Unit 4 notes rocks and minerals

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Unit – Rocks and Minerals Essential Questions •What is a mineral? •How we identify minerals? •What can minerals be used for? •What is a rock? •How are the different types of rock formed? Unit – Rocks and Minerals Lesson – Minerals: Vocabulary •mineral •crystal Unit – Rocks and Minerals Lesson – Minerals •A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a definite composition, and an orderly arrangement of atoms •All minerals form crystals, a definite shape that comes from repeated patterns They’re six known patterns for all minerals Unit – Rocks and Minerals Lesson – Minerals (cont.) •Crystals form in several ways •One way is when hot melted rock, called magma, cools •When magma cool slowly, the crystalline structure formed is large enough to see •When magma cools rapidly, the crystalline structure formed is not always large enough to see Unit – Rocks and Minerals Lesson – Minerals (cont.) •98 elements occur naturally in Earth’s crust, but only of them make up the majority of it (by weight) •Oxygen (O) and silicon (Si) are the two most abundant elements in Earth’s crust Thus, they are the building blocks for most minerals •Silicates are minerals that contain silicon (Si) and oxygen (O) and usually one or more elements Unit – Rocks and Minerals Lesson – Mineral Identification: Vocabulary •hardness •luster •streak Unit – Rocks and Minerals Lesson – Mineral Identification The Seven Physical Properties of Minerals: Appearance: How it looks Color: What color it appears to be Luster: How light reflects from its surface Metallic – shiny or nonmetallic – dull, pearly, silky, and glassy Unit – Rocks and Minerals Lesson – Mineral Identification (cont.) Streak: The color of the mineral when it is powdered This test works only for minerals that are softer than the streak plate Cleavage/ Fracture: Minerals that break along smooth, flat surfaces have cleavage Minerals that break with uneven or jagged surfaces have fracture Unit – Rocks and Minerals Lesson – Mineral Identification (cont.) Hardness: A measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched The Mohs Hardness Scale is used to compare an unknown mineral to several known ones The harder mineral always scratches the softer one Other Properties: Some minerals have unique properties; like magnetism, bending light, or fizzing in the presence of Unit – Rocks and Minerals Lesson – Mineral Identification: Mineral ID Lab – Day •Step 1) Question: Can I identify the unknown minerals? •Step 2) Research: Use the materials provided by the teacher •Step 3) Hypothesis: •Step 4) Procedures: Unit – Rocks and Minerals Lesson – Mineral Identification: Mineral ID Lab – Day (cont.) •Step 5) Perform: •Step 6) Data Table: (Day 1) •Step 7) Interpret Data: •Step 8) Conclusion: – Which properties were most and least useful for identifying your minerals? Why? [BE SPECIFIC] – Refer to your hypothesis Unit – Rocks and Minerals Lesson – Mineral Uses: Vocabulary •gem •ore Unit – Rocks and Minerals Lesson – Mineral Uses •Gems or gemstones are highly prized minerals because they are rare and beautiful •A mineral is an ore if it contains a useful substance that can be mined at a profit •Under certain conditions, metallic elements can dissolve in fluids These fluids then travel through weaknesses in rocks and form ore deposits or vein minerals Unit – Rocks and Minerals Lesson – Rock Cycle: Vocabulary •rock •rock cycle Unit – Rocks and Minerals Lesson – Rock Cycle •A rock is a mixture of minerals, mineraloids, glass, or organic matter •Rocks are constantly changing from one type to another Scientists have created a model called the rock cycle, to illustrate the process Unit – Rocks and Minerals Lesson – Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rock: Vocabulary •igneous rock •intrusive extrusive •sedimentary rock •sediment •metamorphic rock Unit – Rocks and Minerals Lesson – Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rock •When the molten material, called magma, from a volcano or from deep inside the Earth cools, it forms igneous rock •When igneous rock forms beneath the Earth’s surface it’s called intrusive igneous rock This rock cools very slowly; so there is time for large crystals to form, called coursegrained rock (ex Granite) Unit – Rocks and Minerals Lesson – Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rock (cont.) •When a volcano erupts, magma comes up to the surface as lava and cools rapidly •This kind of igneous rock is called extrusive igneous rock Generally, these rocks have small or no crystals, called fine-grained rock (ex Pumice, Obsidian) Unit – Rocks and Minerals Lesson – Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rock (cont.) •Sedimentary rocks form when sediments become pressed or cemented together, or when minerals come out of mineral-rich solution, or are left behind by evaporation •Sediments are loose materials such as rock fragments, mineral grains, and bits of plant and animal remains that have been moved Unit – Rocks and Minerals Lesson – Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rock (cont.) •Weathering & erosion break down and move rock bits •If the sediments are small, with enough pressure, they can stick together and form solid rock This process is called compaction •If the sediments are large, like sand and pebbles, then they have to be cemented together Cementation occurs when water and dissolved minerals seep through the open spaces and harden into a natural glue Unit – Rocks and Minerals Lesson – Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rock (cont.) •Chemical sedimentary rock forms when dissolved minerals come out of a solution or are left behind due to evaporation (ex Limestone, Rock Salt) •Biochemical sedimentary rock forms from the remains of once living things (ex Fossilrich Limestone, Coal) Unit – Rocks and Minerals Lesson – Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rock (cont.) •Rocks that change because of temperature, pressure, or presence of hot, watery fluids are metamorphic rocks •Metamorphic rocks form from other rocks •Heat & pressure change the igneous rock granite into gneiss (a metamorphic rock) Unit – Rocks and Minerals Lesson – Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rock (cont.) •This metamorphic rock has bands of minerals, or parallel layers, called a foliated texture •Heat & pressure change the sedimentary rock sandstone into quartzite (a metamorphic rock) Another example is limestone to marble •These metamorphic rocks have no bands of minerals, or parallel layers, called a non-foliated texture Unit – Rocks and Minerals Lesson – Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rock : Rock ID Lab – Day •Step 1) Question: Can I identify the unknown rocks? •Step 2) Research: Use the materials provided by the teacher •Step 3) Hypothesis: •Step 4) Procedures: Unit – Rocks and Minerals Lesson – Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rock : Rock ID Lab – Day (cont.) •Step 5) Perform: •Step 6) Data Table: (Day 1) •Step 7) Interpret Data: •Step 8) Conclusion: – Which properties were most and least useful for ID’ing your rocks? Why? [BE SPECIFIC] – Refer to your hypothesis [...].. .Unit 4 – Rocks and Minerals Lesson 2 – Mineral Identification: Mineral ID Lab – Day 2 (cont.) •Step 5) Perform: •Step 6) Data Table: (Day 1) •Step 7) Interpret Data: •Step 8) Conclusion: – Which properties were most and least useful for identifying your minerals? Why? [BE SPECIFIC] – Refer to your hypothesis Unit 4 – Rocks and Minerals Lesson 3 – Mineral Uses: Vocabulary •gem •ore Unit 4 – Rocks and. .. •These metamorphic rocks have no bands of minerals, or parallel layers, called a non-foliated texture Unit 4 – Rocks and Minerals Lesson 5 – Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rock : Rock ID Lab – Day 1 •Step 1) Question: Can I identify the unknown rocks? •Step 2) Research: Use the materials provided by the teacher •Step 3) Hypothesis: •Step 4) Procedures: Unit 4 – Rocks and Minerals Lesson 5 –... Rock Cycle: Vocabulary •rock •rock cycle Unit 4 – Rocks and Minerals Lesson 4 – Rock Cycle •A rock is a mixture of minerals, mineraloids, glass, or organic matter Rocks are constantly changing from one type to another Scientists have created a model called the rock cycle, to illustrate the process Unit 4 – Rocks and Minerals Lesson 5 – Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rock: Vocabulary •igneous... Granite) Unit 4 – Rocks and Minerals Lesson 5 – Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rock (cont.) •When a volcano erupts, magma comes up to the surface as lava and cools rapidly •This kind of igneous rock is called extrusive igneous rock Generally, these rocks have small or no crystals, called fine-grained rock (ex Pumice, Obsidian) Unit 4 – Rocks and Minerals Lesson 5 – Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary... erosion break down and move rock bits •If the sediments are small, with enough pressure, they can stick together and form solid rock This process is called compaction •If the sediments are large, like sand and pebbles, then they have to be cemented together Cementation occurs when water and dissolved minerals seep through the open spaces and harden into a natural glue Unit 4 – Rocks and Minerals Lesson... fluids are metamorphic rocks •Metamorphic rocks form from other rocks •Heat & pressure change the igneous rock granite into gneiss (a metamorphic rock) Unit 4 – Rocks and Minerals Lesson 5 – Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rock (cont.) •This metamorphic rock has bands of minerals, or parallel layers, called a foliated texture •Heat & pressure change the sedimentary rock sandstone into quartzite... and Minerals Lesson 3 – Mineral Uses •Gems or gemstones are highly prized minerals because they are rare and beautiful •A mineral is an ore if it contains a useful substance that can be mined at a profit •Under certain conditions, metallic elements can dissolve in fluids These fluids then travel through weaknesses in rocks and form ore deposits or vein minerals Unit 4 – Rocks and Minerals Lesson 4 –... Sedimentary Rock (cont.) •Sedimentary rocks form when sediments become pressed or cemented together, or when minerals come out of mineral-rich solution, or are left behind by evaporation •Sediments are loose materials such as rock fragments, mineral grains, and bits of plant and animal remains that have been moved Unit 4 – Rocks and Minerals Lesson 5 – Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rock (cont.) •Weathering... Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rock (cont.) •Chemical sedimentary rock forms when dissolved minerals come out of a solution or are left behind due to evaporation (ex Limestone, Rock Salt) •Biochemical sedimentary rock forms from the remains of once living things (ex Fossilrich Limestone, Coal) Unit 4 – Rocks and Minerals Lesson 5 – Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rock (cont.) Rocks that change... rock Unit 4 – Rocks and Minerals Lesson 5 – Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rock •When the molten material, called magma, from a volcano or from deep inside the Earth cools, it forms igneous rock •When igneous rock forms beneath the Earth’s surface it’s called intrusive igneous rock This rock cools very slowly; so there is time for large crystals to form, called coursegrained rock (ex Granite) Unit
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