16 nutrition

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Presentation Package for Concepts of Physical Fitness 12e Section V: Concept 16: Nutrition Created by: Gregory J Welk Iowa State University General Nutrition Concepts  Influences of Nutrition – – – –  Health Appearance Behavior Mood Role of Nutrients in Diet – Growth and development – Provide energy – Regulate metabolism See Web16-1 for info on general nutrition guidelines Concepts of Physical Classes of Nutrients       Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Vitamins Minerals Water Subsequent slides will provide basic information about each nutrient Concepts of Physical Types of Carbohydrates (2 types)  Simple – pop, candy, sweets, fruit – individual glucose or fructose molecules  Complex – pasta, rice, breads, potatoes – Chains of glucose molecules Concepts of Physical Click icon for info on fiber P E R C E N T C A R B O H Y D R A T E S Trends in Carbohydrate Consumption 100 35% 80 60 50% 55% SIMPLE 65% 50% 40 45% COMPLEX 20 1910 1950 1980 See Web16-5 for distinctions between complex and simple Concepts of Physical Types of Protein  Sources of Protein – Animal (complete) » meats, dairy – Vegetable (incomplete) » beans, nuts, legumes, grains  Types of Amino Acids Amino acids linked together – Nonessential (14) – can be made by body – Essential (8) – must be made by body Concepts of Physical Protein Requirements   RDA average = g/kg/day RDA athlete = 1.2-1.6 g/kg/day High levels of protein intake above g/kg/day can be harmful to the body Concepts of Physical Click icon for info on hydrogenation process   Types of Fats Saturated – Animal sources – Solid at room temperature Unsaturated (poly- or mono-) – Vegetable sources – Liquid at room temperature HHHHH HHHH HHHHO HC-C-C-C-C-C=C-C-C-C=C-C-C-C-C-C-OH HHHHH HH HHH Click icon for info on fat content of oils Web16-6,7 Concepts of Physical Recommendations for Fat Consumption  Dietary Fat Recommendations – Less than 30% of calories in diet from fat – Less than 1/3 of dietary fat should be saturated  Ways to Decrease Intake of Fat – – – – – – – Minimize "fast" foods Minimize processed foods Use better cuts of meats Use low fat alternatives Decrease use of condiments Eat lower fat snacks Choose foods with “artificial fats” Concepts of Physical Recommended Dietary Intake Click icon for info on calorie calculations PRO PRO (10-15%) CHO FAT (30%) FAT CHO (55-60%) Click icon for info on Lab 16a 10 Concepts of Physical Return to presentation 28 Hydrogenation Process Concepts of Physical Fat Soluble Vitamins    29 Consist of Vitamins A, D, E, and K Absorbed at the small intestine in the presence of bile (a fatty substance) Overdoses can be toxic (A and D) Concepts of Physical Water Soluble Vitamins   30 Consist of B complex and vitamin C Excesses will be excreted in the urine, however, B-6 and Niacin can be toxic when ingested in unusually large amounts Concepts of Physical Return to presentation          31 Water Soluble Vitamins B-1 (thiamine) B-2 (riboflavin) B-6 (pyridoxine) B-12 (cobalamin) Niacin (nicotinic acid) Pantothenic Acid Folic Acid (folacin) Biotin C Concepts of Physical Antioxidant All-Stars           32 Broccoli Canteloupe Carrot Kale Mango Pumpkin Red Pepper Spinach Strawberries Sweet potato Concepts of Physical Minerals with established Return to presentation RDA guidelines        33 Calcium Phosphorus Iodine Iron Magnesium Zinc Selenium Concepts of Physical Return to presentation    Calcium Important for preventing osteoporosis RDA = 800-1000 mg/day Found in dairy products and vegetables High protein diets leach calcium from bones and promote osteoporosis 34 Concepts of Physical Return to presentation   Iron Important component of hemoglobin Iron deficiency is known as anemia (Symptoms: shortness of breath, fatigue) 35 Concepts of Physical Return to presentation       36 Functions of Water Comprises about 60% of body weight Chief component of blood plasma Aids in temperature regulation Lubricates joints Shock absorber in eyes, spinal cord, and amniotic sac (during pregnancy) Active participant in many chemical reactions Concepts of Physical Caloric Content of Foods Carbohydrates Protein Fats Alcohol 37 cal/g cal/g cal/g cal/g Concepts of Physical Calorie Calculation (Example)  Heather consumes 2000 calories per day and wishes to obtain 20% of her calories from fat: 2000 calories x 20% = 400 calories from fat per day 400 calories from fat = 44 grams of fat/day 38 Concepts of Physical What is Baloney? 80% "fat free” 52 calories / slice grams fat / slice Calories = g/slice X cal/g = 36 calories from fat Percent of calories = 36 cal / 52 cal total = from fat 39 69% Concepts of Physical Return to presentation What about Sliced Turkey? 98% "fat free” 30 calories / slice gram fat / slice Calories = g/slice X cal/g = calories from fat Percent of calories = cal / 30 cal total = from fat 40 30% Concepts of Physical Return to presentation   Fat Substitutes Olestra Simplesse What are the dietary implications of these new food products? 41 Concepts of Physical The Food Pyramid [...]... on Nutrition Lab 16a Information Nutrition Analysis 21  Purpose: Compare quality of “favorite diet” with your ideal “healthy diet”  Procedure: Select foods from food list (Appendix D or other diet tables) and calculate calories from carbohydrates, fats and proteins Concepts of Physical Return to presentation Lab 16a Information Making calorie calculations    Protein Fat Carbohydrate Totals Nutrition. .. Supplementation        16 Pregnant/lactating women Alcoholics Elderly Women with severe menstrual losses Individuals on VLCD’s Strict vegetarians Individuals taking medications or with diseases which inhibit nutrient absorption Concepts of Physical Click for more info on water   17 Water Vital to life Drink at least 8 glasses a day Concepts of Physical Click icon for info on Lab 16b      18 Guidelines... 800 1400 2550 % of Total Calories 13.7 31.4 54.9 100.0 Divide the calories by the total to get the percentage 22 Concepts of Physical Return to presentation    23 Lab 16b Information Selecting Nutritious Foods Purpose: Evaluate the nutritional quality of your diet Procedure: Record foods consumed for two days on the Daily Diet Record Calculate calorie intake from list in Appendix C Implications: Rate... Concepts of Physical Return to presentation Type safflower sunflower corn soybean sesame peanut palm olive canola 27 Composition of Oils (%) Sat Poly 9 10 13 14 14 17 49 14 7 Mono 75 66 59 58 42 32 9 8 35 16 24 28 28 44 51 42 78 58 Concepts of Physical Return to presentation 28 Hydrogenation Process Concepts of Physical Fat Soluble Vitamins    29 Consist of Vitamins A, D, E, and K Absorbed at the small
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