Structural geology louie html

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Lab – Structural Geology Chapter 10 Turn In: Lab Pre-Lab EC Handouts: Quiz Lab Pre-Lab Deformation  STRESS - direct pressure on the rock  Compressive = shorten  Tensional = extension  STRAIN – when rock is stressed to the point of failure = permanent deformation http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/images/deformmeta.gif o Beds are said to be dipping if they are oriented more than from horizontal (A cross-section sort of thing.) Dip direction is the compass direction a marble would roll down the top of the individual bed (Not the topography…) (A map view sort of thing.) Which compass direction these beds appear to be dipping? (view looking approximately south) W Dip angle is the angle between horizontal and the flat face of the bed (A cross-section sort of thing.) How much these beds appear to be dipping? (view looking approximately south) ~35 o W o Strike is the compass direction 90 from the dip direction, and is one direction in which beds are laterally continuous (A map view sort of thing.) Approximately which compass direction these beds (view looking approximately south) ~35 appear to be striking? o W What does this look like in map view? Topo map review – find the valley and the ridges Geol map stuff – find the strike and dip symbols What are the map units relative to the picture? TS2 Tertiary seds A * 20 (view looking southwest) 20 20 20 * A’ N TB1 Tertiary basalt TB2 Tertiary basalt What does this look like in cross-section? A A’ Sketch only – NOT TO SCALE TS2 Tertiary seds A * 20 (view looking southwest) 20 20 20 * A’ N TB1 Tertiary basalt TB2 Tertiary basalt Quick Review: Identify the approximate dip direction, dip angle, and strike in the close outcrop o ~?? The name of a landform is determined by how the beds dip… A side effect is the relations of older and younger beds… Folds and Block Diagrams  Anticline = oldest rocks exposed in the center  Syncline = youngest rocks exposed in the center Stress Types and Faults  Shear Stress: Causes shearing/tearing of the body on which it acts  Strike-Slip Fault: One rock slides past another horizontally Quick Quick Review Review of of Map Map Views Views –– In In each each picture: picture: Which Which units units are are oldest/youngest? oldest/youngest? Which Which way way are are the the beds beds dipping? dipping? What What structures structures are are present? present? Seismic Interpretation  Offshore Netherlands “F3” dataset courtesy of Paul deGroot of dGB  Open-source seismic software from OpendTect.org Seismic Interpretation Lab  1) Strike and Dip  Put at least 10 strike-and-dip symbols on the horizontal section, consulting the vertical section as needed  Identify and label a dome  Identify and label a basin  For the dome and basin you interpreted, explain the observations that support your interpretations Point out the observations noted on your sections:  Offshore Netherlands “F3” dataset courtesy of Paul deGroot of dGB  Open-source seismic software from OpendTect.org Seismic Interpretation Lab Ex horizontal section Seismic Interpretation Lab Ex vertical section  2) Plunging Fold  On the east side of the horizontal section is a plunging fold Mark some strikes and dips around it, referring to the vertical sections  Interpret whether the fold is an anticline or syncline:  Interpret which direction the fold is plunging:  Label the fold on the horizontal section with the proper symbol at its axis  Describe how your observations support your interpretations: Seismic Interpretation Lab Ex 2, horizontal section Seismic Interpretation Lab Ex 2-5 vertical section Inline 102 Seismic Interpretation Lab Ex 2-5 vertical section Inline 190 Seismic Interpretation Lab Ex 2-5 vertical section Inline 290 Seismic Interpretation Lab Ex 2-5 vertical section Inline 390 Seismic Interpretation Lab Ex 2-5 vertical section Inline 490  3) Fault Tracing  On the east side of the horizontal section is a prominent fault Mark the fault on the horizontal section  Mark the same fault on each of the vertical sections, if it appears on that section  What is the average strike direction of the fault? Average dip and direction?  What is the sense of offset on the fault: horizontal; or vertical?  What type of fault is it: reverse; thrust; normal; or strike-slip?  Complete the labeling of the fault on the horizontal section with the proper symbol  Mark where the fault terminates on the horizontal section  Discuss whether you can rule out that this fault has oblique slip Could it be a mixture of types?  4) Unconformities  On the east side near the middle of each vertical section there are several unconformities (originating in a hiatus of sedimentation between deposition of delta lobes) These are evident as terminations of one bed (reflection) against another Go through the vertical sections and mark at least terminations on each, with a short arrow pointing along a bed to its termination   Mark one unconformity across all vertical sections with the wiggly line symbol 5) Reservoirs  Reservoirs of fluid (oil, gas, water, steam) trapped in the rock pore spaces tend to make seismic bright spots Circle a few bright spots on the Inline vertical sections 102 and 190  Discuss whether these potential oil reservoirs may be associated with any of the other features you have interpreted [...]... of older and younger beds? What are the names of the landforms? Which way are the beds dipping? What are the landforms? www .geology. wisc.edu/courses/g112 CFW ‘07 Which feature has on overturned limb? Which way is up on each limb? web.uct.ac.za/depts/geolsci/dlr/laingsburg www .geology. wisc.edu/courses/g112 Economic Look  Folds in alternating permeable and impermeable layers = traps  Can trap water,
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