2014 09 08 rocks and minerals fall2014

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Rocks and Minerals September 2014 Rocks and Minerals: Definitions – A mineral is solid inorganic material of the Earth that has both a known chemical composition and a crystalline structure that is unique to that mineral – A rock is a solid aggregate of one or more minerals that have been cohesively brought together by a rockforming process Earth Interior: Physical Minerals the building blocks of rocks Mineral Characteristics • natural • inorganic • solid • definite composition • crystal structure Mineral Composition Minerals are grouped or classified based on their composition There are groups Carbonates - contain carbon, oxygen, and one ore more metallic element Silicates - formed from silicon and oxygen - elements combined to form a silicon tetrahedron, silicon atom and oxygen atoms - formed from cooling magma - either near the surface (few crystals) or deep below surface (larger crystals) Oxides - Minerals that contain oxygen and one or more other element(s) Sulfates and Sulfides Gypsum - Minerals containing sulfur Pyrite Halides -minerals containing halogen ions plus one or more other elements Halite Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition • Weathering breaks rocks down • Erosion involves weather and the removal of rock • Deposition is the dropping of sediments • Sediments are deposited according to size Compaction and Cementation • Compaction is the process that squeezes the water out of the sediments It is caused by the weight of the sediments • Cementation takes place when dissolved minerals are deposited in the tiny spaces among the sediments • Cementing holds the sediments together Classification of Sedimentary Rocks- based on formation • Clastic Sedimentary • Chemical Rocks are formed Sedimentary Rocks from weathered bits of are formed when rocks and minerals dissolved minerals precipitate from water • Grouped according to solution size of the sediments Coquina in the rock limestone • Sedimentary rocks hold many clues to the Earth’s history • Layers of sediments are records of geologic events on Earth • Fossils are unique to sedimentary rocks This is a sample of breccia, a coarse-grained sedimentary rock with coarse, angular fragments Compare the grain sizes to the centimeter scale This is a sample of sandstone, a sedimentary rock that formed from sand grains in a matrix of very fine-grained silt, clay, or other materials The grains in this sample are mostly the feldspar and quartz minerals, which probably accumulated near the granite from which they were eroded This is a sample of limestone, a sedimentary rock made of calcium carbonate that formed under water directly or indirectly from the actions of plants and animals This finegrained limestone formed indirectly from the remains of tiny marine organisms Metamorphic Rocks- form when existing rocks undergo change through heat and pressure • Metamorphism means to change • Most metamorphic changes occur at high temperatures and pressure • These occur deep below the Earth’s surface and extend into the mantle Agents of Metamorphism • Heat- causes existing minerals to recrystallize or new minerals to form • Pressure- causes the spaces between mineral grains to close= more compact rock= greater density Increasing metamorphic change occurs with increasing temperatures and pressures If the melting point is reached, the change is no longer metamorphic, and igneous rocks are formed This is a sample of marble, a coarse-grained metamorphic rock with interlocking calcite crystals The calcite crystals were recrystallized from limestone during metamorphism Rock Cycle • Earth is a dynamic planet with the surface and interior in a constant state of flux – Internal changes alter the surface by moving the Earth’s plates, building mountains – Seas advance and retreat over the continents brining in new materials and taking other materials away – Rocks are continually being changed by Earth’s forces A schematic diagram of the rock cycle concept, which states that geologic processes act continuously to produce new rocks from old ones The Rock Cycle Planetary History • Planets formed hot: Energy from collisions, radioactivity • Heavier materials dropped to center: metals at core; basic, mafic rocks in mantle; lighter float to top (differentiation) • Radioactive heating declines; crust solidifies • Tectonics, impacts, volcanism, erosion modify surfaces (next lectures) [...]... Composition- contain mainly quartz and feldspar, some with biotite mica and amphibole Make up major rocks of continental crust • Basaltic Composition- contain mainly dark colored minerals and feldspar, along with Mg and Fe Darker and denser than granitic composition Igneous rock classification scheme based on mineral composition and texture There are other blends of minerals with various textures, many...6 Native Elements Minerals that exist in a relatively pure form i.e Gold, silver, copper Gold crystal structure Rocks – Elements are chemically combined to form minerals – Minerals are physically combined to form rocks Igneous Rocks • Magma- molten material underground • Lava- magma that reaches the surface • Igneous rocks are formed from magma that has cooled and hardened either beneath... Sedimentary Rocks- formed from compacted and cemented sediments • Weathering physically and chemically breaks rocks into small pieces called sediments • Sediments are moved by wind, water, ice, and gravity • Eventually, they are dropped and form layers that are cemented together Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition • Weathering breaks rocks down • Erosion involves weather and the removal of rock • Deposition... Sedimentary Rocks from weathered bits of are formed when rocks and minerals dissolved minerals precipitate from water • Grouped according to solution size of the sediments Coquina in the rock limestone • Sedimentary rocks hold many clues to the Earth’s history • Layers of sediments are records of geologic events on Earth • Fossils are unique to sedimentary rocks This is a sample of breccia, a coarse-grained... indirectly from the actions of plants and animals This finegrained limestone formed indirectly from the remains of tiny marine organisms Metamorphic Rocks- form when existing rocks undergo change through heat and pressure • Metamorphism means to change • Most metamorphic changes occur at high temperatures and pressure • These occur deep below the Earth’s surface and extend into the mantle Agents of... nonferromagnesian minerals The earth's continental areas are dominated by granite and by rocks with the same mineral composition of granite This is a piece of obsidian, which has the same chemical composition as the granite Obsidian has a different texture because it does not have crystals and is a volcanic glass The curved fracture surface is common in noncrystalline substances such as glass Sedimentary Rocks- ... Compaction and Cementation • Compaction is the process that squeezes the water out of the sediments It is caused by the weight of the sediments • Cementation takes place when dissolved minerals are deposited in the tiny spaces among the sediments • Cementing holds the sediments together Classification of Sedimentary Rocks- based on formation • Clastic Sedimentary • Chemical Rocks are formed Sedimentary Rocks. .. Agents of Metamorphism • Heat- causes existing minerals to recrystallize or new minerals to form • Pressure- causes the spaces between mineral grains to close= more compact rock= greater density Increasing metamorphic change occurs with increasing temperatures and pressures If the melting point is reached, the change is no longer metamorphic, and igneous rocks are formed This is a sample of marble,... Form Igneous Rock • Intrusive Igneous Rocks- form when magma hardens beneath Earth’s surface • Magma intrudes into existing rocks • Extrusive Igneous Rocks- form when lava hardens on the surface of the Earth • Extruded onto the surface rhyolite granite • Magma contains some gases, including water vapor- this make it less dense, so it rises • As magma rises, it cools and forms crystals • The longer the... sedimentary rock with coarse, angular fragments Compare the grain sizes to the centimeter scale This is a sample of sandstone, a sedimentary rock that formed from sand grains in a matrix of very fine-grained silt, clay, or other materials The grains in this sample are mostly the feldspar and quartz minerals, which probably accumulated near the granite from which they were eroded This is a sample of limestone,
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