Minerals geology

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Minerals Dr R B Schultz The earth is made of rocks, which are in turn made of minerals In this part of the course we'll learn how to identify common minerals and rocks In order for something to be classified as a mineral, it must meet five (5) criterion: Minerals are: ·        Naturally occurring, ·        Inorganic, ·        Have known chemical compositions ·        Have definite physical properties Are solid ·        They are usually (although not always) crystalline  Mineral Classification Minerals are classified based on chemical composition and crystal structure Minerals are made of different ions bonded together Ions are charged atoms •        Cations are positively charged whereas •        Anions are negatively charged   Common ions in earth's crust: O - most common ion (anion) Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, K, Mg, (Cations) Minerals are made mainly of these ions       Crystal structure Crystal structure depends on sizes of and charges on ions Polymorphs same chemical composition, different crystal structures   Mafic silicate minerals Most common minerals are silicates All silicate minerals contain silicon and oxygen Silicates that also contains iron or magnesium are called mafic silicate minerals   Mafic silicate minerals are dark in color Examples: of mafic silicates: olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, and biotite mica   Felsic silicates Felsic silicates are silicate minerals that don't contain magnesium or iron, are light in color Examples: feldspar, quartz, clay minerals, muscovite mica   Silicate mineral structures Basic building block: silica tetrahedron Silica tetrahedron is a silicon ion bonded to oxygen ions Silicon is positively charged (+4) Oxygen is negatively charged (-2) Net charge on tetrahedron: -4 Because tetrahedron is negatively charged, it is attracted to cations Tetrahedra may link together by a cation (e.g Mg, Fe, Na, Ca, K) serving as a bridge, or Tetrahedra may link together by sharing oxygens     Isolated tetrahedral structure Cations serve as links between tetrahedra; no sharing of oxygens e.g olivine, and garnet, which also happen to be mafic silicates   Single chain silicates Adjacent tetrahedra form a chain by sharing of their oxygens with neighboring tetrahedra e.g pyroxenes, which also happen to be mafic silicates   Double chain silicates Two chains can link up by sharing oxygens e.g amphiboles, which are mafic silicates too   Sheet silicates Sheets are formed when each tetrahedron shares of its oxygens with its neighbors e.g micas, biotite (mafic) and muscovite (non-mafic), and clay minerals, which are non-mafic silicates   Framework silicates Every oxygen in each tetrahedron is shared to form 3-D framework e.g feldspar, quartz, which are also non-mafic   Common non-silicate minerals Calcite calcium carbonate Limestone is made of calcite Dolomite calcium magnesium carbonate Gypsum calcium sulfate Galena lead sulfide Pyrite iron sulfide Halite sodium chloride (table salt)   How to Identify Minerals: Physical Properties Geologists determine the identity of an unknown mineral by describing its physical properties They then use a reference book to find out what mineral has those properties We will learn to describe the physical properties   Habit refers to the overall shape of the mineral use terms like: "equant" (3 dimensions of the mineral have about the same length, like a cube or sphere), “elongate" (one direction is long but the other are short, like a pencil), or "platy" (one dimension is short, other are long like a sheet of paper) isolated tetrahedra & framework silicate minerals tend to be equant in habit; chain silicates tend to be elongate, sheet silicates are platy   Cleavage Refers to very smooth, flat, shiny breakage surfaces These special breakage surfaces correspond to zones of weak bonding in the crystal structure To describe cleavage, must determine the number of unique cleavage planes (directions) and their angle with respect to each other (e.g salt breaks into cubes, with cleavage in directions, all at 90 degrees)   Hardness Refers to "scratchability" of the minerals harder minerals will scratch softer minerals Rank minerals according to hardness using the Moh's scale Fingernails are about 2.5 on Moh's scale; glass or steel knife is about 5.5; use these common items to estimate hardness of a mineral   Color Varies in many minerals, e.g quartz Some minerals come in just one color; other are many colors/many varieties   Streak Refers to color of mark left by rubbing mineral against a streak plate (unglazed porcelain) streak does not vary even if color does   Other Properties Some minerals are magnetic Some minerals effervesce ("fizz") in dilute acid Specific gravity (like density )   Moh's Hardness Scale (Commit this to memory)   1.0            TALC 2.0          GYPSUM 2.5 FINGERNAIL 3.0          CALCITE 3.5          COPPER PENNY 4.0          FLUORITE 5.0          APATITE 5.5          STEEL KNIFE BLADE/GLASS PLATE 6.0          ORTHOCLASE FELDSPAR 7.0          QUARTZ 8.0          TOPAZ 9.0          CORUNDUM (RUBY) 10 DIAMOND Crystal structure Crystal structure depends on sizes of and charges on ions   Most common mineral group is the silicates All silicate minerals contain silicon and oxygen Mafic silicate minerals contain iron or magnesium and are dark in color Examples: olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, and biotite mica Felsic silicates don't contain magnesium or iron, and are light in color Examples: feldspar, quartz, clay minerals, muscovite mica Mafic silicate Felsic silicate Silicate mineral structures Basic building block: silica tetrahedron Silica tetrahedron is a silicon ion bonded to oxygen ions Silicon is positively charged (+4) Oxygen is negatively charged (-2) Net charge on tetrahedron: -4 Because entire tetrahedron is negatively charged, it is attracted to cations Tetrahedra may link together by a cation (e.g Mg, Fe, Na, Ca, K) serving as a bridge, or may link together by sharing oxygens     Silica Tetrahedron Oxygens Silicon Isolated tetrahedral structure Cations serve as links between tetrahedra; no sharing of oxygens e.g olivine, and garnet, which also happen to be mafic silicates   Single chain silicates Adjacent tetrahedra form a chain by sharing of their oxygens with neighboring tetrahedra e.g pyroxenes, which also happen to be mafic silicates   Double chain silicates Two chains can link up by sharing oxygens e.g amphiboles, which are mafic silicates too   Sheet silicates Sheets are formed when each tetrahedron shares of its oxygens with its neighbors e.g micas, biotite (mafic) and muscovite (non-mafic), and clay minerals, which are non-mafic silicates   Framework silicates Every oxygen in each tetrahedron is shared to form 3-D framework e.g feldspar, quartz, which are also non-mafic   Common non-silicate minerals Fluorite – used as a toothpaste additive Calcite calcium carbonate Limestone is made of calcite Dolomite calcium magnesium carbonate Gypsum calcium sulfate Galena lead sulfide Pyrite iron sulfide Halite sodium chloride (table salt) How to Identify Minerals: Physical Properties Geologists determine the identity of an unknown mineral by describing its physical properties They then use a reference book to find out what mineral has those properties We will learn to describe the physical properties   Habit refers to the overall shape of the mineral Scientists use terms like: "equant" (3 dimensions of the mineral have about the same length, like a cube or sphere), “elongate" (one direction is long but the other are short, like a pencil), or "platy" (one dimension is short, other are long like a sheet of paper) Isolated tetrahedra & framework silicate minerals tend to be equant in habit; chain silicates tend to be elongate, sheet silicates are platy   Luster refers to the light reflected off of the mineral and its overall quality Minerals can be termed: glassy, opaque, transparent, shiny, or most commonly: metallic and non-metallic One of the first determinations a geologist must make is whether the mineral in metallic or non-metallic Non-metallic mineral Metallic mineral Cleavage Refers to very smooth, flat, shiny breakage surfaces These special breakage surfaces correspond to zones of weak bonding in the crystal structure To describe cleavage, one must determine the number of unique cleavage planes (directions) and their angle with respect to each other (e.g salt breaks into cubes, with cleavage in directions, all at 90 degrees) NO cleavage   Hardness Refers to "scratchability" or resistance to being scratched Harder minerals will scratch softer minerals Geologists rank minerals according to hardness using the Moh's scale Moh's Hardness Scale (Commit this to memory) 1.0     TALC 2.0    GYPSUM 2.5 FINGERNAIL 3.0    CALCITE 3.5    COPPER PENNY 4.0    FLUORITE (Note the spelling!) 5.0    APATITE 5.5    STEEL KNIFE BLADE/GLASS PLATE 6.0    ORTHOCLASE FELDSPAR 7.0    QUARTZ 8.0     TOPAZ 9.0     CORUNDUM (RUBY) 10.0 DIAMOND Color Varies in many minerals, e.g quartz VERY unreliable Some minerals come in just one color; other are many colors/many varieties   Streak Refers to color of mark left by rubbing mineral against a streak plate (unglazed porcelain) Streak does not vary even if color does   Other Properties Some minerals are magnetic (i.e., magnetite) Some minerals effervesce ("fizz") in dilute acid (calcite) Specific gravity (like density) galena has a high specific gravity Key Terminology Mineral Crystalline structure Cation Silicate Felsic Single chain Sheet silicate Non-silicate Habit Streak Hardness Chemical composition Ions Anion Mafic Silica tetrahedron Double chain Framework silicate Physical properties Luster Cleavage Moh’s Hardness Scale Pertinent Web Sites Amateur Mineralogy Links A very extensive listing of links to sites related to mineralogy Ask a Geologist If you have questions, a professional geologist is here to help Ecole des Mines de Paris Mineralogy Here are some beautiful mineral pictures from a museum in Paris Gems and Precious Stones Jill Banfield's (University of Wisconsin-Madison) integrated body of information about gems and gemstones Gold Institute A good commercial site with a lot of information about gold Gold Prospecting A good source for information about recreational gold prospecting Mineral and Gemstone Kingdom This site contains a comprehensive list of minerals and their properties Mineral and Rock Description (National Park Service) Mineral and rock photographs and descriptions from the National Park Service Mineral Data Links Links to several mineralogy related Web sites Mineral Descriptions and Images The Mineral Gallery is a constantly growing collection of mineral descriptions, images, and specimens, together with several ways of accessing these descriptions Mineralogy and Petrology Research on the Web An extensive list of mineralogy and petrology resources on the Web Mineralogy Database This extensive mineral database contains more than 5,000 pages of mineral data There are 3,874 individual mineral species data descriptions Mineralogy Links (University of Oxford) An extensive listing of mineralogy and minerals related sites Mineral Identification Tutorial Mineral identification tutorial from Texas A & M University Mineral Photographs A comprehensive collection of mineral and gemstone photographs from The Image Mineral Resources Program (USGS) The USGS Mineral Resources Program is responsible for providing and communicating current, unbiased information on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources Minerals Links (Houghton Mifflin) Links to several mineral sites, including class lecture notes, arranged by topic Minerals Links (NAGT) An extensive listing of mineral links arranged by topic from the National Association of Geology Teachers (NAGT) Minerals Links (University of Würzburg) An extensive listing of mineral links including mineral descriptions and thin section images Minerals (Mineralogical Society of America) The Mineralogical Society of America web site offers a good, general description of mineral properties, classification, etc directed primarily toward K-12 grade students Minerals (Trinity Mineral Company) Beautiful photos of rare minerals offered for sale by the Trinity Mineral Company Minerals Information (USGS) United States Geologic Survey (USGS) statistics and information on the worldwide supply, demand, and flow of minerals and materials essential to the U.S economy, the national security, and protection of the environment Minerals on the Internet A wide variety of minerals-related sites sorted into relevant categories from Tasa Graphic Arts, Inc Mining and Mineral Resources A great source for information about mining of mineral resources, mining news and trends, etc National Mining Association The National Mining Association (NMA) represents the mining industry, mining equipment manufacturers, and other mining-related businesses, throughout the United States Periodic Table of the Elements In addition to listing a wealth of information about each element, this location also lists and describes numerous compounds Periodic Table of the Elements II A great source for information on the elements Resource Fact Sheets (USGS) United States Geological survey (USGS) activities in the natural resources theme area inventory the occurrence and assess the quantity and quality of natural resources Activities also include monitoring changes to natural resources, understanding the processes that form and affect them, and forecasting the changes that may be expected in the future Resources from Space University of Wisconsin course notes with links to several essays about resources from space Resource Sustainability An essay that examines the future of Earth's resources Rock and Mineral Collecting (USGS) Selected references on rocks, minerals, and gemstones from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Rockhounds Information Page The Rockhounds Information Page offers many links to mineral and rock related Websites Smithsonian Gem & Mineral Collection Images of mineral and gemstone specimens found in the Smithsonian Institution (Not an official Smithsonian site) Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, Inc The Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (SME) is an international society of professionals in the minerals industry Society of Economic Geologists The Society of Economic Geologists, Inc (SEG) is an international organization of individual members with interests in the field of economic geology State Minerals Information (USGS) Statistics and information on the supply, demand, and flow of minerals and materials essential to the U.S economy, the national security, and protection of the environment from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Technical University of Clausthal This site at a German university also shows some excellent mineral pictures Virtual Atlas of Opaque and Ore Minerals This site provides over 400 full colour photomicrographs of the major ore-forming associations and opaque minerals in non-mineralized rocks It describes typical examples of each material from many classical localities throughout the world For each association there is a listing of the major (and important minor) primary ore minerals, alteration products and gangue, typical textures, a brief discussion of the geology of the association and a list of references World Lecture Hall (University of Texas at Austin) The World Lecture Hall features links to online courses in the United States and Canada Simplest to use for Mineral I.D Lab: Virtual Rock Bag http://comp.uark.edu/~sboss/vrockbag.htm#minerals [...]... resources Minerals Links (Houghton Mifflin) Links to several mineral sites, including class lecture notes, arranged by topic Minerals Links (NAGT) An extensive listing of mineral links arranged by topic from the National Association of Geology Teachers (NAGT) Minerals Links (University of Würzburg) An extensive listing of mineral links including mineral descriptions and thin section images Minerals. .. K-12 grade students Minerals (Trinity Mineral Company) Beautiful photos of rare minerals offered for sale by the Trinity Mineral Company Minerals Information (USGS) United States Geologic Survey (USGS) statistics and information on the worldwide supply, demand, and flow of minerals and materials essential to the U.S economy, the national security, and protection of the environment Minerals on the Internet... (RUBY) 10.0 DIAMOND Color Varies in many minerals, e.g quartz VERY unreliable Some minerals come in just one color; other are many colors/many varieties   Streak Refers to color of mark left by rubbing mineral against a streak plate (unglazed porcelain) Streak does not vary even if color does   Other Properties Some minerals are magnetic (i.e., magnetite) Some minerals effervesce ("fizz") in dilute acid... (SME) is an international society of professionals in the minerals industry Society of Economic Geologists The Society of Economic Geologists, Inc (SEG) is an international organization of individual members with interests in the field of economic geology State Minerals Information (USGS) Statistics and information on the supply, demand, and flow of minerals and materials essential to the U.S economy, the... other (e.g salt breaks into cubes, with cleavage in 3 directions, all at 90 degrees) NO cleavage   Hardness Refers to "scratchability" or resistance to being scratched Harder minerals will scratch softer minerals Geologists rank minerals according to hardness using the Moh's scale Moh's Hardness Scale (Commit this to memory) 1.0     TALC 2.0    GYPSUM 2.5 FINGERNAIL 3.0    CALCITE 3.5    COPPER PENNY... pictures Virtual Atlas of Opaque and Ore Minerals This site provides over 400 full colour photomicrographs of the major ore-forming associations and opaque minerals in non-mineralized rocks It describes typical examples of each material from many classical localities throughout the world For each association there is a listing of the major (and important minor) primary ore minerals, alteration products and...Common non-silicate minerals Fluorite – used as a toothpaste additive Calcite calcium carbonate Limestone is made of calcite Dolomite calcium magnesium carbonate Gypsum calcium sulfate Galena lead sulfide Pyrite iron sulfide Halite sodium chloride (table salt) How to Identify Minerals: Physical Properties Geologists determine the identity of... "platy" (one dimension is short, other 2 are long like a sheet of paper) Isolated tetrahedra & framework silicate minerals tend to be equant in habit; chain silicates tend to be elongate, sheet silicates are platy   2 Luster refers to the light reflected off of the mineral and its overall quality Minerals can be termed: glassy, opaque, transparent, shiny, or most commonly: metallic and non-metallic One of... products and gangue, typical textures, a brief discussion of the geology of the association and a list of references World Lecture Hall (University of Texas at Austin) The World Lecture Hall features links to online courses in the United States and Canada Simplest to use for Mineral I.D Lab: Virtual Rock Bag http://comp.uark.edu/~sboss/vrockbag.htm #minerals ... with links to several essays about resources from space Resource Sustainability An essay that examines the future of Earth's resources Rock and Mineral Collecting (USGS) Selected references on rocks, minerals, and gemstones from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Rockhounds Information Page The Rockhounds Information Page offers many links to mineral and rock related Websites Smithsonian Gem
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