Unit 3 rock cycle sedimentary igneous metamorphic rocks 2 1 1

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The Rock Cycle Objectives:Een.2.1.1  Explain the formation and destruction of the types of rocks  Explain how physical & chemical weathering, heat & pressure, deposition, foliation, & bedding affects these types of rocks What are Rocks???  Rocks are the most common material on Earth They are a naturally occurring collection of one or more minerals The Rock Cycle… a cycle that continuously forms and changes rocks The rock cycle is used to explain how the three rock types change to each other  Earth movement can change a rock from one type to another through time Convection is the driving force of the rock cycle ! Rock divisions occur in three major families based on how they formed: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic Plate tectonic movement is responsible for the recycling of rock materials As the earth’s plates slowly move, the rocks that make up the plates are continuously recycled and change from one form to another Types of Rocks How are they formed??? Rock Types Sedimentary Igneous Metamorphic Melting, Heat, Pressure, Cooling, Weathering and Erosion Chemical Activity and Solidification IGNEOUS ROCKS Igneous rocks form when molten rock cools and becomes solid   Molten rock is called magma when it is below the Earth’s surface It cools and hardens to form INTRUSIVE (inside) igneous rocks It is lava when it is above/outside the earth Then it cools and hardens to form EXTRUSIVE igneous rock TEXTURE OF IGNEOUS ROCKS Igneous rocks have different textures Texture is how a rock looks and feels Texture is based on the size of crystal grains in the rocks  Glassy/fine texture = extrusive  Coarse/very course texture = intrusive Crystal size is determined by cooling  Large crystals indicate long cooling time  Small crystals indicate short cooling time  Porphyrytic – mixture of large & small crystal grains Requires two cooling Types of Igneous Rocks Granite rocks are igneous rocks which were formed by slowly cooling pockets of magma that were trapped beneath the earth's surface Granite is used for long lasting monuments and for trim and decoration on buildings Pumice rocks are igneous rocks which were formed when lava cooled quickly above ground You can see where little pockets of air had been This rock is so light, that many pumice rocks will actually float in water Pumice is actually a kind of glass and not a mixture of minerals Because this rock is so light, it is used quite often as a decorative landscape stone Obsidian rocks are igneous rocks that form when lava cools quickly above ground Obsidian is actually glass and not a mixture of minerals The edges of this rock are very sharp SEDIMENTARY ROCKS The forces of wind, rain, snow, and ice combine to break down or dissolve (weather), and carry away (transport) rocks exposed at the surface Rain washes rock away Little bits of Earth Wash downstream Layer after layer Eroded Earth is pressed on top Any rock (igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic) exposed at the Earth's surface can become a sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks – are arranged in thick horizontal layers called bedding Types of Sedimentary Rocks Sandstone rocks are sedimentary rocks made from small grains of the minerals quartz and feldspar They often form in layers as seen in this picture They are often used as building stones Shale rock is a type of sedimentary rock formed from clay that is compacted together by pressure They are used to make bricks and other materials Limestone rocks are sedimentary rocks that are made from the mineral calcite which came from the beds of evaporated seas and lakes and from sea animal shells This rock is used in concrete and is an excellent building stone for humid regions METAMORPHIC ROCKS The term "metamorphic" means "to change form." Fiolation – minerals arranged in wavy layers/bands, due to squeezing under high pressure Sediment sinks Pressure and Heat Sediment turns into Metamorphic rock magma Rocks metamorphose when they are in a place that is very hot and pressure is high Have you heard that caterpillars can metamorphose into butterflies? Well, rocks can metamorphose too! Metamorphic Rocks-Extreme Heat & Pressure Where does the heat comes from? Heat comes from magma, from within the earth’s interior Where does the pressure comes from? Pressure comes when tectonic plates converging or squeezing together Metamorphic Rocks-Extreme Heat & Pressure Regional Metamorphism Large geographic area Example: Where mountains form Contact Metamorphism Small geographic area Example: When rocks come in contact with magma Types of Metamorphic Rocks Schist rocks are metamorphic These rocks can be formed from basalt, an igneous rock; shale, a sedimentary rock; or slate, a metamorphic rock Through tremendous heat and pressure, these rocks were transformed into this new kind of rock Their atoms got rearranged Forms foliation Gneiss rocks are metamorphic These rocks may have been granite, which is an igneous rock, but heat and pressure changed it You can see how the mineral grains in the rock were flattened through tremendous heat and pressure, and the layers are arranged in alternating patterns Foliation All rock (except for meteorites!) that is on Earth today is made of the same stuff as the rocks that dinosaurs and other ancient life forms walked, crawled or swam over Over millions of years, rocks are recycled into other rocks Moving tectonic plates help to destroy and form many types of rocks While the stuff that rocks are made from stays the same, the rocks not Websites      http://www.minsocam.org/MSA/K12/rkcycle/rkcycleindex.ht ml http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/rocks/rockcycle.shtml http://www.fi.edu/fellows/fellow1/oct98/create/sediment.htm http://www.windows.ucar.edu/cgibin/tour_def/earth/geology/rocks_intro.html http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/ planets/earth/Continents.shtml [...]... Example: When rocks come in contact with magma Types of Metamorphic Rocks Schist rocks are metamorphic These rocks can be formed from basalt, an igneous rock; shale, a sedimentary rock; or slate, a metamorphic rock Through tremendous heat and pressure, these rocks were transformed into this new kind of rock Their atoms got rearranged Forms foliation Gneiss rocks are metamorphic These rocks may have... over Over millions of years, rocks are recycled into other rocks Moving tectonic plates help to destroy and form many types of rocks While the stuff that rocks are made from stays the same, the rocks do not Websites      http://www.minsocam.org/MSA/K 12 / rkcycle/rkcycleindex.ht ml http://www.bbc.co.uk/education /rocks/ rockcycle.shtml http://www.fi.edu/fellows/fellow1/oct98/create/sediment.htm http://www.windows.ucar.edu/cgibin/tour_def/earth/geology /rocks_ intro.html... Types of Sedimentary Rocks Sandstone rocks are sedimentary rocks made from small grains of the minerals quartz and feldspar They often form in layers as seen in this picture They are often used as building stones Shale rock is a type of sedimentary rock formed from clay that is compacted together by pressure They are used to make bricks and other materials Limestone rocks are sedimentary rocks that.. .SEDIMENTARY ROCKS The forces of wind, rain, snow, and ice combine to break down or dissolve (weather), and carry away (transport) rocks exposed at the surface Rain washes rock away Little bits of Earth Wash downstream Layer after layer Eroded Earth is pressed on top Any rock (igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic) exposed at the Earth's surface can become a sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks –... seas and lakes and from sea animal shells This rock is used in concrete and is an excellent building stone for humid regions METAMORPHIC ROCKS The term "metamorphic" means "to change form." Fiolation – minerals arranged in wavy layers/bands, due to squeezing under high pressure Sediment sinks Pressure and Heat Sediment turns into Metamorphic rock magma Rocks metamorphose when they are in a place that... heard that caterpillars can metamorphose into butterflies? Well, rocks can metamorphose too! Metamorphic Rocks- Extreme Heat & Pressure Where does the heat comes from? Heat comes from magma, from within the earth’s interior Where does the pressure comes from? Pressure comes when tectonic plates converging or squeezing together Metamorphic Rocks- Extreme Heat & Pressure Regional Metamorphism Large geographic... metamorphic These rocks may have been granite, which is an igneous rock, but heat and pressure changed it You can see how the mineral grains in the rock were flattened through tremendous heat and pressure, and the layers are arranged in alternating patterns Foliation All rock (except for meteorites!) that is on Earth today is made of the same stuff as the rocks that dinosaurs and other ancient life forms walked,... http://www.minsocam.org/MSA/K 12 / rkcycle/rkcycleindex.ht ml http://www.bbc.co.uk/education /rocks/ rockcycle.shtml http://www.fi.edu/fellows/fellow1/oct98/create/sediment.htm http://www.windows.ucar.edu/cgibin/tour_def/earth/geology /rocks_ intro.html http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/ planets/earth/Continents.shtml
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