Dynamic planet

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Ngày đăng: 30/11/2016, 16:52

‘SIDE VIEW’ 100,000 ly ‘TOP VIEW’ Solar System on outside of Orion Arm (25,000 light years from centre) Nebular hypothesis Important theorists: Emanuel Swedenborg (1734), Immanuel Kant (1755), Pierre-Simon Laplace (1796), Victor Safronov (1972) – Solar nebular disk model (SNDM) Evidence: observations systems at varying stages Nebula: Giant Molecular Cloud (GMC) results from collision(s) or explosion of dying star H and He condense into Sun Disk of matter (many elements) around sun Disk slowly accretes into clumps (planetesimals) that also contain heavier elements planetesimals → planetoids → planets and satellites Hubble Space Telescope view of a new solar system 1500 l-y away in the Orion Nebula Eons, Eras, Periods and Epochs Superposition: youngest rocks superimposed on older rocks “Relative time” Dating by radioactive isotopes Half-life: time for ½ of unstable isotopes to decay “Absolute time” Uniformitarianism: “The same physical processes active in the environment today have been operating throughout geologic time” Hutton (1795), Lyell (1830) Red ovals indicate major extinction events: when extinction rate greatly exceeds speciation rate The Earth in cross-section Upper mantle and lithosphere ISOSTASY Elevation of tectonic plates determined by density/thickness Mountain masses displace mantle material Isostatic adjustment due to loss of mass by erosion Deformation from sediment load The most common extrusive igneous rock is _ a) sandstone b) basalt c) granite d) gneiss e) limestone Pangaea is the name given to a) the part of California west of the San Andreas fault that is moving into the Pacific Ocean b) the period of geologic history that predates modern life forms c) a rift valley in east Africa where a new ocean is forming d) the name of a previous supercontinent thought to have broken into several plates e) the larger feature that makes up the Hawaiian Islands via hotspot volcanism Pangaea is the name given to a) the part of California west of the San Andreas fault that is moving into the Pacific Ocean b) the period of geologic history that predates modern life forms c) a rift valley in east Africa where a new ocean is forming d) the name of a previous supercontinent thought to have broken into several plates e) the larger feature that makes up the Hawaiian Islands via hotspot volcanism The interconnected mountain chain on the ocean floor is built by upwelling flows of magma in a process called _ a) trench widening b) metamorphism c) sea-floor spreading d) isostasy e) subduction The interconnected mountain chain on the ocean floor is built by upwelling flows of magma in a process called _ a) trench widening b) metamorphism c) sea-floor spreading d) isostasy e) subduction A batholith is most directly associated with a) intrusive igneous rocks b) chemical sedimentary rocks c) relative-age dating d) extrusive igneous rocks e) metamorphic rocks A batholith is most directly associated with a) intrusive igneous rocks b) chemical sedimentary rocks c) relative-age dating d) extrusive igneous rocks e) metamorphic rocks The collision of India and Asia to form the Himalayas is an example of a _ plate boundary a) drifting b) convergent c) divergent d) transform e) upwelling The collision of India and Asia to form the Himalayas is an example of a _ plate boundary a) drifting b) convergent c) divergent d) transform e) upwelling Subduction is most likely to be located _ a) at the collision of two pieces of continental crust b) underneath mid-ocean ridges c) within the outer core d) at the collision of oceanic and continental crust e) in the middle of ocean basins Subduction is most likely to be located _ a) at the collision of two pieces of continental crust b) underneath mid-ocean ridges c) within the outer core d) at the collision of oceanic and continental crust e) in the middle of ocean basins A map of global volcanoes and earthquakes reveals that they are most commonly found a) along plate margins b) in the center of plates c) at hot spots d) along mid-ocean ridges e) in Australia A map of global volcanoes and earthquakes reveals that they are most commonly found a) along plate margins b) in the center of plates c) at hot spots d) along mid-ocean ridges e) in Australia The location of the Mohorovičić discontinuity is best described as residing between a) continental crust and oceanic crust b) the outer core and inner core c) Gondwana and Laurasia d) the Nazca plate and the South American plate e) the crust and the mantle The location of the Mohorovičić discontinuity is best described as residing between a) continental crust and oceanic crust b) the outer core and inner core c) Gondwana and Laurasia d) the Nazca plate and the South American plate e) the crust and the mantle
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