Minerals (cont) water

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The Trace Minerals Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning The Trace Minerals Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Trace Minerals Iron Iodine Fluoride Manganese Molybdenum Nickel Boron Zinc Selenium Copper Chromium Arsenic Silicon Cobalt Iron • Ferrous (Fe++) – Reduced • Ferric (Fe+++) – Oxidized • Chief functions in the body – Part of the protein hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood – Part of the protein myoglobin in muscles, which makes oxygen available for muscle contraction – Necessary for the utilization of energy as part of the cells’ metabolic machinery Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Iron Absorption Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Iron Sources – two forms of iron in food Heme iron – meats, poultry, fish; readily absorbed Nonheme iron – plants foods; less absorbed a Absorption enhanced by Vitamin C b Absorption diminished by phytates, oxalates, and tannic acid Iron: Heme vs Nonheme Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Iron • 2001 RDA – Men: mg/day – Women (19-50 years): 18 mg/day – Women (51+ years): mg/day • Upper level for adults: 45 mg/day • Significant sources – Red meats, fish, poultry, shellfish, eggs – Legumes, dried fruits Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Iron • Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide • Can occur if inadequate intake or blood loss • Females are prone due to menstruation, lower iron intake & pregnancy • Preschoolers also at risk due to high milk diets Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Iodine • Chief functions in the body – A component of two thyroid hormones that help to regulate growth, development, and metabolic rate • 2001 RDA for adults: 150 µg/day • Upper level: 1100 µg/day Iodine • Significant sources –Iodized salt, seafood, bread, dairy products, plants grown in iodinerich soil and animals fed those plants (content of iodine in soils affects food content) Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Iodine • Deficiency disease -Simple goiter-enlarged thyroid; affects 200 million people worldwide -Creatinism- severe mental and physical retardation in infants • Deficiency symptoms – Underactive thyroid gland, goiter • Toxicity symptoms – Underactive thyroid gland, elevated TSH, goiter (also causes enlarged thyroid gland) Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Selenium • Chief functions in the body – Defends against oxidation – Regulates thyroid hormone • 2000 RDA for adults: 55 µg/day • Upper level for adults: 400 µg/day • Significant sources – Seafood, meat – Whole grains, vegetables (depending on soil content) Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Selenium • Deficiency symptoms – Predisposition to heart disease (cardiomyopathy) characterized by cardiac tissue becoming fibrous (Keshan disease) • Toxicity symptoms -Highly toxic, esp supplement abuse – Loss and brittleness of hair and nails – Skin rash, fatigue, irritability, and nervous system disorders – Garlic breath odor Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Copper • Chief functions in the body – Component of enzymes involved in the absorption and use of iron in the formation of hemoglobin – Part of several enzymes necessary for collagen, healing wounds, maintaining nerve fiber’s myelin sheath • Upper level for adults: • 2001 RDA for adults: 900 µg/day 10,000 µg/day (10 mg/day) Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Copper • Significant sources – Seafood – Nuts, whole grains, seeds, legumes • Deficiency symptoms (rare) – Anemia, bone abnormalities • Toxicity symptoms-only in supplement abuse & abnormal storage in Wilson’s disease -Liver damage Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Manganese • Chief functions in the body – Cofactor for several enzymes – Component of bones and glands • 2001 AI – Men: 2.3 mg/day – Women: 1.8 mg/day • Upper level for adults: 11 mg/day Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Manganese • Significant sources – Nuts, whole grains, leafy vegetables, tea • Deficiency symptoms – Rare; requirements are low • Toxicity symptoms – Nervous system disorders – Has occurred in miners inhaling large quantities of dust causes brain damage Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Fluoride • Chief functions in the body – Involved in the formation of bones and teeth – Helps to make teeth resistant to decay • 1997 AI – Men: 3.8 mg/day – Women: 3.1 mg/day • Upper level for adults: 10 mg/day Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Fluoride • Significant sources – Drinking water (if fluoride containing or fluoridated) – Tea, seafood • Deficiency symptoms – Susceptibility to tooth decay – Higher incidence of dental caries • Toxicity symptoms – Fluorosis (pitting and discoloration of tooth enamel) Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning U.S Population With Fluoridated Water Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Chromium • Chief functions in the body – Enhances insulin action – CHO & lipid metabolism • 2001 AI -Men: 35 µg/day – Women: 25 µg/day • Significant sources – Meats (especially liver) – Whole grains, brewer’s yeast Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Chromium • Deficiency symptoms – Diabetes-like condition; mimics symptoms of diabetes, especially in elderly • Toxicity symptoms – None reported Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Trace Minerals • Others – Molybdenum, Nickel, Cobalt, Silicon, Boron, Arsenic • Known to be important & essential for animals but human requirements under study • No recommendation is necessary since there is no evidence that intake by humans is ever limiting and unestablished roles in health maintenance [...]... Fluoride • Significant sources – Drinking water (if fluoride containing or fluoridated) – Tea, seafood • Deficiency symptoms – Susceptibility to tooth decay – Higher incidence of dental caries • Toxicity symptoms – Fluorosis (pitting and discoloration of tooth enamel) Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning U.S Population With Fluoridated Water Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a... Deficiency symptoms – Diabetes-like condition; mimics symptoms of diabetes, especially in elderly • Toxicity symptoms – None reported Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Trace Minerals • Others – Molybdenum, Nickel, Cobalt, Silicon, Boron, Arsenic • Known to be important & essential for animals but human requirements under study • No recommendation is necessary since there is
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