Vitamins minerals and water

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Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Objectives Identify the two main classes of vitamins List seven minerals your body needs in significant amounts Explain why water is so important to your body Slide of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Myth As part of a healthy diet, people need to take dietary supplements Fact A diet that contains a variety of healthful foods usually supplies all the vitamins and minerals that your body needs Slide of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Vitamins • One of the first discoveries of the importance of vitamins came in the 1700s • A Scottish doctor, James Lind, discovered that sailors who were fed citrus fruits recovered from scurvy • Today, health scientists know that scurvy is caused by a lack of vitamin C, which is found in abundance in citrus fruits Slide of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water What Are Vitamins? • Nutrients that are made by living things, are required only in small amounts, and that assist many chemical reactions in the body are vitamins • A nutrient that helps the body use carbohydrates, proteins, and fats is a vitamin • There are two classes of vitamins • fat-soluble vitamins—dissolve in fatty material • water-soluble vitamins—dissolve in water Slide of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Fat-Soluble Vitamins • Fat-soluble vitamins can be stored by the body • Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble vitamins • Sources of fat-soluble vitamins are • vegetable oils • liver • eggs • certain vegetables Slide of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Slide of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Water-Soluble Vitamins • Water-soluble vitamins cannot be stored by the body • Examples of water-soluble vitamins are C and all of the B vitamins • Sources of water-soluble vitamins are • fruits • vegetables • whole-grain foods • and many other foods Slide of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Slide of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Slide of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Antioxidants • Vitamins called antioxidants help protect healthy cells from the damage caused by the normal aging process as well as from certain types of cancer • Vitamins C and E are two of the most powerful antioxidants • Vitamin C helps strengthen blood vessel walls, strengthens your immune system, and aids in iron absorption Slide 10 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Iron • Iron is necessary for healthy red blood cells • If a person’s diet does not include enough iron, he or she may develop anemia, a condition in which the red blood cells not contain enough hemoglobin Slide 14 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Sodium • Sodium is important in several body processes, including the functioning of the heart and water balance • Too much sodium can cause a problem with blood pressure Slide 15 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Slide 16 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Slide 17 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Vitamin and Mineral Supplements • Vitamin and mineral supplements, therefore, are not usually necessary if your diet is nutritious and wellbalanced • An excess, or overdose, of vitamins or minerals may damage your health • If you take a vitamin or mineral supplement, a health care provider can advise you about how much is the right amount Slide 18 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Water • About 65 percent of your body weight is water • Nearly all of the body’s chemical reactions, including those that produce energy and build new tissues, take place in a water solution Slide 19 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Water and Homeostasis • Homeostasis is the process of maintaining a steady state inside your body • When you become overheated, your body excretes perspiration, which cools your body Thus, water regulates body temperature • Water contains dissolved substances called electrolytes that regulate many processes in your cells Slide 20 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Preventing Dehydration • Dehydration is a condition in which the water content of the body has fallen to an extremely low level • Symptoms of dehydration can include fatigue, dry mouth, dizziness, weakness, flushed skin, headache, blurred vision, difficulty swallowing, dry skin, rapid pulse, and a infrequent urination Slide 21 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Dehydration and Blood Viscosity • Blood plasma is about 90% water • As the body loses water during dehydration, the blood thickens, making it harder for the heart to pump blood through the body Slide 22 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water How Much Water? • Every day, you need at least ten 8-ounce cups of water if you are a female 14 to 18 years old • Males in the same age group need 14 cups of water per day Slide 23 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Water Versus Sports Drinks • A sports drink is not necessary if you exercise for 60 minutes or less • If you exercise longer, a sports drink that contains carbohydrates may be beneficial • Sports drinks with electrolytes are not necessary unless you exercise for hours or more Slide 24 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Herbal Supplements • Supplements that contain extracts or ingredients from the roots, berries, seeds, stems, leaves, buds, or flowers of plants are herbal supplements • Herbal supplements are officially classified as food and not drugs • This means that herbal or dietary supplements not have to be proven safe or screened by the FDA before placed on the market Slide 25 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Supplements - Creatine • An amino acid that is made in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas is called creatine • Found in meat and fish • Many teenagers use creatine to increase their athletic performance or to become more muscular • Suspicion that excessive creatine use could cause cramping, diarrhea, nausea, dizziness, dehydration, muscle strain, high blood pressure, and abnormal liver/kidney function Slide 26 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Supplements – Protein supplements • A product taken orally that contains proteins that are intended to supplement one’s diet and are not considered food are protein supplements • Health and fitness experts say that the amount of protein needed each day is about one gram of protein per pound of body weight • Most people easily meet or exceed this requirement • Any excess protein is converted to fat and not to muscle Slide 27 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Questions What are vitamins? How they differ from minerals? What are the two classes of vitamins? Which vitamins fall into each class? Which seven minerals are needed by the body in significant amounts? What roles does water play in the body? Define homeostasis What vitamins are supplied by green, leafy vegetables? By citrus fruits? What are some ways that people with high blood pressure can reduce their sodium intake? How can feelings of thirst help a person maintain homeostasis on a hot day? Slide 28 of 27 [...]... of the heart and water balance • Too much sodium can cause a problem with blood pressure Slide 15 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Slide 16 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Slide 17 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Vitamin and Mineral Supplements • Vitamin and mineral supplements, therefore, are not usually necessary if your diet is nutritious and wellbalanced... Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Calcium • Calcium is important in blood clotting and the functioning of your nervous system • It is an essential ingredient in the formation and maintenance of bones and teeth • A lack of calcium can sometimes lead to osteoporosis, a condition in which the bones gradually weaken Slide 12 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Potassium • Potassium and sodium... protein is converted to fat and not to muscle Slide 27 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Questions 1 What are vitamins? How do they differ from minerals? 2 What are the two classes of vitamins? Which vitamins fall into each class? 3 Which seven minerals are needed by the body in significant amounts? 4 What roles does water play in the body? 5 Define homeostasis 6 What vitamins are supplied... Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Water and Homeostasis • Homeostasis is the process of maintaining a steady state inside your body • When you become overheated, your body excretes perspiration, which cools your body Thus, water regulates body temperature • Water contains dissolved substances called electrolytes that regulate many processes in your cells Slide 20 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and. .. water • As the body loses water during dehydration, the blood thickens, making it harder for the heart to pump blood through the body Slide 22 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water How Much Water? • Every day, you need at least ten 8-ounce cups of water if you are a female 14 to 18 years old • Males in the same age group need 14 cups of water per day Slide 23 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, ... 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Minerals • A nutrient that regulates many chemical reactions in the body is a mineral • Occurs naturally in rocks and soil • Minerals that are required in amounts greater than 100mg are considered macro minerals • Calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, chloride (chlorine), and sulfur • Your body requires very small amounts of trace minerals • Iron and zinc... vitamins or minerals may damage your health • If you do take a vitamin or mineral supplement, a health care provider can advise you about how much is the right amount Slide 18 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Water • About 65 percent of your body weight is water • Nearly all of the body’s chemical reactions, including those that produce energy and build new tissues, take place in a water. .. maintain water balance in the body • Most Americans do not consume enough potassium Slide 13 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Iron • Iron is necessary for healthy red blood cells • If a person’s diet does not include enough iron, he or she may develop anemia, a condition in which the red blood cells do not contain enough hemoglobin Slide 14 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water. .. and Water Preventing Dehydration • Dehydration is a condition in which the water content of the body has fallen to an extremely low level • Symptoms of dehydration can include fatigue, dry mouth, dizziness, weakness, flushed skin, headache, blurred vision, difficulty swallowing, dry skin, rapid pulse, and a infrequent urination Slide 21 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Dehydration and. .. supplements are officially classified as food and not drugs • This means that herbal or dietary supplements do not have to be proven safe or screened by the FDA before placed on the market Slide 25 of 27 Section 8.2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Supplements - Creatine • An amino acid that is made in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas is called creatine • Found in meat and fish • Many teenagers use creatine
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