Mineral resources 1

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Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks ~Chapter 5~ ^_^ Minerals: the building blocks of rocks Definition of a mineral • • • • Natural Inorganic Solid Possess an orderly internal structure of atoms • Have a definite chemical composition Composition and structure of minerals Atoms • Smallest particles of matter • Elements • Basic building blocks of minerals • Over 100 are known Periodic table of the Elements How atoms are constructed Nucleus – central part of an atom that contains • • • Protons – positive electrical charges Neutrons – neutral electrical charges Have all the characteristics of an elements Energy levels, or shells • Surround nucleus • Contain electrons – negative electrical charges Simplified view of the atom How atoms are constructed Atomic number is the number of protons in an atom's nucleus Bonding of atoms • Forms a compound with two or more elements • Ions are atoms that gain or lose electrons Isotopes • Have varying number of neutrons How atoms are constructed Isotopes • Have different mass numbers – the sum of the neutrons plus protons • Many isotopes are radioactive and emit energy and particles Minerals  Physical properties of minerals         Crystal form Luster Color Streak Hardness Cleavage Fracture Other properties (taste, smell, elasticity, malleability, feel, magnetism, double refraction) Crystal Form Double Refraction QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture IDENTIFY IT! QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture Perfect Cleavage (3 at 90 deg.)- NO THER HINTS! QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture Definitely not gold… unless you’re a fool QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture Fibrous QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture MOHS = QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture Streak Test QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture Magnetic… but the streak is throwing me off QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture Uber Magnetic QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture Filmy… Flat… White… QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture Black Black starts with B QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture Metallic mineral Ugly color QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture Looks like Pyrite… but its not QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture Speckled Reacts with Acid when powdered QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture Answer Key 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Quartz (Box 1) Olivine ( Box 1) Calcite (Box 1) Calcite (Box 1) Azurite ( Box 2) Halite (Box 3) Pyrite ( Box 2) Gypsum ( Box OR 3) Talc ( Box 3) Hematite ( Box 2) Hematite ( Box 2) Magnetite ( Box 2) Muscovite ( Box 1) Biotite ( Box 1) Limonite ( Box 2) Chalcopyrite ( Box 2) Dolomite ( Box 3) [...]... PropertiesCrystal Form The mineral quartz often exhibits good crystal form Pyrite (fool’s gold) displays metallic luster Three examples of perfect cleavage – fluorite, halite, and calcite Conchoidal fracture Minerals Physical properties of minerals • Other properties • Feel • Magnetism • Double Refraction • Reaction to hydrochloric acid Minerals  A few dozen minerals are called the rockforming minerals • The... feldspar Major Mineral groups: Nonsilicate Mineral Groups: Oxides Sulfides Carbonates • A major rock-forming group • Found in the rocks limestone and marble • Evaporites • Halite and gypsum are found in sedimentary rocks • Many have economic value Native Copper Some common non-silicate minerals Mineral resources • Reserves are already identified deposits • Ores are useful metallic minerals that... silicon atom • Feldspars are the most plentiful mineral group • Crystallize from molten material Minerals Mineral groups • Rock-forming silicates : • Olivine – independent tetrahedra • Pyroxene group – tetrahedra are arranged in chains • Amphibole group – tetrahedra are arranged in double chains Hornblende – a member of the amphibole group Minerals Mineral groups • Rock-forming silicates • Micas... minerals • The eight elements that compose most rockforming minerals are oxygen (O), silicon (Si), aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), potassium (K), and magnesium (Mg) • Most abundant atoms in Earth's crust: • Oxygen (46.6% by weight) • S ilicon (27.7% by weight) Minerals Major Mineral groups • Rock-forming silicates • Most common mineral group • Contain the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron
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