2016 agent mineral update

33 6 0
  • Loading ...
1/33 trang

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 30/11/2016, 13:44

Mineral Supplementation of the Cow Herd Dr Jeff Lehmkuhler Extension Beef Cattle Specialist University of Kentucky Is she copper deficient? Need more than White Salt ADG of Steers Grazing in Flint Hills Kansas 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 White Salt Mineral Min/Promin Barnhardt et al., 2007 KS Beef Report Hypocalcemia (Milk Fever) • Normal blood Ca 8.5-10 mg/dL • Affect 5% of US Dairy Cows • Subclinical (5.5-8 mg/dL) in 50% of older dairy cows • Reduces rumen motility • Abomasal displacement • Reduces muscle contractions • Teat Sphincter = Mastitis • Impairs immune cell responsiveness Source: J.P Goff 2008 The Vet Journal Hypocalcemia (Milk Fever) • Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) binds to receptor in presence of Mg • cAMP - bone Ca resorption & renal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D production • Alkalosis disrupts binding site • High cation intake (K, Na, Ca, Mg) • Lowers blood H+, higher pH • Hypomagnesemia limits cAMP production Source: J.P Goff 2008 The Vet Journal Hypomagnesemia (Grass Tetany) • Normal blood Mg 1.8-2.4 mg/dL • Clinical 0.9-1.15 mg/dL • Blood 6.5) Source: J.P Goff 2008 The Vet Journal PEM – Brainers & Sulfur Toxicity • PEM damage to grey matter • Thiamine def, Pb, Water deprivation, & Sulfur • Sulfur toxicity issues sub-clinical • Reduced DMI, ADG, Rumen motility • Binds Cu reducing absorption • Lowers Se digestibility • Dietary Sulfur Max • 0.3% grain-based • Inhibits Se incorporation into enzymes • 0.5% forage-based • Reduces Mn & Cu retention • Water less than 600 mg/L sulfate • Oxidative stress lowering immune function Source: Drewnoski et al., 2014 JAS Inhalation of H2S leads to PEM Source: Drewnoski et al., 2014 JAS Sulfur Sources • Water – springs • Forages – generally not excessively high • Can see accumulation in some forages when sulfate fertilizers used • Feeds / Supplements • Molasses • Corn Coproducts – Corn Gluten & Distillers products • Condensed Solubles, Syrup, Fermentation Extracts Calcium – Cheap and Problematic • Calcium • Higher in Legumes than grasses • Short in Ca for corn-based diets = includes Corn coproduct feeds (DDGS, CGF, etc…) • Stocker mineral will not work for finishing cattle • Need an additional 0.75-1% added limestone Phosphorus Levels in KY Hay ‘09 Forage Phos, % for KY Hay Samples ‘09 % Phos 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 1,300 lb Cow 20 lb Peak, 23 lb DMI 67% = or Above Req’t UK IRM Mineral Based on 0.23% P Key Minerals • Copper • Selenium • Zinc • Others Important • Complete mineral product • Monitor Intake • Magnesium • Calcium • Salt Importance in Fertility • Multiple minerals known to be involved in reproduction / fertility • Phosphorus, Copper (Cu), Selenium (Se) • Deficiency & Excessive Intakes can be problematic • Argue that TRACE mineral more frequently deficient in Southeast (Cu, Se, Zn) Potential Impact on Male Fertility Proof Minerals Important for Male Fertility? • 1951 Thomas & Moss fed Molybdenum and found no spermatogenesis & testes damage • 2014 Rowe et al fed observed ~ 10% improvement for motile sperm numbers w/ ORGANIC trace mineral feeding • 2014 Reis et al fed diets with 540, 1300, 3800 or 6300 ppm of Mn - > 540 ppm reduced sperm integrity Selenium & Spermatogenesis SEPP1 ApoER2 SEPP1 + Se Boitani & Puglisi, 2009 Phospholipid Hydroperoxide Glutathione Peroxidase (PHGPx) Testosterone PHGPx Selenium PHGPx Reduce Oxidative Stress Structural Protein Sperm Midpiece Sperm chromatin condensation Boitani & Puglisi, 2009 Copper & Spermatogenesis • Ctr family of copper importers • Drosophila (Fruit Fly) model • Provides support of Importance of Cu in Spermatogenesis Steiger et al, 2010 Zinc & Human Infertility • Often comparison trials • Relationship b/w seminal [Zn] & Infertility in men • Oxidative stress? Colagar et al., 2009 Zinc Deficiency = Abnormalities Male rats Black = Control Zn Adequate White = Marginal Zn Striped = Deficient Solid Gray = Pair fed Con to Def level Merrells et al., 2009 Trace Minerals Needed WHITE SALT YELLOW SALT Watch the Source Copper Sulfate + Copper Chloride ++ Copper Proteinate ++++ NO Copper Oxide Se & Cu Key Popular Red TM Block – Looking Inside Mineral Source % in Block Sodium Chloride 98.24% Ferrous Carbonate 0.526% Zinc Oxide 0.486% Manganous Oxide 0.334% Reddish Brown Iron Oxide 0.252% Copper Sulfate 0.120% Mineral Oil 0.020% Calcium Iodate 0.011% Cobalt Carbonate 0.0108% Artificial Flavor 0.005% Selenium ??, Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium??? 98% SALT High Mag Season • Lactation increases Mg needs • Start at least weeks prior to calving • VDL grass tetany begins December goes thru May • 12-15% Mag level target • oz target intake mineral should be at least 10% Mg • High Mag to LACTATING cows until Temps above 60 F • Usually through May UK Mineral Comparison Tool • Allows product comparison • Accounts for target intake • Example of why no red block • Illustrates Price/day • DOES NOT account for bioavailability Nutrient Calcium, Calcium, max Phosphorus Salt, Salt, max Magnesium Potassium Iodine Cobalt Copper Manganese Selenium Zinc Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Medication A Medication B Units gm gm gm gm gm gm gm mg mg mg mg mg mg IU IU IU mg mg Target Intake oz/hd/d Nutrient Intakes TM Block Kent 365 UK IRM 0.0 17.4 9.4 0.0 20.8 10.2 0.0 8.5 4.3 41.7 15.3 18.7 42.1 18.4 21.3 0.0 0.6 1.7 0.0 0.2 0.4 3.0 5.7 5.5 2.1 1.4 1.3 12.8 164.6 136.2 85.1 561.8 425.6 0.0 3.0 3.0 149.0 539.1 272.4 95000 46875 25000 0 93.75 46.875 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.5 Questions? [...]... requirement: ~ 0.25% of DM • 3-4% Phos Mineral OK & Lower Cost • BUT several samples below & require supplementation Phosphorus Levels in KY Hay ‘09 Forage Phos, % for KY Hay Samples ‘09 % Phos 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 1,300 lb Cow 20 lb Peak, 23 lb DMI 67% = or Above Req’t UK IRM Mineral Based on 0.23% P Key Minerals • Copper • Selenium • Zinc • Others Important • Complete mineral product • Monitor Intake... Intake • Magnesium • Calcium • Salt Importance in Fertility • Multiple minerals known to be involved in reproduction / fertility • Phosphorus, Copper (Cu), Selenium (Se) • Deficiency & Excessive Intakes can be problematic • Argue that TRACE mineral more frequently deficient in Southeast (Cu, Se, Zn) Potential Impact on Male Fertility Proof Minerals Important for Male Fertility? • 1951 Thomas & Moss fed Molybdenum... Merrells et al., 2009 Trace Minerals Needed WHITE SALT YELLOW SALT Watch the Source Copper Sulfate + Copper Chloride ++ Copper Proteinate ++++ NO Copper Oxide Se & Cu Key Popular Red TM Block – Looking Inside Mineral Source % in Block Sodium Chloride 98.24% Ferrous Carbonate 0.526% Zinc Oxide 0.486% Manganous Oxide 0.334% Reddish Brown Iron Oxide 0.252% Copper Sulfate 0.120% Mineral Oil 0.020% Calcium... Fescue (ppm or mg/kg) Req Fescue* Cu 10 6 Se 1-.3 06 Zn 30 19 Mn 40 119 Co 1 2 Fe 50 100 *CHAPA, 1996 Mineral Availability from Forage % Ca 50-68 Forage Test = 10 ppm Mg 10-45 Req’t = 10 ppm P 65-70 Cu 5-15 Se 28-32 Absorbed = 1.5 ppm Fe 30-70 Deficient = 8.5 ppm Mn 3-4 Avail, % = 15% Intake free-choice mineral 120 100 80 Target intake 60 40 20 0 t Aug-Sep July-Aug ly June-Ju e May-Jun ay April-M ril... ammonia from urea – raises urine pH • High urine pH leads to formation of mineralized compound (stone) • Primarily seen in cattle on high grain rations & Abrupt Water Restriction Stone Prevention Through Diet Manipulation • Dietary Ca:P ratio near 2:1 • Corn, Corn Gluten Feed, Distillers Grains, Syrup, etc… High in P, low in Ca • Stocker mineral too low in Ca • Acidify urine by adding ammonium chloride (common... Mg needs • Start at least 4 weeks prior to calving • VDL grass tetany begins December goes thru May • 12-15% Mag level target • 4 oz target intake mineral should be at least 10% Mg • High Mag to LACTATING cows until Temps above 60 F • Usually through May UK Mineral Comparison Tool • Allows 3 product comparison • Accounts for target intake • Example of why no red block • Illustrates Price/day • DOES NOT... Important for Male Fertility? • 1951 Thomas & Moss fed Molybdenum and found no spermatogenesis & testes damage • 2014 Rowe et al fed observed ~ 10% improvement for motile sperm numbers w/ ORGANIC trace mineral feeding • 2014 Reis et al fed diets with 540, 1300, 3800 or 6300 ppm of Mn - > 540 ppm reduced sperm integrity Selenium & Spermatogenesis SEPP1 ApoER2 SEPP1 + Se Boitani & Puglisi, 2009 Phospholipid
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: 2016 agent mineral update , 2016 agent mineral update , 2016 agent mineral update

Gợi ý tài liệu liên quan cho bạn

Nạp tiền Tải lên
Đăng ký
Đăng nhập