geos 111 minerals

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MINERALS Chemical composition of the Crust Oxygen most abundant- 46.6% Followed by silicon and aluminum Iron, Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium The most common minerals will be composed mostly of these elements Silica & silicates MINERAL vs ROCK ROCK An aggregate of one or more MINERALS (usually- coal, organic) MINERAL Solid Crystalline- orderly arrangement of atoms Naturally occurring Inorganic Definite chemical composition e.g SiO2 for quartz; KAlSi3O8 for feldspar Atom & Elements Atoms Neutral Nucleus Proton, neutron Electron Ions Electrical Charge Molecule- e.g water molecule Chemical activity Stable atoms want positive & negative charges balanced electron shells full Ions- positive (Cations) and negative (Anions) Bonding Ionic Covalent Metallic Van der Waal’s Fracture Properties of Minerals Absence of cleavage Irregular fracture Conchoidal fracture- Quartz Density Specific Gravity Some unusual properties Striations, Magnetism, Taste, Odor, Double refraction Chemical tests Reaction with HCl Calcite effervesces Mineral Groups Silicates Carbonates Oxides Sulfides Sulfates Native Elements Halides Silicates Quartz Feldspar Plagioclase Orthoclase Micas Muscovite Biotite Amphibole (Hornblende) Pyroxene (Augite) Olivine Carbonates Calcite (calcium carbonate) Dolomite (calcium-magnesium carbonate) Both are used as Portland Cement Oxides Hematite (iron oxide) Iron ore, pigment Magnetite Iron ore Corundum (aluminum oxide) Sapphire, ruby (gemstone) Abrasive Sulfides Galena (Lead sulfide) Lead ore Sphalerite Zinc sulfide) Zinc ore Pyrite (Iron sulfide) Sulfuric acid Chalcopyrite (Copper Iron sulfide) Copper ore Sulfates Gypsum Anhydrite Both use in plaster Native Elements Gold- trade, instruments Silver- photography, conductors Copper- electrical Platinum- catalysts Sulfur- chemicals, pharmaceuticals Diamond- carbon Gemstone, abrasive Graphite- carbon Lubricant, pencils Minerals as Resources Reserves: Minerals that can be extracted at a profit under current economic and technological conditions Ores: metallic minerals Industrial Rocks or Minerals: non metallic minerals (phosphate) Aggregates: crushed rock ROCK CYCLE Equilibrium Interrelationships between igneous rocks sediment sedimentary rocks metamorphic rocks weathering and erosion [...]... Properties of Minerals Color Not always reliable (Olivine, green; Flourite, yellow, purple, green…) Ferromagnesian minerals green or black Streak- powdered form Luster- reflectance of light Metallic Nonmetallic Vitreous or Glassy Earthy Properties of Minerals Hardness- resistance to scratching Moh’s Hardness Scale Fingernail = 2.5 Penny = 3.5 Knife/Glass = 5.5 Streak Plate= 6.5 Cleavage Properties of Minerals. .. clay Framework- e.g quartz, feldspar MINERALS Crystalline solids Natural and Inorganic Substances Definite chemical composition Can be written as a chemical formula Solid solution (within a range) Important Minerals Quartz (most abundant) FELDSPAR Group Potassium Feldspar - Orthoclase Plagioclase Feldspar Sodium (Na) Albite Calcium (Ca) Anorthosite Important Minerals PYROXENE Group- Augite most common... not at right angles- e.g Amphibole Three at right angles (cubic)- e.g Halite Three not at right angles (rhombohedral)- e.g calcite Four (Flourite) or six (Sphalerite)- not common Fracture Properties of Minerals Absence of cleavage Irregular fracture Conchoidal fracture- Quartz Density Specific Gravity Some unusual properties Striations, Magnetism, Taste, Odor, Double refraction
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