Mineral resources 6

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CHELATED MINERALS IN ANIMAL NUTRITION Rajendran, C.Kathirvelan and V.Balakrishnan Madras Veterinary College Chennai, INDIA INTRODUCTION Role of Minerals: macro minerals micro mineral Minerals fed to Cattle Role as Buffer Feed intake milk production Enhance milk composition Sustain health “All Physiological Function” Function Mineral deficiency occur All Livestock & Poultry  May be sufficient amount in diet  Interaction between minerals  Presence of Anti nutritional factors  Phytate  Oxalate  Mimosine  Gossypol Extend of mineral absorption in ruminant Minerals Extent of absorption (%) Copper Manganese 1-3% 3-4% Iron Cobalt 7-10% 25 % Non-ruminant little higher with mineral Factor affecting absorption Chemical form – Organic, Inorganic Other dietary factor –pH, Solubility etc., How to increase absorption Complexing inorganic element with organic compound This is called ‘Chelates’ Chelates : It is a cyclic compound which is formed between an organic molecule and a metallic ion Held with in the organic molecule as if by a “claw” Chelate -Greek word - ‘Claw’ Naturally occurring chelates : Chlorophyll's Cytochrome Haemoglobin Vitamin B12 Classification of organic minerals 1.Metal (specific amino acid) Complex 2.Metal Aminoacid Complex 3.Metal Aminoacid Chelate 4.Mineral proteinnates 5.Mineral polysaccharide complex Complexation and Chelates Cu2 + NH3 (Lewis acid) (Lewis base) [Cu (NH3)2 + NH3 COMPLEX [Cu (NH3)2]  Metalic ion + Ligand Complex  complex may be as simple as only one bond  Or complex contain many bond - Chelates Metal Complex Cu NH3 Metal Chelate Classification of organic minerals Metal (specific amino acid) Complex – The product resulting from complexing a soluble metal salt with a specific amino acid Minimum metal must be declared When used as a commercial feed ingredient, it must be declared as a specific metal, i.e copper lysine complex, zinc lysine complex etc Examples are: •Copper lysine complex •Zinc lysine complex •Ferric methionine complex •Manganese methionine complex •Zinc methionine complex Classification of organic minerals Metal Aminoacid Complex – Product resulting from complexing of a soluble metal salt (such as copper or manganese, etc) with an amino acid(s) Minimum metal content must declared When used as a commercial feed ingredient Examples are: • Copper amino acid complex • Zinc amino acid complex • Magnesium amino acid complex • Iron amino acid complex • Calcium amino acid complex • Potassium amino acid complex • Manganese amino acid complex Classification of organic minerals Metal Aminoacid Chelate – The product resulting from the reaction of a metal ion from a soluble metal salt with amino acids, with a mole ratio of one mole of metal to one to three (preferably two) moles of amino acids to form coordinate covalent bonds Amino acids molecular weight must be approximately 150 the chelate molecular weight must not exceed 800 The minimum metal content must be declared When used as a commercial feed ingredient, Examples are: •Calcium amino acid chelate •Magnesium amino acid chelate •Cobalt amino acid chelate •Manganese amino acid chelate •Copper amino acid chelate •Zinc amino acid chelate •Iron amino acid chelate Classification of organic minerals Metal proteinate is the product resulting from the chelation of a soluble salt with amino acids and/or partially hydrolyzed protein It must be declared as a ingredient as the specific metal proteinate Examples are: •Copper proteinate •Zinc proteinate •Magnesium proteinate •Iron proteinate •Cobalt proteinate •Manganese proteinate •Calcium proteinate Classification of organic minerals Metal Polysaccharide Complex – is the product resulting from complexing of a soluble salt with a polysaccharide solution declared as a ingredient as the specific metal complex Examples are: •Copper polysaccharide complex •Iron polysaccharide complex •Zinc polysaccharide complex •Magnesium polysaccharide complex How to prepare a chelate By reaction mineral salt + Controlled enzymatically prepared Amino acid/ peptide condition Ligand bind the metal atom at one or more point Form Ring Primary chelated mineral used in animal feeds are Zinc Iron Manganese Cobalt Copper These are “transitional” element It prefer to form co-ordinate covalent bond- a hybrid form of linkage – stable complex Ca, Mg, k Technology for preparation of chelated minerals Hydrolysis of Protein Separation by centrifuge and ultrafiltration Chelation process Removal of unbound mineral Drying grinding and storage Dinhh and Aruna Chhabra, 2003 Chelated minerals Factors influencing stability Charge / radius : Neural binder – more polar – Higher tendency to coordinate metal ion Alkaline binder – Stabilization by formation of covalent bond Chelation effect : Mono dentate – less stable Multi dentate – more stable Dimensions of Chelation : term term Shape: Steric Tension High stability Use of chelates in Animal Nutrition Main Objectives : Reduction of antagonism, interferences and competition among minerals Improve the bioavailability of minerals Counteract antinutritional factors, which affecting minerals Performance improvement Health improvement (immune status, functional nutrition) over all animal welfare Improvement in animal produces quality (meat, milk, egg, wool etc.,) Reduce degenerative effect of trace minerals on vitamins in premixes and feed Protect environment by reducing metal pollution Mode of action Stable in rumen environment & abomasum Delivered in small intestine as such Absorbed through active transport (more blood level) It act as biological complex (more tissue level) Enter into different pool Metabolizable in differently(Neathery et al 1972) 65 Ruminants Mineral Amino Acid complex Zinc methionine Zinc lysine Manganese methionine Iron methionine Copper lysine Zinc methionine has been studied greatest extend Not much research on zinc lysine & iron methionine in ruminants Zinc mehionine Not degraded Remain intact Bind with feed particle or micro organism So no insoluble complex Sperars 1989 Semi purifical diet deficient in zinc ZM compared with zinc oxide Absorption similar Metabolized differently, Zno Excreted more through urine CONCLUSION Chelated minerals usually cost more, per unit of metal element, than the same metal in inorganic form Historically the argument against chelates was that increased use of inorganics was more economic than feeding chelates  However, there is indication that in some situations, chelates can achieve biologic endpoints that inorganics cannot Chelated mineral can be used when more amount of antinutritional factor or interference affects mineral utilization It can be used as immuno-stimulant but more data is needed [...]... interferences and competition among minerals 2 Improve the bioavailability of minerals 3 Counteract antinutritional factors, which affecting minerals 4 Performance improvement 5 Health improvement (immune status, functional nutrition) 6 over all animal welfare 7 Improvement in animal produces quality (meat, milk, egg, wool etc.,) 8 Reduce degenerative effect of trace minerals on vitamins in premixes and... unbound mineral Drying grinding and storage Dinhh and Aruna Chhabra, 2003 Chelated minerals Factors influencing stability 1 Charge / radius : 2 Neural binder – more polar – Higher tendency to coordinate metal ion 3 Alkaline binder – Stabilization by formation of covalent bond 4 Chelation effect : 1 Mono dentate – less stable 2 Multi dentate – more stable 5 Dimensions of Chelation : 1 5 term 2 6 term... reaction mineral salt + Controlled enzymatically prepared Amino acid/ peptide condition Ligand bind the metal atom at one or more point Form Ring Primary chelated mineral used in animal feeds are Zinc Iron Manganese Cobalt Copper These are “transitional” element It prefer to form co-ordinate covalent bond- a hybrid form of linkage – stable complex Ca, Mg, k Technology for preparation of chelated minerals... organic minerals Metal proteinate is the product resulting from the chelation of a soluble salt with amino acids and/or partially hydrolyzed protein It must be declared as a ingredient as the specific metal proteinate Examples are: •Copper proteinate •Zinc proteinate •Magnesium proteinate •Iron proteinate •Cobalt proteinate •Manganese proteinate •Calcium proteinate Classification of organic minerals... intestine as such Absorbed through active transport (more blood level) It act as biological complex (more tissue level) Enter into different pool Metabolizable in differently(Neathery et al 1972) 65 Ruminants Mineral Amino Acid complex Zinc methionine Zinc lysine Manganese methionine Iron methionine Copper lysine Zinc methionine has been studied greatest extend Not much research on zinc lysine & iron... urine CONCLUSION Chelated minerals usually cost more, per unit of metal element, than the same metal in inorganic form Historically the argument against chelates was that increased use of inorganics was more economic than feeding chelates  However, there is indication that in some situations, chelates can achieve biologic endpoints that inorganics cannot Chelated mineral can be used when more...Classification of organic minerals Metal Aminoacid Chelate – The product resulting from the reaction of a metal ion from a soluble metal salt with amino acids, with a mole ratio of one mole of metal to one to three (preferably... is indication that in some situations, chelates can achieve biologic endpoints that inorganics cannot Chelated mineral can be used when more amount of antinutritional factor or interference affects mineral utilization It can be used as immuno-stimulant but more data is needed
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