Rock forming minerals

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How to Know Minerals Chapter Earth Science Book read pages 46-57 restate & answer Topic Questions 1-9 practice the 30 lab mineral samples Topic 1: Page 47 Earth Textbook Rock-Forming Minerals common minerals that make up the Earth’s crust * over 2000 minerals known * most are silicates (Si + O + metals) * not always large crystals * mineralogy is the study of minerals and their properties Topic 2: Page 47-48 Earth Textbook Identification by Inspection simple observations made by looking *Color *Luster *Crystal System (shape) Topic 2: Page 47 Earth Textbook Color * first, most easily observed * least useful when identifying minerals impurities change mineral’s colors mineral’s colors are similar colors change/react in air Topic 2: Page 47 Earth Textbook Luster the way a mineral shines * Metallic Luster * Nonmetallic Luster Topic 2: Page 47 Earth Textbook Metallic Luster *shines like polished metal *(galena, pyrite, chalcopyrite) Topic 2: Page 47-48 Earth Textbook Nonmetallic Luster *vitreous – shining glass (quartz) *pearly – like a pearl (mica) *resinous – like wax (sphalerite) *greasy, oily – (talc & graphite) *dull, earthy – (kaolinite, limonite) *brilliant, adamentine – (diamond) Topic 2: Page 47-48 Earth Textbook Crystal System (shape) *cubic – all 90º, all lengths equal *orthorhombic – all 90º, no lengths equal *tetragonal – all 90º, some lengths equal *triclinic – none @ 90º *monoclinic – some @ 90º *hexagonal – axes @ 60º Topic 3: Page 48-50 Earth Textbook Identification by Simple Tests *Streak *Fracture or Cleavage *Hardness Topic 3: Page 48 Earth Textbook Streak the color of a mineral’s powder * rub mineral on unglazed white tile metallic - streak dark as mineral nonmetallic - streak colorless to light Topic 3: Page 49 Earth Textbook Cleavage minerals split along flat surfaces direction – micas, gypsum, talc directions – feldspars, hornblende directions – galena, halite, calcite Topic 3: Page 49 Earth Textbook Fracture minerals break along non-cleavage surfaces •concoidal fractures – shell-like fracture •fiberous or splintery – jagged and sharp •uneven or irregular – rough surface Topic 3: Page 49-50 Earth Textbook Hardness minerals resistance to being scratched *Mohs’ Hardness Scale – page 50 in text •minerals ranked on a scale of to 10 •need fingernail, copper, steel, glass, topaz •1 softest (talc), hardest common (quartz) and 10 is the hardest of all (diamond) Topic 4: Page 50 Earth Textbook Specific Gravity the ratio of the mass of a mineral to the mass of an equal volume of water •specific gravity = mass of sample in air mass lost in water •nonmetals - less than •metals - above Topic 5: Page 51 Earth Textbook Acid Test weak acid will release bubbles of CO2 *calcium carbonate fizzes in acid (HCl) *calcite is calcium carbonate, CaCo3 *dolomite - CaMg(CO3) must be powdered *malachite & azurite are copper carbonates *limestone & marble calcite Topic 6: Page 51 Earth Textbook Special Properties •taste – halite is salty •magnetic - magnetite •double diffraction – calcite/Iceland par splits images into •flourescence – glows under ultraviolet light, fluorite, sphalerite, willemite •phosphorescence – glows even after ultraviolet off Topic 7: Page 53-54 Earth Textbook Silicates made with silica tetrahedrons (light colored) a) quartz b) feldspars: orthoclase, plageoclase c) micas: muscovite, biotite(black) d) talc Topic 7: Page 54-55 Earth Textbook Ferromagnesian Silicates silicates with iron and magnesium (darker) e) amphiboles: horneblende f) pyroxenes: augite g) olivine h) garnets i) kaolinite Topic 8: Page 55-56 Earth Textbook Carbonates made with carbonate group –CO3 *Calcium Carbonates •calcite(Iceland spar), dolomite *Copper Carbonates •malachite, azurite Topic 9: Page 56-57 Earth Textbook Oxides a metal combines with oxygen *Iron Oxides •hematite (reddish-brown streak) •limonite (yellow-brown streak) •magnetite *Aluminum Oxides •corundum •bauxite Topic 9: Page 56-57 Earth Textbook Sulfides a metal combines with sulfur •galena •pyrite •chalcopyrite •sphalerite How to Know Minerals Chapter Earth Science Book read pages 46-57 restate & answer Topic Questions 1-9 practice the 30 lab mineral samples [...]... Cleavage minerals split along flat surfaces 1 direction – micas, gypsum, talc 2 directions – feldspars, hornblende 3 directions – galena, halite, calcite Topic 3: Page 49 Earth Textbook Fracture minerals break along non-cleavage surfaces •concoidal fractures – shell-like fracture •fiberous or splintery – jagged and sharp •uneven or irregular – rough surface Topic 3: Page 49-50 Earth Textbook Hardness minerals. .. •fiberous or splintery – jagged and sharp •uneven or irregular – rough surface Topic 3: Page 49-50 Earth Textbook Hardness minerals resistance to being scratched *Mohs’ Hardness Scale – page 50 in text minerals ranked on a scale of 1 to 10 •need fingernail, copper, steel, glass, topaz •1 softest (talc), 7 hardest common (quartz) and 10 is the hardest of all (diamond) Topic 4: Page 50 Earth Textbook Specific... •limonite (yellow-brown streak) •magnetite *Aluminum Oxides •corundum •bauxite Topic 9: Page 56-57 Earth Textbook Sulfides a metal combines with sulfur •galena •pyrite •chalcopyrite •sphalerite How to Know Minerals Chapter 4 Earth Science Book read pages 46-57 restate & answer Topic Questions 1-9 practice the 30 lab mineral samples
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