SEDIMENTS SEDIMENTARY ROCKS (2)

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SEDIMENTS & SEDIMENTARY ROCKS ROCK CYCLE Relative Percentages of Sedimentary Rocks SEDIMENT  From Weathering & Erosion  Precipitation from saturated solution    Product of evaporation   calcite, quartz halite, gypsum Unconsolidated- NOT cemented SEDIMENT  Particle size Pebbles, cobbles, boulders  Gravel- > 2mm  Sand- 2mm - 0.063mm  Silt - 0.063mm - 0.004mm  Clay- < 0.004   Deposition Clay-sized particle vs clay mineral SEDIMENT  Transportation Abrasion  Rounding  Sorting  Deposition    Environment of deposition- specific Preservation SEDIMENT  Transportation Abrasion  Rounding  Sorting  Deposition    Environment of deposition- specific Preservation CALCAREOUS INTERPRETATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK  Environment of Deposition  Beach, Barrier Island, Dune   Lagoon   Interbedded sandstones and shales; burrowed Reef   Shales Shallow marine shelf   Very well sorted quartz sandstones Skeletal Limestones Deep marine environment  Turbidites- sequence of GRADED sandstones to shales INTERPRETATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK  Plate Tectonics and Sedimentary Rocks  At convergent boundaries  Uplift results in    Very rapid rates of erosion Thick accumulations of clastic sediment At transform boundaries Rapid rates of erosion, deposition and burial  Good basins for petroleum exploration   At divergent boundaries  Initial stages of rifting- thick wedges of gravel and coarse sediment Resources  Non-Metallic Sand and gravel  Limestone  Clay  Gypsum   Energy Resources Oil and gas  Coal  Formation of Oil and Gas U.S Coal Production [...]... Claystone  Mudstone (silt and clay)  CHEMICAL SEDIMENTARY ROCKS  Carbonate Rocks  Limestone- made of calcite  Inorganic varieties  micrite, oolites, travertine Dolomite  Recrystallization    Chert- silica Evaporites Rock gypsum  Rock salt  BIOCHEMICAL SEDIMENTARY ROCKS  Coal  Develops from peat  plant fragments Lignite  Bituminous Coal   Carbonate Rocks  Limestone- made of calcite  organic... turbidity currents  CLASTIC (Detrital) ROCKS  Breccia and Conglomerate (> 2mm) Sedimentary Breccia- angular fragments  Conglomerate- rounded fragments   Sandstone (2mm - 0.063mm) Quartz sandstone  Arkose (feldspar)  Graywacke (appreciable amounts of silt/clay)  Fine-grained Matrix  Usually from turbidity currents  Quartz Sandstone CLASTIC ROCKS  Fine-grained Rocks Shale- fissile (in ‘sheets’)... texture  Cements- silica, calcite, iron oxide   Crystallization  Crystalline texture TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Clastic or Detrital  Chemical- inorganic precipitation or evaporation  Biochemical- Organic remains   shells, charcoal, plant fragments CLASTIC (Detrital) ROCKS  Breccia and Conglomerate (> 2mm) Sedimentary Breccia- angular fragments  Conglomerate- rounded fragments   Sandstone (2mm... Lignite  Bituminous Coal   Carbonate Rocks  Limestone- made of calcite  organic varieties    Coquina Fossiliferous Limestone Chalk BIOCHEMICAL SEDIMENTARY ROCKS  Coal  Develops from peat  plant fragments Lignite  Bituminous Coal   Carbonate Rocks  Limestone- made of calcite  organic varieties    Coquina Fossiliferous Limestone Chalk
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