lect 3 1113 props min2

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Minerals II: Physical Properties and Crystal Forms From: http://webmineral.com/data/Rhodochrosite.shtml The Physical Properties of Minerals • • • • • • Color Streak Luster Hardness External Crystal Form Cleavage The Physical Properties of Minerals (cont.) • • • • • Fracture Specific Gravity Special Properties Other Properties Chemical Tests Physical properties of minerals • Based on the principles discussed during the last lecture and above, we now know that minerals are composed of atoms, arranged in a specific order, with a well defined chemical composition We might expect then that the microscopic variations in bond environment discussed above, will also be manifested in macroscopic physical and chemical properties This is indeed the case.  Important Physical Properties I • Luster - This property describes the appearance of reflected light from the mineral's surface Nonmetallic minerals are described using the following terms: vitreous, pearly, silky, resinous, and earthy Important Physical Properties II • Color - Although an obvious feature, it is often unreliable to use to determine the type of mineral – Color arises due to electronic transitions, often of trace constituents, in the visible range of the EM spectrum For example, quartz is found in a variety of colors • Color of a mineral may be quite diagnostic for the trace element and coordination number of its bonding environment Hope Diamond: 44.5 carats http://www.nmnh.si.edu/minsci/hope.htm Important Physical Properties III • Streak - The color of a mineral in its powdered form; obtained by rubbing the mineral against an unglazed porcelain plate – Streak is usually less variable than color – Useful for distinguishing between minerals with metallic luster Density and Specific Gravity • Density - Defined as the mass divided by the volume and normally designated by the Greek letter, rho,   mass/volume; SI units: kg/m3 or kg m-3, but geologists often use g/cm3 as the unit of choice • Specific Gravity - Ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of an equal volume of water Note that water = g cm-3 S.G is unitless • Examples - quartz (SiO2) has a S.G of 2.65 while galena (PbS) has a S.G of 7.5 and gold (Au) has a S.G of 19.3 Color and Density • Two broad categories are ferromagnesian and nonferromagnesian silicates , which simply means iron and magnesian bearing or not The presence or absence of Fe and Mg strongly affects the external appearance (color) and density of the minerals • Ferromagnesian silicates - dark color, density range from 3.2 - 3.6 g/cc – Olivine - high T, low silica rocks; comprises over 50% of upper mantle – Pyroxenes - high T, low silica rocks – Amphiboles - esp hornblende; moderate T, higher silica rocks – Mica - esp biotite; moderate T, higher silica rocks – Garnet - common metamorphic mineral • Nonferromagnesian silicates - light color, density close to 2.7 g/cc – Mica - exp muscovite; moderate T, higher silica rocks – Feldspars - plagioclase and orthoclase; most common mineral in crust; form over a wide range of temperatures and melt compositions – Quartz - low T, high silica rocks; extremely stable at surface, hence it Diamond vs Graphite Crystal Structures Hardness: 10 Hardness: 1-2 From: http://www.molecules.org/elements.html#diamond Fingernail Hardness (2.5) Scratches Gypsum (2) Important Physical Properties VI • Cleavage - Orientation and number of planes of weakness within a mineral Directly reflects the orientation of weak bonds within the crystal structure This feature is also highly diagnostic • Fracture - This describes how a mineral breaks if it is not along well defined planes In minerals with low symmetry and highly interconnected atomic networks, irregular fracture is common Planer Cleavage in Mica Weak Bonding Yields Planer Cleavage Amphibole Cleavage ~120/60° Rhombohedral Cleavage in Calcite Conchoidal Fracture in Glass Special and Other Properties • Striations - Commonly found on plagioclase feldspar Straight, parallel lines on one or more of the cleavage planes caused by mineral twinning • Magnetism - Property of a substance such that it will spontaneous orient itself within a magnetic field Magnetite (Fe3O4) has this property and it can be used to distinguish it from other nonmagnetite iron oxides, such as hematite (Fe2O3) • Double Refraction - Seen in calcite crystals Light is split or refracted into two components giving rise to two distinct images Plagioclase striations Calcite Double Refraction X-ray diffraction: Laue photographic method Bragg Relationship From: http://www.geology.wisc.edu/~g203/xray.htm Laue X-ray photograph of Vesuvianite From: http://www.geology.fau.edu/course_info/fall02/gly4200/X-RAY.htm Vesuvianite: Contact Metamorphic Mineral Formula: Ca10(Mg,Fe)2Al4Si9O34(OH)4 System: Tetragonal Hardness: 61⁄2 http://www.mindat.org/min-4223.html [...]... Polymorphism 3 mm Natural Octahedral Diamond From: http://www.phy.mtu.edu/~jaszczak/diamond.html Graphite & Calcite Diamond vs Graphite Crystal Structures Hardness: 10 Hardness: 1-2 From: http://www.molecules.org/elements.html#diamond Fingernail Hardness (2.5) Scratches Gypsum (2) Important Physical Properties VI • Cleavage - Orientation and number of planes of weakness within a mineral Directly reflects... caused by mineral twinning • Magnetism - Property of a substance such that it will spontaneous orient itself within a magnetic field Magnetite (Fe3O4) has this property and it can be used to distinguish it from other nonmagnetite iron oxides, such as hematite (Fe2O3) • Double Refraction - Seen in calcite crystals Light is split or refracted into two components giving rise to two distinct images Plagioclase... http://www.geo.wvu.edu/~lang/Geol284/Min8IgFels Zoning in Plagioclase Feldspar Na-rich rim Ca-rich core Important Physical Properties IV • Crystal form or habit - The external morphology of crystals generally reflect the internal arrangement of their constituent atoms This can be obscured, however, if the mineral crystallized in an environment that did not allow it to grow without significant interaction with... Hardness - This is the resistance of the mineral to abrasion or scratching This property doesn't vary greatly from sample to sample of the same mineral, and thus is highly diagnostic It also is a direct reflection of the bonding type and internal atomic arrangement A value is obtained by comparing the mineral to a standard scale devised by Moh, which is comprised of 10 minerals ranging in hardness from talc
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