Earth science unit 1 rocks and minerals

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Earth Science Unit 1.3 Rocks & Minerals ELEMENTS • EIGHT ELEMENTS MAKE UP MOST OF ALL MINERALS ON THE EARTH – Elements combine to form Minerals • LISTED IN ORDER OF ABUNDANCE – – – – – – – – OXYGEN (O) SILICON (Si) ALUMINIUM (Al) IRON (Fe) CALCIUM (Ca) POTASSIUM (K) SODIUM (Na) MAGNESIUM (Mg) PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS MINERALS • BUILDING BLOCKS FOR ROCKS • DEFINITION: – naturally occurring, inorganic solids, consisting of specific chemical elements, and a definite atomic array • CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE – ‘CRYSTAL’ MINERALS • MINERALS: TWO CATEGORIES – SILICATES – CONTAIN SILICON & OXYGEN MOLECULES (SiO) – NON-SILICATES (NO SiO) NON-SILICATE MINERALS • • • • • • Make up 5% of Earth’s crust Native metals: gold, silver, copper Carbonates: calcite (used in cement) Oxides: hematite (iron ores) Sulfides: galena (lead ores) Sulfates: gypsum (used in plaster) SILICATE MINERALS • Make up 90-95% of the Earth’s Crust • Dominant component of most rocks, include: – QUARTZ (SiO2) – FELDSPARS – MICAS ROCKS • AGGREGATIONS OF OR MORE MINERALS – Same or different minerals combine together • THREE CATEGORIES – IGNEOUS – SEDIMENTARY – METAMORPHIC IGNEOUS ROCKS • FORMED FROM COOLED, SOLIDIFIED MOLTEN MATERIAL, AT OR BELOW THE SURFACE • PLUTONIC – INTRUSIVE: COOLED BELOW SURFACE AT GREAT DEPTHS • VOLCANIC – EXTRUSIVE: COOLED AT OR NEAR THE SURFACE THROUGH VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS IDENTIFICATION OF IGNEOUS ROCKS • IDENTIFICATION PROCESSES: – TEXTURE: • Size, shape and manner of growth of individual crystals – MINERAL COMPOSITION • Based on SiO content SEDIMENTARY ROCKS • Weathering processes break rock into pieces, sediment, ready for transportation deposition burial lithification into new rocks CLASSIFYING SEDIMENTARY ROCKS THREE SOURCES • Detrital (or clastic) sediment is composed of transported solid fragments (or detritus) of pre-existing igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic rocks • Chemical sediment forms from previously dissolved minerals that either precipitated from solution in water , or were extracted from water by living organisms • Organic sedimentary rock consisting mainly of plant remains SEDIMENTARY ENVIRONMENTS • • • • Lakes Lagoons Rivers Ocean bottoms • • • • Estuaries Salt Flats Playas Glacial environments SEDIMENTARY PROCESSES • LITHIFICATION: • As sediment is buried several kilometers beneath the surface, heated from below, pressure from overlying layers and chemically-active water converts the loose sediment into solid sedimentary rock • Compaction - volume of a sediment is reduced by application of pressure • Cementation - sediment grains are bound to each other by materials originally dissolved during chemical weathering of preexisting rocks – typical chemicals include silica and calcium carbonate METAMORPHIC ROCKS • METAMORPHISM : process by which conditions within the Earth alter the mineral content and structure of any rock, igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic, without melting it • Metamorphism occurs when heat and pressure exceed certain levels, destabilizing the minerals in rocks but not enough to cause melting Time for a break… GEOLOGIC TIME AND DATING • Four basic principles – Principle of Original Horizontality – Beds of sediment deposited in water formed as horizontal or nearly horizontal layers – Principle of Superposition – Within a sequence of undisturbed sedimentary or volcanic rocks, the layers get younger going from bottom to top – Lateral Continuity – An original sedimentary layer extends laterally until it tapers or thins at its edges – Cross-cutting Relationships – A disrupted pattern is older than the cause of the disruption DATING - RELATIVE • – • – • Physical Continuity Physically tracing the course of a rock unit to correlate rocks between two different places Similarity of Rock Types Correlation of two regions by assumption that similar rock types in two regions formed at same time, under same circumstances Correlation by Fossils – Plants and animals that lived at the time rock formed were buried by sediment – fossil remains preserved in the layers of sedimentary rock -fossils nearer the bottom (in older rock) are more unlike -those near the top – Observations formalized into Principle of Faunal Succession – fossil species succeed one another in a definite and recognizable order – Index Fossil – a fossil from a short-lived, geographically widespread species known to exist during a specific period of geologic time ABSOLUTE DATING DENDROCHRONOLGY • Using annual growth rings of trees • Dates for trees now extending back more than 9,000 years • Bristlecone Pine, White Mountains, CA (pinus longaeva) provides a continuous time scale for last 9,000 years (to 7000 B.C) • Provides calibration of radiocarbon dates over most of the last 10,000 years (Holocene epoch) DENDROCHRONOLOGY ABSOLUTE DATING VARVE CHRONOLOGY • Varves are parallel strata deposited in deep ocean floors or lake floors • A pair of sedimentary layers are deposited during seasonal cycle of a single year – Laminae (similar to annual growth rings in trees) record climatic conditions in a lake or large water body from year to year • Cores extracted from sea floor or lake floor are used to date back several million years to 200 million years VARVE CHRONOLOGY DATING - ABSOLUTE • Radiometric dating – based on radioactive decay of ‘isotopes’ • Decay rate can be quantified because it occurs at a constant rate for each known isotope – “half-life” from parent isotope to stable ‘daughter’ isotope • Measuring ratio of parent to daughter isotopes determines absolute ages of some rocks ABSOLUTE DATING ISOTOPES • URANIUM–LEAD (U238–Pb206) – Half-life: 4.5 billion years – Dating range: 10 million – 4.6 billion years • URANIUM–LEAD (U235-Pb207) – Half-life: 713 million years – Dating Range: 10 million – 4.6 billion years • POTASSIUM-ARGON (K40-Ar40) – Half-life: 1.3 billion years – Dating Range: 100,000 – 4.6 billion years • CARBON-14 (C14-N14) – Half-life: 5730 years – Dating Range: 100 – 100,000 years [...]... absolute ages of some rocks ABSOLUTE DATING ISOTOPES • URANIUM–LEAD (U238–Pb206) – Half-life: 4.5 billion years – Dating range: 10 million – 4.6 billion years • URANIUM–LEAD (U235-Pb207) – Half-life: 713 million years – Dating Range: 10 million – 4.6 billion years • POTASSIUM-ARGON (K40-Ar40) – Half-life: 1. 3 billion years – Dating Range: 10 0,000 – 4.6 billion years • CARBON -14 (C14-N14) – Half-life: 5730... ROCKS • METAMORPHISM : process by which conditions within the Earth alter the mineral content and structure of any rock, igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic, without melting it • Metamorphism occurs when heat and pressure exceed certain levels, destabilizing the minerals in rocks but not enough to cause melting Time for a break… GEOLOGIC TIME AND DATING • Four basic principles – Principle of Original... sediment, ready for transportation deposition burial lithification into new rocks CLASSIFYING SEDIMENTARY ROCKS THREE SOURCES • Detrital (or clastic) sediment is composed of transported solid fragments (or detritus) of pre-existing igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic rocks • Chemical sediment forms from previously dissolved minerals that either precipitated from solution in water , or were extracted... overlying layers and chemically-active water converts the loose sediment into solid sedimentary rock • Compaction - volume of a sediment is reduced by application of pressure • Cementation - sediment grains are bound to each other by materials originally dissolved during chemical weathering of preexisting rocks – typical chemicals include silica and calcium carbonate METAMORPHIC ROCKS • METAMORPHISM... sedimentary or volcanic rocks, the layers get younger going from bottom to top – Lateral Continuity – An original sedimentary layer extends laterally until it tapers or thins at its edges – Cross-cutting Relationships – A disrupted pattern is older than the cause of the disruption DATING - RELATIVE • – • – • Physical Continuity Physically tracing the course of a rock unit to correlate rocks between two... VOLCANIC-EXTRUSIVE; APHANETIC TEXTURE; MAFIC MINERAL COMPOSITION OTHER IGNEOUS ROCKS • VOLCANIC GLASS: – OBSIDIAN: VOLCANIC-EXTRUSIVE; NO CRYSTALS FORM; SILICA-RICH, COOLED INSTANEOUSLY – PUMICE: VOLCANIC-EXTRUSIVE; NO CRYSTALS FORM; SILICA-RICH; SOLIDIFIED FROM ‘GASSY’ LAVA • PYROCLASTIC ROCKS – TUFF: VOLCANIC-EXTRUSIVE; SOLIDIFIED ‘WELDED’ ASH SEDIMENTARY ROCKS • Weathering processes break rock into pieces, sediment,... circumstances Correlation by Fossils – Plants and animals that lived at the time rock formed were buried by sediment – fossil remains preserved in the layers of sedimentary rock -fossils nearer the bottom (in older rock) are more unlike -those near the top – Observations formalized into Principle of Faunal Succession – fossil species succeed one another in a definite and recognizable order – Index Fossil –...COMMON IGNEOUS ROCKS • GRANITE: PLUTONIC-INTRUSIVE; PHANERITIC TEXTURE; FELSIC MINERAL COMPOSITION • RHYOLITE: VOLCANIC-EXTRUSIVE; APHANETIC TEXTURE; FELSIC MINERAL COMPOSITION • DIORITE: PLUTONIC-INTRUSIVE; PHANERITIC TEXTURE; INTERMEDIATE MINERAL COMPOSITION • ANDESITE: VOLCANIC-EXTRUSIVE; APHANETIC TEXTURE; INTERMEDIATE MINERAL COMPOSITION... 10 million – 4.6 billion years • POTASSIUM-ARGON (K40-Ar40) – Half-life: 1. 3 billion years – Dating Range: 10 0,000 – 4.6 billion years • CARBON -14 (C14-N14) – Half-life: 5730 years – Dating Range: 10 0 – 10 0,000 years ... 9,000 years • Bristlecone Pine, White Mountains, CA (pinus longaeva) provides a continuous time scale for last 9,000 years (to 7000 B.C) • Provides calibration of radiocarbon dates over most of the last 10 ,000 years (Holocene epoch) DENDROCHRONOLOGY ABSOLUTE DATING VARVE CHRONOLOGY • Varves are parallel strata deposited in deep ocean floors or lake floors • A pair of sedimentary layers are deposited during
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