Rock geol

21 4 0
  • Loading ...
1/21 trang

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 29/11/2016, 23:14

Earth Materials Images from Strahler and Strahler, 2005 • The Crust and its Composition • Igneous Rocks • Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks • Metamorphic Rocks • The Cycle of Rock Change The Crust and its Composition oxygen and silicon account for about 75% of the earth's crust metallic elements iron, aluminum and the base elements account for most of the rest Figure11.1, p 399 The Crust and its Composition the elements of the crust are combined in inorganic chemical compounds called minerals these minerals are mixed together in various proportions to form different rock classes rocks of the Earth's crust are grouped into three major classes: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks Igneous Rocks igneous rocks consist mainly of silicate minerals containing silicon, oxygen and metallic elements less dense felsic minerals (from feldspar and silica) dominate the igneous rocks of the upper crust while more dense mafic and ultramafic (iron and magnesium) minerals dominate those of the lower crust magma that solidifies below the Earth’s surface and remains surrounded by older, preexisting rock is called intrusive igneous rock where magma reaches the surface, it emerges as lava, which solidifies to form extrusive igneous rock Igneous Rocks intrusive igneous rocks solidify below the Earth’s surface, they cool slowly and therefore develop larger mineral crystals visible to the eye extrusive igneous rocks cool very rapidly on the land surface or ocean bottom and thus develop smaller, microscopic size crystals Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks consist mainly of silicate minerals containing silicon, oxygen and metallic elements less dense felsic minerals dominate the igneous rocks of the upper crust while more dense mafic and ultramafic minerals dominate those of the lower crust Figure11.4, p 401 Igneous Rocks Intrusive (plutonic) igneous rocks granite: felsic intrusive igneous rock (same minerals as rhyolite) diorite: intermediate intrusive igneous rock (same minerals as andesite) gabbro: mafic extrusive igneous rock (same minerals as basalt) peridotite: ultramafic (olivine rich) Figure11.4, p 401 Igneous Rocks Extrusive (volcanic) igneous rocks rhyolite: felsic extrusive igneous rock (same minerals as granite) andesite: intermediate extrusive igneous rock (same minerals as diorite) basalt: mafic extrusive igneous rock (same minerals as gabbro) Figure11.4, p 401 Plutonic Rock in N America http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/North_america_rock_plutonic.jpg Volcanic Rock in N America http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/North_america_rock_volcanic.jpg a body of intrusive igneous rock is called a pluton (granite typically accumulates in enormous plutons, called batholiths extending down several kilometers and occupying an area of several thousand square kilometers) a sill is a plate-like pluton formed when magma forces its way between two preexisting (usually sedimentary) rock layers Igneous Rocks Figure 11.9, p 404 Igneous Rocks a dike is a wall-like pluton formed when a vertical rock fracture is forced open by magma magma entering small, irregular, branching fractures in the surrounding rock solidifies in a branching network of thin veins Figure 11.9, p 404 Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks mineral alteration occurs when the minerals in igneous rocks are transformed chemically into new minerals that are more stable at or near the Earth’s surface processes of mineral alteration include oxidation, hydrolysis, and solution in the process of mineral alteration, solid rock is weakened, softened, and fragmented, yielding particles of many sizes and mineral compositions when transported by a fluid medium—air, water, or glacial ice— these particles are known collectively as sediment three major classes of sediment: clastic (from pre-existing rocks), chemically precipitated sediment and organic sediment Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks sediment accumulates in more-or less horizontal layers, called strata (beds) - individual strata are separated from those below and above by surfaces called stratification planes or bedding planes Figure 11.15, p 410 Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks Clastic sediment consists of inorganic rock and mineral fragments, called clasts Figure 11.14, p 410 Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks chemically precipitated sediment consists of inorganic mineral compounds precipitated from a saltwater solution or as hard parts of organisms in the process of chemical precipitation, ions in solution combine to form solid mineral matter separate from the solution (e.g limestone, gypsum, chert) organic sediment consists of the tissues of plants and animals, accumulated and preserved after the death of the organism (e.g a layer of peat in a bog or marsh) Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks Hydrocarbons in sedimentary rocks are compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen solid fuels such as coal, liquids such as petroleum, and gas as natural gas Figure 11.18, p 412 Metamorphic Rocks metamorphic rocks are formed from preexisting rocks by intense heat and pressure, which alter rock structure and chemical composition Heat and pressure are produced by various processes, including but not limited to tectonic activity, deep burial, and contact with magma shale is transformed to slate or schist, sandstone to quartzite, and limestone to marble gneiss forms when an intrusive magma cools next to igneous or sedimentary rocks Metamorphic Rocks example of a schist Figure 11.19, p 412 Metamorphic Rocks some metamorphic changes: limestone marble shale slate sandstone quartzite granite gneiss basalt schist The Cycle of Rock Change the cycle of rock change describes how Earth materials are cycled and recycled by Earth processes over geologic time in the surface environment, rocks weather into sediment in the deep environment, heat and pressure transform sediment into rock that is eventually exposed at the surface Figure 11.21, p 416 [...]... igneous or sedimentary rocks Metamorphic Rocks example of a schist Figure 11.19, p 412 Metamorphic Rocks some metamorphic changes: limestone marble shale slate sandstone quartzite granite gneiss basalt schist The Cycle of Rock Change the cycle of rock change describes how Earth materials are cycled and recycled by Earth processes over geologic time in the surface environment, rocks weather into sediment... layer of peat in a bog or marsh) Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks Hydrocarbons in sedimentary rocks are compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen solid fuels such as coal, liquids such as petroleum, and gas as natural gas Figure 11.18, p 412 Metamorphic Rocks metamorphic rocks are formed from preexisting rocks by intense heat and pressure, which alter rock structure and chemical composition Heat and pressure... body of intrusive igneous rock is called a pluton (granite typically accumulates in enormous plutons, called batholiths extending down several kilometers and occupying an area of several thousand square kilometers) a sill is a plate-like pluton formed when magma forces its way between two preexisting (usually sedimentary) rock layers Igneous Rocks Figure 11.9, p 404 Igneous Rocks a dike is a wall-like... Igneous Rocks a dike is a wall-like pluton formed when a vertical rock fracture is forced open by magma magma entering small, irregular, branching fractures in the surrounding rock solidifies in a branching network of thin veins Figure 11.9, p 404 Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks mineral alteration occurs when the minerals in igneous rocks are transformed chemically into new minerals that are more stable... alteration, solid rock is weakened, softened, and fragmented, yielding particles of many sizes and mineral compositions when transported by a fluid medium—air, water, or glacial ice— these particles are known collectively as sediment three major classes of sediment: clastic (from pre-existing rocks), chemically precipitated sediment and organic sediment Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks sediment accumulates... separated from those below and above by surfaces called stratification planes or bedding planes Figure 11.15, p 410 Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks Clastic sediment consists of inorganic rock and mineral fragments, called clasts Figure 11.14, p 410 Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks chemically precipitated sediment consists of inorganic mineral compounds precipitated from a saltwater solution or as hard parts... Earth materials are cycled and recycled by Earth processes over geologic time in the surface environment, rocks weather into sediment in the deep environment, heat and pressure transform sediment into rock that is eventually exposed at the surface Figure 11.21, p 416
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: Rock geol , Rock geol , Rock geol

Gợi ý tài liệu liên quan cho bạn

Nạp tiền Tải lên
Đăng ký
Đăng nhập