Mineral resources

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Energy Resources Nuclear Power - Uranium • • • • • Uranium (U) – used for nuclear power Has a Minimum Concentration Factor > 1000 Source Rock – Igneous U is leached (dissolved) into groundwater Deposit Types – Sandstones that have been enriched with U minerals (groundwater enrichment) – U-bearing minerals in rock fractures – Placer Deposits Hydroelectric and Tidal Power • Movement of water drives turbines • Dams – gravity key force • Tidal – tidal force, need a tidal range of > m (nearly impractical) Geothermal Energy • Temperature increases with depth ~ 3oC/ 100 m • Geothermal energy concentrated where magma is near the surface • Circulation of groundwater allows water to heat up • Hot groundwater drives turbines Mineral Resources Daily Questions • Within your groups, identify one task you all have completed today Collectively think about the task and brainstorm Produce a list of all of the mineral resources that were used in that task Some Important Minerals and there Uses • • Galena [PbS] – source of lead – car batteries Magnetite, Hematite [FexOy] – iron ore • Bauxite [Al2O3*2H2O] – aluminum ore • Chalcopyrite [CuFeS2] – copper ore • Quartz [SiO2] – glass and electronic components • Gypsum [CaSO4*2H2O] – sheetrock, plater of paris • • Sphalerite [ZnS] – zinc ore Calcite [CaCO3] – portland cement, soil conditioner, antacids • Garnet [Al2(SiO4)3+other metals] – abrasives • Olivine [(Fe,Mg)2SiO4] – silicon chips for computers • • • • • • Sulfur [S] – insecticides, rubber tires, paints, papermaking, etc Halite [NaCl] – Table salt Graphite [C] – lubricant, pencil lead Feldspars [K,Ca,Na,Al, silicates] – porcelain, source of K Any other element that is not a major component of a mineral Gold [Au], Silver [Ag], Platinum [Pt], Titanium [ Ti], Tin [Sn], etc Reserves vs Resources • Reserves – Natural resources that have been discovered & can be exploited profitably with existing technology – Oil – 700 billion barrels • Resources – Deposits that we know or believe to exist, but that are not exploitable today because of technological, economical, or political reasons – Oil – trillion barrels Degree of economic feasibility High Total Resources Discovered Undiscovered Proven Resources Hypothetical, Known speculative, Unconceived resources or inferred Resources (located resources but not measured) Recoverable resources (not likely to be economic in foreseeable future) Nonrecoverable resources (present in the earth but not obtainable with present technology) Low High Degree of geologic assurance Low Potential Economical Threshold Technological Threshold Limit of crustal abundance Geochemically Abundant Elements (GAE) • Elements comprise > 0.1% (by weight) of the crust • Form as principal component in minerals within common rocks – i.e iron (Fe) Fe2O3 • Form very large deposits • Form rock deposits Process that concentrate elements • Igneous Processes – Hydrothermal – Magmatic • Sedimentary Processes – Mechanical – Chemical • Metamorphism Processes • Groundwater Processes Hydrothermal Processes • Precipitation of metallic ions from hot, ion-rich fluid • Fluid could be – Magmatic – Groundwater – Oceanic water • Magmas heat up the water • Water flows into fractures, faults, joints, etc where it cools and precipitates (deposits) the metals Magmatic Processes • Gravity Settling – Dense, early-crystallizing minerals sink to the bottom of the magma chamber • Filter Pressing – Tectonic force compress a magma chamber and force the still-liquid portion into fractures, creating large crystals • These processes have produced large bodies of iron, chromium, titanium, and nickel Sedimentary Processes • Clastic – Weathering of rock also weathers out elements of interest – Generally, the elements are heavy and are deposited when a streams competence is low – Placer deposits, Placer Gold Sedimentary Processes • Chemical Precipitates – Water with high concentrations of elements is evaporated – Evaporation of water leaves the elements – Ex Salts, Iron, etc Metamorphism • Alteration of rock concentrates the elements • The heat and pressure force out the GSE (“impurities”) Weathering • Chemical weathering removes soluble material • Ore material (elements of interest) are left behind in a concentrated residue Groundwater • Secondary enrichment • Groundwater dissolves and carries elements in solution • Chemical conditions change and the elements are precipitated (deposited) out • Ex Lead Groundwater • Secondary enrichment • Groundwater dissolves and carries insignificant elements in solution • Insoluble elements of interest remain • Ex Aluminum Ore Mineral • Ability to separate and readily process the metal (element) from the ore material • Need to look at – The energy to process the material – The cost to process the material – The value of the metal • Basically, is it profitable to mine the metal? Mineralogical Barrier • Increase in energy and cost associated with the production of GSE Metals trapped in minerals (silicates) Energy and Cost per mass of metal Mineralogical Barrier GAE $ GSE Metals the have been concentrated Fixed Costs Low Grade of metal (element) in rock High Ways to overcome the mineralogical barrier • Improve technology • Recycle • Come up with cheap energy to break silicate bonds Daily Assignment 2, 3, Place the following on the Venn Diagram 1.Gold 2.Oil 3.Coal 4.Iron 5.Copper 6.Gravel Plate Tectonics and Resources [...]... Elements (GSE) • Elements that comprise < 0.1% (by weight) of the crust • Do not form as principal component in minerals within common rocks, usually occur as a substitute in rock forming minerals • Form small deposits • Ore minerals include sulfides, native elements, etc Will run out Abundant Mineral Deposits • Elements need to be concentrated • Minimum Grade - minimum amount of element necessary to... • Ex Aluminum Ore Mineral • Ability to separate and readily process the metal (element) from the ore material • Need to look at – The energy to process the material – The cost to process the material – The value of the metal • Basically, is it profitable to mine the metal? Mineralogical Barrier • Increase in energy and cost associated with the production of GSE Metals trapped in minerals (silicates)... of metal Mineralogical Barrier GAE $ GSE Metals the have been concentrated Fixed Costs Low Grade of metal (element) in rock High Ways to overcome the mineralogical barrier • Improve technology • Recycle • Come up with cheap energy to break silicate bonds Daily Assignment 5 1 4 2, 3, 6 Place the following on the Venn Diagram 1.Gold 2.Oil 3.Coal 4.Iron 5.Copper 6.Gravel Plate Tectonics and Resources. .. water • Magmas heat up the water • Water flows into fractures, faults, joints, etc where it cools and precipitates (deposits) the metals Magmatic Processes • Gravity Settling – Dense, early-crystallizing minerals sink to the bottom of the magma chamber • Filter Pressing – Tectonic force compress a magma chamber and force the still-liquid portion into fractures, creating large crystals • These processes
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