Mineral properties2

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Mineral ID How to identify a mineral by its properties Introduction   Which mineral properties are most important in identification Scientists have discovered up to 6000 minerals Mineral Properties To meet the definition of "mineral" used by most geologists a substance must meet five requirements: 1.naturally occurring 2.inorganic 3.solid 4.definite chemical composition 5.ordered internal crystalline structure Mineral Property #1 Color & Streak     Color is the first thing someone notices when they view a mineral Color is also one of the big reasons that attract people to minerals Generally speaking, color is not a good property to be used in the identification of minerals It is usually the first property to confuse a novice collector into making an incorrect identification Many minerals have different colors and some minerals' colors are identical to other minerals' colors Mineral Property #1 Color & Streak   Streak is closely related to color, but is a different property because the color of the mineral may be different than the color of the streak Streak is actually the color of the powder of a mineral It is called streak because the proper way to test for streak is to rub a mineral across a tile of white unglazed porcelain and to examine the color of the "streak" left behind Mineral Property #1 Color & Streak     Pyrite (known as "Fool's Gold") is always brassy yellow when found in crystals, even broken crystals, of any size; but when powdered, produces a black streak Gold's streak, by the way, is yellow! Hematite's streak is blood-red Galena's streak is lead gray Mineral Property # Luster   A mineral’s luster is the way in which light reflects from the surface The two major types of luster are metallic & nonmetallic Mineral Property # Luster               Some other ways to describe luster are Dull - just a non-reflective surface of any kind Earthy - the look of dirt or dried mud Fibrous - the look of fibers Greasy - the look of grease Gumdrop - the look a sucked on hard candy Metallic - the look of metals Pearly - the look of a pearl Pitchy - the look of tar Resinous - the look of resins such as dried glue or chewing gum Silky - the look of silk, similar to fibrous but more compact Submetallic - a poor metallic luster, opaque but reflecting little light Vitreous - the most common luster, it simply means the look of glass Waxy - the look of wax Mineral Property # How a mineral breaks      When a mineral breaks it does so either by fracturing or by cleaving Cleavage is the tendency of a mineral to break along flat surfaces Crystal cleavage is a smooth break producing what appears to be a flat crystal face Fracture is the tendency of a mineral to break into irregular pieces See Link Mineral Property # How a mineral breaks     When a mineral breaks it does so either by fracturing or by cleaving Cleavage is the tendency of a mineral to break along flat surfaces Crystal cleavage is a smooth break producing what appears to be a flat crystal face Fracture is the tendency of a mineral to break into irregular pieces Mineral Property #4 Hardness   A mineral’s hardness is its resistance to being scratched A scale known as the Moh’s scale is often use Mohs Scale of Hardness Mohs Scale Rating 10 Type mineral Talc Gypsum Calcite Fluorite Apatite Feldspar Quartz Topaz Corundum Diamond What it can be scratched by… Baby powder fingernail bronze coin iron nail glass penknife blade steel knife sandpaper Mineral Property #5 Density     Each mineral has a specific density Density is the mass of a given space or in scientific terms the mass per unit of volume For example, if you have two minerals of the same size one might be heavier than the other The galena will be three times heavier than the same size of quartz See weblink Mineral Property #5 Density  Geologists measure density by the following:   First they use a balance to determine the mass of a sample Second, they place the mineral in water to see how much water it displaces   The volume of displace water = the volume of the sample Third they use the following formula: Density = Mass/Volume [...]... penknife blade steel knife sandpaper Mineral Property #5 Density     Each mineral has a specific density Density is the mass of a given space or in scientific terms the mass per unit of volume For example, if you have two minerals of the same size one might be heavier than the other The galena will be three times heavier than the same size of quartz See weblink Mineral Property #5 Density  Geologists.. .Mineral Property #4 Hardness   A mineral s hardness is its resistance to being scratched A scale known as the Moh’s scale is often use Mohs Scale of Hardness Mohs Scale Rating 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type mineral Talc Gypsum Calcite Fluorite Apatite Feldspar Quartz Topaz Corundum Diamond What it can be... than the same size of quartz See weblink Mineral Property #5 Density  Geologists measure density by the following:   First they use a balance to determine the mass of a sample Second, they place the mineral in water to see how much water it displaces   The volume of displace water = the volume of the sample Third they use the following formula: Density = Mass/Volume
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