Uniform pressure vs directed pressure

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Metamorphic Rocks Definitions • Metamorphic Rock - "Meta"= "Meta"= Change Change(Grk) - "Morph"= "Morph"= form (Grk) a rock that has been changed from its original form parent ( ) by heat , pressure, and fluid activity into a new rock daughter ( ) Heat Sources Sources Include Include Magma •• Magma temperature temperature of of magma magma composition composition of of magma magma Geothermal gradient gradient •• Geothermal temperature temperature increases increases with with depth depth of of buria buria core core of of Earth Earth is is warmer warmer than than outer outer crust crust Uniform Pressure vs Directed Pressure Uniform Pressure Lithostatic •• Lithostatic "Lithos"= rock, rock, static= static= unchanged unchanged (pressure) (pressure) "Lithos"= uniform (aka (aka non-directed) non-directed) uniform equal equal intensity intensity from from all all directions directions by by rocks rocks Directed Pressure one direction of squeezing is much stronger than the others Minerals align themselves to reduce stress Types of Metamorphism Contact •• Contact caused by by igneous igneous activity activity caused Dynamic •• Dynamic aka cataclastic cataclastic aka associated with with faults faults & & earthquake earthquake zones zones associated Regional •• Regional caused caused by by tremendous tremendous pressures pressures associated with with tectonic tectonic plate plate activity activity associated Contact Metamorphism Igneous Intrusions Intrusions •• Igneous size size and and type type of of magma magma important important >mafic mafic magma magma hotter hotter than than felsic felsic > heat heat decreases decreases away away from from magma magma >forms forms a a zone zone of of altered altered country country rocks rocks called called Aureoles > Aureoles Sometimes creates a metamorphic rock called a hornfels -in essence a “cooked” rock Dynamic Metamorphism aka Cataclastic Cataclastic Metamorphism Metamorphism •• aka associated with with Fault Fault Zones Zones •• associated Places Places where where the the Earth's Earth's crust crust ruptured ruptured Rock Rock pulverized pulverized > heat heat and and pressure pressure come come from from movement movement along along the the > Fault Fault Mylonite resultant rock rock is is known known as as aa Mylonite •• resultant Regional Metamorphism Most common common form form of of metamorphism metamorphism •• Most caused by by large large scale scale forces forces •• caused lithospheric plate plate collision collision lithospheric covers very very large large areas areas •• covers metamorphic metamorphic belts belts or or zones zones Zones are are characterized characterized by by Index Minerals Minerals Zones Index >form form under under specific specific temperatures temperatures and and pressures pressures > >metamorphic metamorphic facies facies > commonly associated associated with with •• commonly shields: areas of crystalline rocks rocks Shields andstable Mountains: areas of crystalline Shields of the World Metamorphic Textures Foliated •• Foliated Folios Folios = = page page or or leaf-like leaf-like rock rock has has distinct distinct banding banding or or layering layering >often often not not smooth smooth like like in in sedimentary sedimentary rocks rocks > formed formed under under directed directed pressure pressure Non-foliated •• Non-foliated no no distinct distinct layering layering character character often often a a massive massive crystalline crystalline texture texture formed formed under under uniform uniform pressures pressures Foliated Texture Foliated Textures Slatey •• Slatey looks looks like like blackboard blackboard Schistose •• Schistose distinct bands of minerals visible visible grains mineral grains >dull dull surface surface > smooth, smooth, thin thin layering layering breaks breaks into into flat flat slabs slabs >garnets, garnets, staurolites staurolites > >referred referred to to as as slatey slatey cleavage cleavage > no no mineral mineral grains grains visible visible Phyllitic •• Phyllitic may may have have shiny shiny appearance >due due to to mica mica minerals minerals > Gneissic •• Gneissic looks looks like like waxed waxed surface surface larger larger grains grains >has has a a "sheen" "sheen" to to it it > may may look look like like igneous igneous rock rock may may have have little little "waves" "waves" on on- may may have have crude crude banding banding surface surface >intensely intensely distorted distorted > >referred referred to to as ascrenulations crenulations > different different minerals minerals than than - some some small small grains grains visible visible schistose schistose Foliated MM Rocks slate phyllite schist gneiss MM MM Rocks Rocks that that could could form form as as aa shale shale (sedimentary) (sedimentary) parent parent rock rock is is exposed to increasing directed pressure and temperature Non-foliated Rocks • Marble: - metamorphosed limestone Quartzite: •• Quartzite: metamorphosed metamorphosed quartz sandstone sandstone quartz Environment of Formation- EOF look for specific minerals Map out where those minerals are found reconstruct T & P for given minerals Find a modern setting that has similar T & P using Uniformitarianism Metamorphic Zones Metamorphic Zones-Map Zones-Map Metamorphic Metamorphic Facies distinctive metamorphic metamorphic lithologies lithologies that that occur occur in in well well •• distinctive defined areas areas and and named named after after the the key key rocks rocks found found defined Metamorphic Zones • Metamorphism is common along most plate boundaries like this [...]... in in sedimentary sedimentary rocks rocks > formed formed under under directed directed pressure pressure Non-foliated •• Non-foliated no no distinct distinct layering layering character character often often a a massive massive crystalline crystalline texture texture formed formed under under uniform uniform pressures pressures Foliated Texture Foliated Textures Slatey •• Slatey looks looks... exposed to increasing directed pressure and temperature Non-foliated Rocks • Marble: - metamorphosed limestone Quartzite: •• Quartzite: metamorphosed metamorphosed quartz sandstone sandstone quartz Environment of Formation- EOF look for specific minerals Map out where those minerals are found reconstruct T & P for given minerals Find a modern setting that has similar T & P using Uniformitarianism Metamorphic
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