Metamorphic processes

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The Limits of Metamorphism • Low-temperature diagenesis limit grades into – The boundary is somewhat arbitrary • Diagenetic/weathering processes are indistinguishable from metamorphic • Metamorphism begins in the range of 100150oC for the more unstable types of protolith • Some zeolites are considered diagenetic and others metamorphic – pretty arbitrary The Limits of Metamorphism • High-temperature limit grades into melting • Over the melting range solids and liquids coexist • If we heat a metamorphic rock until it melts, at what point in the melting process does it become “igneous”? • Xenoliths, restites, and other enclaves are considered part of the igneous realm because melt is dominant, but the distinction is certainly vague and disputable • Migmatites (“mixed rocks”) are gradational Metamorphic Agents and Changes • Temperature: typically the most important factor in metamorphism Figure 1-9 Estimated ranges of oceanic and continental steady-state geotherms to a depth of 100 km using upper and lower limits based on heat flows measured near the surface After Sclater et al (1980), Earth Rev Geophys Space Sci., 18, 269-311 Metamorphic Agents and Changes Increasing temperature has several effects 1) Promotes recrystallization → increased grain size • Larger surface/volume ratio of a mineral → lower stability • Increasing temperature eventually overcomes kinetic barriers to recrystallization, and fine aggregates coalesce to larger grains Metamorphic Agents and Changes Increasing temperature has several effects 2) Drive reactions that consume unstable mineral(s) and produces new minerals that are stable under the new conditions 3) Overcomes kinetic barriers that might otherwise preclude the attainment of equilibrium Metamorphic Agents and Changes • Pressure – “Normal” gradients may be perturbed in several ways, typically: • High T/P geotherms in areas of plutonic activity or rifting • Low T/P geotherms in subduction zones Metamorphic Agents and Changes • Stress is an applied force acting on a rock (over a particular cross-sectional area) • Strain is the response of the rock to an applied stress (= yielding or deformation) • Deviatoric stress affects the textures and structures, but not the equilibrium mineral assemblage • Strain energy may overcome kinetic barriers to reactions Fluids Metamorphic Agents and Changes Evidence for the existence of a metamorphic fluid: – Fluid inclusions – Fluids are required for hydrous or carbonate phases – Volatile-involving reactions occur at temperatures and pressures that require finite fluid pressures The Types of Metamorphism Different approaches to classification Based on setting – Contact Metamorphism • Pyrometamorphism – Regional Metamorphism • Orogenic Metamorphism • Burial Metamorphism • Ocean Floor Metamorphism – Hydrothermal Metamorphism – Fault-Zone Metamorphism – Impact or Shock Metamorphism The Progressive Nature of Metamorphism • Prograde: increase in metamorphic grade with time as a rock is subjected to gradually more severe conditions – Prograde metamorphism: changes in a rock that accompany increasing metamorphic grade • Retrograde: decreasing grade as rock cools and recovers from a metamorphic or igneous event – Retrograde metamorphism: any accompanying changes What happens to our PROTOLITH when acted on by AGENTS OF CHANGE?? • Agents of Change  T, P, fluids, stress, strain • Metamorphic Reactions!!!! – – – – – – Solid-solid phase transformation Solid-solid net-transfer Dehydration Hydration Decarbonation Carbonation Solid-solid phase transformation • Polymorphic reaction  a mineral reacts to form a polymorph of that mineral • No transfer of matter, only a rearrangment of the mineral structure • Example: – Andalusite  Sillimanite Al2SiO5 Al2SiO5 Solid-solid net-transfer • Involve solids only • Differ from polymorphic transformations: involve solids of differing composition, and thus material must diffuse from one site to another for the reaction to proceed • Examples: • NaAlSi2O6 + SiO2 = NaAlSi3O8 Jd Qtz Ab • MgSiO3 + CaAl2Si2O8 = CaMgSi2O6 + Al2SiO5 En An Di And Solid-Solid Net-Transfer II • If minerals contain volatiles, the volatiles must be conserved in the reaction so that no fluid phase is generated or consumed • For example, the reaction: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + MgSiO3 = Mg7Si8O22(OH)2 Talc Enstatite Anthophyllite involves hydrous phases, but conserves H2O It may therefore be treated as a solid-solid net-transfer reaction Hydration/ Dehydration Reactions • Metamorphic reactions involving the expulsion or incorporation of water (H2O) • Example: – Al2Si4O10(OH)2 Al2SiO5 + 3SiO2 + H2O Pyrophyllite And/Ky Quartz water Carbonation / Decarbonation Reactions • Reactions that involve the evolution or consumption of CO2 • CaCO3 + SiO2 = CaSiO3 + CO2 calcite quartz wollastonite Reactions involving gas phases are also known as volatilization or devoltilization reactions These reactions can also occur with other gases such as CH4 (methane), H2, H2S, O2, NH4+ (ammonia) – but they are not as common Metamorphic facies • P-T conditions, presence of fluids induces different metamorphic mineral assemblages (governed by thermodynamics/ kinetics) • These assemblages are lumped into metamorphic facies (or grades) The Phase Rule in Metamorphic Systems Consider the following three scenarios: C = (Al2SiO5) F = common F = rare F = only at the specific P-T conditions of the invariant point (~ 0.37 GPa and 500oC) Figure 21-9 The P-T phase diagram for the system Al2SiO5 calculated using the program TWQ (Berman, 1988, 1990, 1991) Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology Prentice Hall Let’s put it all together… • What if we had staurolite and andalusite together? What conditions would that indicate? From Hacker, B.R., [...]... gases such as CH4 (methane), H2, H2S, O2, NH4+ (ammonia) – but they are not as common Metamorphic facies • P-T conditions, presence of fluids induces different metamorphic mineral assemblages (governed by thermodynamics/ kinetics) • These assemblages are lumped into metamorphic facies (or grades) The Phase Rule in Metamorphic Systems Consider the following three scenarios: C = 1 (Al2SiO5) F = 1 common... 4 MgSiO3 = Mg7Si8O22(OH)2 Talc Enstatite Anthophyllite involves hydrous phases, but conserves H2O It may therefore be treated as a solid-solid net-transfer reaction Hydration/ Dehydration Reactions • Metamorphic reactions involving the expulsion or incorporation of water (H2O) • Example: – Al2Si4O10(OH)2 Al2SiO5 + 3SiO2 + H2O Pyrophyllite And/Ky Quartz water Carbonation / Decarbonation Reactions...What happens to our PROTOLITH when acted on by AGENTS OF CHANGE?? • Agents of Change  T, P, fluids, stress, strain • Metamorphic Reactions!!!! – – – – – – Solid-solid phase transformation Solid-solid net-transfer Dehydration Hydration Decarbonation Carbonation Solid-solid phase transformation • Polymorphic reaction ... invariant point (~ 0.37 GPa and 500oC) Figure 21-9 The P-T phase diagram for the system Al2SiO5 calculated using the program TWQ (Berman, 1988, 1990, 1991) Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology Prentice Hall Let’s put it all together… • What if we had staurolite and andalusite together? What conditions would that indicate? From Hacker, B.R.,
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