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Earth Science Summaries by Edward J Tarbuck Frederick K Lutgens SOURCE: http://wps.prenhall.com/esm_tarbuck_escience_11/ Topics: Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Chapter 2: Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks Chapter 3: Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth Chapter 4: Weathering, Soil, and Mass Wasting Chapter 5: Running Water and Groundwater Chapter 6: Glaciers, Deserts, and Wind Chapter 7: Earthquakes and Earth's Interior Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics Chapter 9: Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity Chapter 10: Mountain Building Chapter 11: Geologic Time Chapter 12: Earth's History: A Brief SummaryChapter 13: The Ocean Floor Chapter 14: Ocean Water and Ocean Life Chapter 15: The Dynamic Ocean Chapter 16: The Atmosphere: Composition, Structure, and Temperature Chapter 17: Moisture, Clouds, and Precipitation Chapter 18: Air Pressure and Wind Chapter 19: Weather Patterns and Severe StormsChapter 20: Climate Chapter 21: Origin of Modern Astronomy Chapter 22: Touring Our Solar System Chapter 23: Light, Astronomical Observations, and the Sun Chapter 24: Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Earth science is the name for all the sciences that collectively seek to understand Earth and its neighbors in space It includes geology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy Geology is traditionally divided into two broad areas—physical and historical Environment refers to everything that surrounds and influences an organism These influences can be biological, social, or physical When applied to Earth science today, the term environmental is usually reserved for those aspects that focus on the relationships between people and the natural environment Resources are an important environmental concern (1) irregular galaxies, which lack symmetry and account for only 10 percent of the known galaxies; (2) spiral galaxies, which are typically disk-shaped with a somewhat greater concentration of stars near their centers, often containing arms of stars extending from their central nucleus; and (3) elliptical galaxies, the most abundant type, which have an ellipsoidal shape that ranges to nearly spherical and that lack spiral arms Galaxies are not randomly distributed throughout the universe They are grouped in galactic clusters, some containing thousands of galaxies Our own, called the Local Group, contains at least 28 galaxies By applying the Doppler effect (the apparent change in wavelength of radiation caused by the motions of the source and the observer) to the light of galaxies, galactic motion can be determined Most galaxies have Doppler shifts toward the red end of the spectrum, indicating increasing distance The amount of Doppler shift is dependent on the velocity at which the object is moving Because the most distant galaxies have the greatest red shifts, Edwin Hubble concluded in the early 1900s that they were retreating from us with greater recessional velocities than were more nearby galaxies It was soon realized that an expanding universe can adequately account for the observed red shifts The belief in the expanding universe led to the widely accepted Big Bang Theory According to this theory, the entire universe was at one time confined in a dense, hot, supermassive concentration Almost 14 billion years ago, a cataclysmic explosion hurled this material in all directions, creating all matter and space Eventually the ejected masses of gas cooled and condensed, forming the stellar systems we now observe fleeing from their place of origin
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Xem thêm: WholeGeo on PPT , WholeGeo on PPT , WholeGeo on PPT , In any solid material, P waves travel about 1.7 times faster than do S waves., The idea is often summarized as "The present is the key to the past.", The Precambrian spans about 88 percent of Earth history, beginning with the formation of Earth about 4.5 billion years ago and, and near Lake Superior (1.7 billion years of age)., The Cenozoic could also be called the "age of flowering plants." As a source of food, flowering plants strongly influenced the evolution of both birds and herbivorous (plant-eating) mammals throughout the Cenozoic era., The uprush (swash) and backwash of water from each breaking wave moves the sediment in a zigzag pattern along the beach. This movement is called beach drift., Carbon dioxide (CO2), although present only in minute amounts (0.036%), is important because it has the ability to absorb heat radiated by Earth and thus helps keep the atmosphere warm., Air has weight: At sea level it exerts a pressure of 1 kilogram per square centimeter (14.7 pounds per square inch)., Absolute magnitude is the "true" brightness of a star if it were at a standard distance of about 32.6 light-years.