Geology introduction to earth science

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Geology These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page This icon indicates the slide contains activities created in Flash These activities are not editable For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation of 26 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Learning objectives What are the different types of rock? How are igneous rocks formed? How are sedimentary rocks formed? How are metamorphic rocks formed? What is the rock cycle? of 26 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Types of rock There are types of rock: Sedimentary Metamorphic Igneous of 26 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Learning objectives What are the different types of rock? How are igneous rocks formed? How are sedimentary rocks formed? How are metamorphic rocks formed? What is the rock cycle? of 26 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Igneous rocks Igneous rocks are formed by the solidification of molten material from below the earth's surface Extrusive igneous rocks are cooled quickly so small crystals form (e.g basalt) Intrusive igneous rocks are cooled more slowly so large crystals form (e.g granite) of 26 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Igneous rocks – crystal size Granite What differences you notice between these two igneous rocks? Granite has visible crystals Basalt of 26 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Igneous rocks Basalt of 26 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Igneous rocks Granite of 26 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Basalt pillars These pillars were formed when lava cooled on the Earth’s surface of 26 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Learning objectives What are the different types of rock? How are igneous rocks formed? How are sedimentary rocks formed? How are metamorphic rocks formed? What is the rock cycle? 10 of 26 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Sedimentary rock – sedimentation 12 of 26 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Sedimentary rocks sandstone sandstone limestone chalk 13 of 26 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Sedimentary rocks 14 of 26 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Learning objectives What are the different types of rock? How are igneous rocks formed? How are sedimentary rocks formed? How are metamorphic rocks formed? What is the rock cycle? 15 of 26 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Metamorphic rock - formation Metamorphic rocks are formed by the effect of extreme pressures and temperatures deep within the Earth This alters the structure of the existing rock 16 of 26 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Metamorphic rocks Metamorphic rocks show small crystals in layers (bands) Metamorphic rocks are hard and smooth Examples of metamorphic rocks are slate and marble 17 of 26 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Metamorphic rocks marble slate 18 of 26 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Metamorphic rocks Continent collision causes metamorphism and huge folds like this one in Scotland 19 of 26 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Match the rocks with the correct label B D C A slate 20 of 26 basalt granite chalk © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Which type of rock am I? 21 of 26 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Learning objectives What are the different types of rock? How are igneous rocks formed? How are sedimentary rocks formed? How are metamorphic rocks formed? What is the rock cycle? 22 of 26 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 From weathering to sedimentation 23 of 26 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Rock formation rocks are broken up by the action of weather volcano Igneous rocks basalt rises to surface where it cools rapidly rocks rise to surface by uplift and erosion sea Sedimentary rocks mudstone Igneous rocks granites slow solidification magma 24 of 26 transportation and deposition high pressure and temperature Metamorphic rocks slate and marble melt © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Rock cycle 25 of 26 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Do you know your rock cycle? 26 of 26 © Boardworks Ltd 2005
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