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GEOLOGY-1010 • • • • INSTRUCTOR’S NAME: MARK BASKARAN PHONE: 313-577-3262 E-MAIL: BASKARAN@WAYNE.EDU OFFICE HOURS: 10:30-11:30 AM-M,F Grading Policy – GEL-1010 • • • LECTURE AND LAB MUST BE SUCCESFULLY COMPLETED FIRST QUIZ GRADING • EXAM #1=20% • EXAM #2=20% • FINAL =30% • LAB =30% COURSE GRADES WILL BE CURVED • • • • EXAM WILL BE MULTIPLE CHOICE AND TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS EXAM MATERIAL FROM LECTURE NOTES, DO NOT MISS LECTURES MAKE UP EXAM ……………… ONLY ON VALID EXCUSES Lab OPEN LAB (MAY ATTEND ANYTIME WHEN LAB IS OPEN) INTEGRAL COURSE AND ESSENTIAL PART OF GEL 1010 30% OF FINAL GRADE – HELPS TO IMPROVE THE GRADE LAB WILL START IN THE SECOND WEEK MUST HAVE PHOTO ID LABORATORY OUTLINE (BOOKSTORE OR MARWELL’S) MUST BE BROUGHT TO THE LAB 20 – QUESTION QUIZ AT THE END OF EACH LAB (COMPUTER TESTING; QUIZ WILL CONSTITUTE THE GRADE FOR THE LAB) *~ HOURS – ALLOW 3.5 HOURS TO COMPLETE LAB AND QUIZ *NO FOOD/DRINK ALLOWED; NO VISITORS ALLOWED *NO LAB MAKEUPS *LOWEST LAB WILL BE DROPPED.TOTAL 13 LABS – DROP = 12 LABS OR MORE LABS MISSING-MUST DROP THE COURSE UNOFFICIAL WITHDRAWAL WILL BE GIVEN *LAB STARTS ON TUESDAYS- ENDS THURSDAYMUST BE TAKEN THE SAME WEEK TIPS FOR SUCCESS READ OUTLINE PRIOR COMING TO THE LAB REVIEW MATERIAL IN TEXT BOOK RELATED TO THE LAB TOPIC FILL IN OUTLINE CAREFULLY AS IT WILL BE YOUR STUDY GUIDE FOR THE QUIZ ASK LAB INSTRUCTOR IF THE LAB MATERIAL IS UNCLEAR Methods of Science • DATA GATHERING • HYPOTHESES ( LOGICAL AND TENTATIVE EXPLANATION ) ( > 50 HYPOTHESIS FOR ICE AGES ) • THEORIES ( GENERALLY ACCEPTED EXPLANATIONS) • LAWS, SCIENTIFIC ( THEORY THAT MEETS RIGOROUS TESTING) • GEOLOGICAL MODELS Scientific Theory • MASSIVE VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS OF INDIA’S DECCAN PLATEAU• CLOUD OF V ASH & GAS – COOLING – DECLINE IN VEGETATION – PLANT EATING ANIMALS WOULD HAVE DIED – MEAT EATERS DEATH • METEORITE IMPACT THEORY - ~ 10 KM DIAMETER CRASHED INTO THE EARTH – DUST VEIL & SMOKES FROM FIRE BLOCKED SUNLIGHT Extinction of Dinosaurs • 65 M YEARS AGO, 75% OF ALL FORMS OF LIFE VANISHED ( LAND & WATER – DWELLING) • EPEDEMIC DISEASES ELIMINATED DINOSAUR POPULATION? • EGG STEALING- MAMMALS RAVAGED DINOSAUR’S NESTS? • OCEANS BECAME LETHALLY SALTY – WHY SOME MARINE ORGANISMS SURVIVED? • DRASTIC ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE? • SHIFT IN PLANET’S PROTECTIVE MAGNETIC FIELD? ( ALLOWING HARMFUL RADIATION) EVIDENCES • *1” – CLAYEY LAYER ~ 65 M YEAR • CLAY CONTAINS IRIDIUM ( ABUNDANT IN METEORITE; RARE IN INT ROCKS) ( ABOVE THE LAYER ~ ONE FOURTH AS MANY SPECIES) • *PRESENCE OF TEKTITES ( GLASSY SPHERES ) IN SEDIMENT LAYERS AROUND THE WORLD ( SUPER HEATED ROCKS AT IMPACT SITE HURLED INTO THE AIR IN A MOLTEN STATE) • *FOSSILS ABOVE & BELOW THIS 1” Evidences – contd • *HIGH CONC OF CARBON SOOT WITHIN THE IRIDIUM LAYER ( EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL WILD FIRE) *WHITISH FOSSIL – RICH LAYER AT THE BOTTOM OF A CORE (ODP) IN ATLANTIC OCEAN – OVERLAIN BY A THIN GRAY – GREEN LAYER OF IMPACT DEBRIS TOPPED BY AN IRON – RICH BAND – FOSSIL POOR LAYER ABOVE *IMPACT SITE – YUCATAN’S CHICXULUB CRATER 300 KM DIAMETER Physical Geology Concepts • Earth’s Systems – A tmosphere • – Hydrosphere (rivers, ocean, glaciers, lakes) • – water on or near the Earth’s surface Biosphere • – the gases that envelop the Earth all living or once-living materials Geosphere • the solid rocky Earth Physical Geology Concepts • Earth’s Heat Engines – External (energy from the Sun) • Primary driver of atmospheric (weather) and hydrospheric circulation • Controls weathering of rocks at Earth’s surface – Internal (heat moving from hot interior to cooler exterior) • Primary driver of most geospheric phenomena (volcanism, magmatism, tectonism) Earth’s Interior • Compositional Layers – Crust (~3-70 km thick) • Very thin outer rocky shell of Earth – Continental crust - thicker and less dense – Oceanic crust - thinner and more dense – Mantle (~2900 km thick) • Hot solid that flows slowly over time; Fe-, Mg-, Si-rich minerals – Core (~3400 km radius) • Outer core - metallic liquid; mostly iron • Inner core - metallic solid; mostly iron Earth’s Interior • Mechanical Layers – Lithosphere (~100 km thick) • Rigid/brittle outer shell of Earth • Composed of both crust and uppermost mantle • Makes up Earth’s tectonic “plates” – A sthenosphere • Plastic (capable of flow) zone on which the lithosphere “floats” Theory of Plate Tectonics • Continental Drift Hypothesis (A lfred W agner) – Originally proposed in early 20th century to explain the “fit of continents”, common rock types and fossils across ocean basins, etc – Insufficient evidence found for driving mechanism; hypothesis initially rejected • Plate Tectonics Theory – Originally proposed in the late 1960s – Included new understanding of the seafloor and explanation of driving force – Describes lithosphere as being broken into plates that are in motion – Explains origin and locations of such things as volcanoes, fault zones and mountain belts Tectonic Plate Boundaries • Divergent boundaries – Plates move apart – Magma rises, cools and forms new lithosphere – Typically expressed as mid-oceanic ridges • Transform boundaries – Plates slide past one another – Fault zones and earthquakes mark boundary – San Andreas fault in California • Convergent boundaries – Plates move toward each other – Mountain belts and volcanoes common – Oceanic plates may sink into mantle along a subduction zone, typically marked by a deep ocean trench Tectonic Plate Boundaries • Divergent boundaries – Plates move apart – Magma rises, cools and forms new lithosphere – Typically expressed as mid-oceanic ridges • Transform boundaries – Plates slide past one another – Fault zones and earthquakes mark boundary – San Andreas fault in California • Convergent boundaries – Plates move toward each other – Mountain belts and volcanoes common – Oceanic plates may sink into mantle along a subduction zone, typically marked by a deep ocean trench Plate Tectonics-contd • Top of a plate – consisting of oceanic crust, continental crust or a part of each • North American Plate is moving westward relative to Europe – Plate’s divergent boundary is along midoceanic ridge in the North Atlantic Ocean • Transform Boundary: San Andreas Fault in CA is an example – Earthquakes along the fault are a product of motion • Convergent Plate Boundary: Less dense, more buoyant continental plate will override the denser, oceanic plate Geologic Time • “Deep” Time – Most geologic processes occur gradually over millions of years – Changes typically imperceptible over the span of a human lifetime – Current best estimate for age of Earth is ~4.55 billion years • Geologic Time and the History of Life – Complex life forms became abundant ~544 million years ago – Reptiles became abundant ~230 million years ago – Dinosaurs became extinct (along with many other organisms) ~65 million years ago – Humans have been around for only ~ million years • “Nothing hurries geology” Mark Twain A Map of Tectonic Plates A Map of the Pacific Ocean Plate Rifting and Divergence Divergent Zones Oceanic Plate Subduction Key Points • • • • • • • • • Physical Geology Earth’s internal and external heat engines – driving factors Divisions of Earth’s layers Plate Tectonics – convergent, divergent, transform boundaries Crust – classification Age of the Earth and Universe Factors causing earthquakes Lithosphere Asthenosphere
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