W10 water, vitamins minerals

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Ngày đăng: 30/11/2016, 11:19

Water, Vitamins & Minerals Vitamins  Certain vitamins and minerals are needed for the body to function ◦ 13 vitamins ◦ 22 minerals  Two types of vitamins ◦ Water-soluble ◦ Fat-soluble Fat-Soluble vitamins  Vitamin A, D, E and K  Excess is stored in the liver and in body fat ◦ It is possible to build up to a toxic level Vitamin A (Retinol)  Beta-carotene is converted into vitamin A  Vitamin A: ◦ Promotes good vision ◦ Promotes healthy skin ◦ Helps with growth and maintenance of bones, teeth, and cell structure  RDA: 900 micrograms for males; 700 micrograms for females Too much vitamin A May turn your skin orange  May cause fatigue, weakness, severe headache, blurred vision, hair loss and joint pain  Toxicity:  ◦ May cause severe liver or brain damage ◦ Birth defects Too little vitamin A May cause night blindness  Lowered immune system  Foods rich in vitamin A  Foods ◦ Only animal products  Liver  Eggs  Milk, butter and cheese  Carotenoids ◦ Orange/Yellow fruits and vegetables  Cantaloupes, carrots, sweet potatoes, winter squash ◦ Leafy green vegetables  Spinach, broccoli Vitamin D – “The Sunshine Vitamin” Essential for building and maintaining bones and teeth  Responsible for absorption and utilization of calcium  Other health benefits:  ◦ May boost immune system ◦ May also help decrease certain cancers  RDA: micrograms until age 50  10 micrograms / day until 70; 15 mcg 70+ Too little vitamin D Vitamin D deficiency has been in the news a lot lately  Deficiency may occur from:  ◦ Inadequate diet  Vegetarianism, lactose intolerance, milk allergy ◦ Body unable to absorb needed vitamin D ◦ Limited exposure to sunlight Vitamin D Deficiency  May lead to osteomalacia and/or osteoporosis Minerals 22 minerals are needed by the body  Two categories:  ◦ Major  Include calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and sulfur ◦ Trace  Include iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, molybdenum, arsenic, nickel, silicon, boron and cobalt Sodium  What does sodium for you? ◦ Helps maintain fluid balance ◦ Helps transmit nerve impulses ◦ Influences contraction and relaxation of muscles Sodium & Health  Too much sodium ◦ Causes high blood pressure ◦ May lead to fluid retention Sodium Savvy  The human body requires about 500 mg of sodium per day, while the average American usually ingests between 2,3006,900 mg each day  It is recommended to stay in a range of 1,500 to 2,400 mg / day Where are you getting sodium? www.mayoclinic.com Sodium & Food  On food labels: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Monosodium glutamate (MSG) Baking soda Baking powder Disodium phosphate Sodium alginate Sodium nitrate or nitrite Reducing sodium in your diet Eat more fresh foods  Eat less processed foods  Look for low-sodium products  Limit the salt you add to foods  Experiment with other seasonings  Use salt substitutes with caution  Calcium  The most abundant mineral in your body ◦ 99% is stored in the bones  Known for bone health  How much you need? ◦ Males 19-50 years old: 1,000 mg / day ◦ Females 19-50 years old: 1,000 mg / day Calcium & Foods  Dairy products, fortified juices, sardines Food Calcium Yogurt, plain (low-fat) Yogurt, flavored (low-fat) cup - 415 mg cup – 345 mg Milk, skim Milk, 1-2% cup – 302 mg cup – 300 mg Ice cream ½ cup – 88 mg Broccoli, cooked ½ cup – 68 mg Salmon, canned oz – 165 mg Fortified orange juice oz – 300 mg Iron  Iron deficiency is the most widespread vitamin or mineral deficiency in the world ◦ 70% of your body’s iron is in your hemoglobin ◦ Too little iron = too little oxygen Iron & Foods  Heme iron: ◦ Found in animal products  Red meats, liver, poultry and eggs  Non-heme iron: ◦ Found in plant products  Beans, nuts, seeds, dried fruits, fortified breads and cereals Iron supplements Check with your doctor first  High risk groups:  ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Strict vegetarians Those who not eat a balanced diet Those who are over 60 Smokers and those who regularly drink alcohol ◦ Chronic dieters ◦ Those who suffer from food allergies, intolerances Water  Essential for life ◦ It is possible to live without food than without water  Water makes up about 45-75% of your body weight Why is water important? Aids with transport  Mechanical functions  Helps to break substances down  Helps to maintain body temperature/pH  How much water you need?  Adequate intake: ◦ For men: 125 oz / day ◦ For women: 91 oz / day ◦ Ideally 80% of water should coming from drinking fluids  20% of water intake should come from food [...]... Important for blood clotting ◦ Also has a role for bone health Mostly made in the intestines  Foods:  ◦ Turnip greens, cauliflower, spinach, liver, broccoli, kale and cabbage Water-Soluble Vitamins Vitamins Bs and C  Eight B vitamins:  ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Thiamin (B-1) Riboflavin (B-2) Niacin (B-3) Pyridoxine (B-4) Cobalamin (B-12) Folic acid Pantothenic acid Biotin Thiamin or B-1 Helps to convert carbohydrates... structure and absorption of iron  Deficiency:  ◦ Rare Too much vitamin C  Foods:  ◦ Melons, berries, tomatoes, potatoes, broccoli, fortified juices, kiwi, mangos, yellow peppers and citrus fruits Minerals 22 minerals are needed by the body  Two categories:  ◦ Major  Include calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and sulfur ◦ Trace  Include iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper,
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