner in which different members of the target market often accept and purchase a product Diffusion spans the time from product introduction through market saturation and affects the total sales level of a product as it moves through the life-cycle Consumer segments include: ̈ Innovators—2.5% ̈ Early Adopters—13.5% ̈ Early Majority—34% ̈ Late Majority—34% ̈ Laggards—16% Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 The Diffusion Process Curve Early Adopters Early Majority Late Majority Laggards Innovators (68%) This curve shows the manner in which different members of the target market often accept and purchase a product Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Maturity Stage in Life Cycle Useful Strategies in Maturity: Develop new uses for products Develop new product features Increase the market Find new classes of consumers for present products Find new classes of consumers for modified products Increase product usage among current users Change marketing strategy Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Decline Stage of Life Cycle Questions to Consider When Deciding to Delete a Product: Replacement Parts—Who will make them? How long will they be made? Notification Time—How soon before the actual deletion will an announcement be made? Will distributors be alerted early enough so they can line up other suppliers? Warranties—How will warranties be honored? After they expire, how will repairs be done? Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Chapter Summary ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ This chapter examines how products are created and managed, with an emphasis on the product life cycle It notes the importance of new products and describes why new products fail It presents the stages in the new-product planning process It analyzes the growth and maturity of products, including the adoption process, the diffusion process, and extension strategies It looks at product deletion decisions and strategies Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 [...]... Publishing, 2002 Chapter Summary ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ This chapter examines how products are created and managed, with an emphasis on the product life cycle It notes the importance of new products and describes why new products fail It presents the stages in the new-product planning process It analyzes the growth and maturity of products, including the adoption process, the diffusion process, and extension strategies... Publishing, 2002 Diffusion Process ̈ ̈ ̈ The diffusion process describes the manner in which different members of the target market often accept and purchase a product Diffusion spans the time from product introduction through market saturation and affects the total sales level of a product as it moves through the life-cycle Consumer segments include: ̈ Innovators—2.5% ̈ Early Adopters 13. 5% ̈ Early Majority—34%... slow at first and then rise quickly, as with the microwave oven Minor innovations or product modifications have quicker growth from the start Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Adoption Process ̈ ̈ The adoption process is the procedure an individual consumer goes through when learning about and purchasing a new product The rate of adoption depends on consumer traits, the product, and the firm’s... Screening Poor, unsuitable products weeded out and patentability determined 1 Product Screening Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 3 Concept Testing Present consumer with proposed product to measure attitudes and intentions Concept Testing Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 4 Business Analysis Detailed review of demand, costs, break-even points, investments, and potential profits for each new product... Adopters 13. 5% ̈ Early Majority—34% ̈ Late Majority—34% ̈ Laggards—16% Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 The Diffusion Process Curve Early Adopters Early Majority Late Majority Laggards Innovators (68%) This curve shows the manner in which different members of the target market often accept and purchase a product Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Maturity Stage in Life Cycle Useful Strategies in... planning, products may still fail There is absolute failure and relative failure Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Types of Failures ̈ ̈ In absolute product failure, failure costs are not regained In relative product failure, failure even though a profit may be earned, goals are not met ??? Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 New-Product Planning Process 2 Product Screening 1 Idea Generation 3 Concept...Why Do Products Fail? ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ Poor long-term planning Lack of a differential advantage Incorrect pricing and product placement Inattention to the environment of marketing and audit sequences Marketing myopia Who me? But, we have always done it that way! As I say, if it worked for one it will work for all (Previously successful companies... costs, break-even points, investments, and potential profits for each new product Business Analysis Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 5 Product Development Converts product idea into tangible form and identifies basic marketing strategy Product Development Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 6 Test Marketing Involves placing a fully developed product into one or more selected areas to observe... the new-product planning process It analyzes the growth and maturity of products, including the adoption process, the diffusion process, and extension strategies It looks at product deletion decisions and strategies Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
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