Nut chapter 12 mineral resources

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Chapter 12: Minerals © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc What Are Minerals?    Inorganic elements essential to the nutrition of humans Fourteen minerals are essential to body function • Play several key roles in overall health and well being - Help chemical reactions take place in cells - Help muscles contract - Keep the heart beating Two groups • Major minerals • Trace minerals © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc What Are Minerals?  Major minerals • Need to consume > 100 milligrams per day • At least grams of the mineral in the body • Calcium, sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphorus, magnesium, and sulfur © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc What Are Minerals?  Trace minerals • Need to consume > 20 milligrams per day • The body contains less than grams total • Iron, zinc, copper, selenium, chromium, iodide, manganese, molybdenum, and fluoride © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc The Minerals in Your Body Figure 12.1 Minerals  Do not contain carbon  Contain only atoms of the same element  Are most often found • As individual ions • In organic compounds © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc Minerals  Remain intact during digestion  Generally not change shape or structure when performing biological functions  Most minerals absorbed from the diet are in the form of water-soluble salts  Are not destroyed by heat, acid, oxygen, or ultraviolet light  Mineral bioavailability: Degree to which a nutrient from food is absorbed and utilized in the body © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc Mineral Bioavailability Mineral Balance  Body maintains tight control over mineral balance • GI tract  Regulates absorption from food based on the body’s need  Minerals in gastric juices and that slough-off intestinal cells are either excreted in the feces or reabsorbed through the large intestine • Kidneys  Excretes excess and reabsorbs the minerals when the body needs them © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc Mineral Functions  Minerals work together to perform important functions in the body • Fluid and electrolyte balance • Blood formation • Building healthy bones • Maintaining a healthy immune system © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc Minerals Help Maintain Fluid Balance  Minerals play a key role in fluid balance in the cells • Extracellular minerals – sodium and chloride • Intracellular mineral – potassium with the help of calcium, magnesium, and sulfur © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc Mineral Participate as Cofactors  Cofactor – substance that helps catalyze a reaction  Minerals serve as cofactors in • Antioxidant systems • Energy production • Muscle contraction • Nerve transmission © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc Minerals Make Up Bones and Teeth  Minerals make up the crystalline structure (hydroxyapatite) that gives strength to bones and teeth • Major minerals - Calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium • Trace mineral - Flouride © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc Minerals Can Be Toxic  If ingested in high amounts, minerals can be toxic; however, mineral toxicity is rare  Toxicity most often seen with • Large amounts of supplements • Certain conditions that interfere with the body’s adaptive abilities  Toxicity not generally seen from excess dietary intake © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc Quick Review  Minerals • Inorganic nutrients • Are classified as either major or trace base on amount found in the body and the amount needed daily • Bioavailability is based on nutritional status and mineral binding • Play a vital role in numerous body functions - Bone and blood health - Fluid balance - Cofactors in energy production and muscle contraction - Nerve transmission © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc Quick Review Continued  Mineral toxicity • Rare - Most people not ingest overly high amount from food - Body adjusts absorption and excretion • Occurs with ingestion of high doses of supplements © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc [...]... transmission © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc Minerals Make Up Bones and Teeth  Minerals make up the crystalline structure (hydroxyapatite) that gives strength to bones and teeth • Major minerals - Calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium • Trace mineral - Flouride © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc Minerals Can Be Toxic  If ingested in high amounts, minerals can be toxic; however, mineral toxicity is rare  Toxicity...Minerals Help Maintain Fluid Balance  Minerals play a key role in fluid balance in the cells • Extracellular minerals – sodium and chloride • Intracellular mineral – potassium with the help of calcium, magnesium, and sulfur © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc Mineral Participate as Cofactors  Cofactor – substance that helps catalyze a reaction  Minerals serve as cofactors... abilities  Toxicity not generally seen from excess dietary intake © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc Quick Review  Minerals • Inorganic nutrients • Are classified as either major or trace base on amount found in the body and the amount needed daily • Bioavailability is based on nutritional status and mineral binding • Play a vital role in numerous body functions - Bone and blood health - Fluid balance - Cofactors... in numerous body functions - Bone and blood health - Fluid balance - Cofactors in energy production and muscle contraction - Nerve transmission © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc Quick Review Continued  Mineral toxicity • Rare - Most people do not ingest overly high amount from food - Body adjusts absorption and excretion • Occurs with ingestion of high doses of supplements © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc
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