Origin of the solar system

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Today’s Lecture ✸Origin of the Earth and Solar System - Nebular theory simulation - Concept of stellar evolution - Sun-Earth interactions - Importance of magnetic field - Role of impacts in planet fm ✸ Nature of the scientific method - Homework assignment - Due Friday COURSE’S WEBSITE http://geology.asu.edu/jfarmer/g_stu_1.html Nebular theory: Planets formed at the same time from cloud of dust & gases called a “nebula”: 80% hydrogen, 15% helium, 5% heavier elements Heavy elements sank to the centers of planets, forming the cores of planets The process of separating elements according to their mass and density is called: “chemical differentiation” Nebular Hypothesis: Simulation Movie (this time with sound!) See file: Solar System_~1.MPG Paintings by William Hartman Painting by William Hartman Formation of “protoplanets” by collisional accretion Inner rocky planets Separated by the asteroid belt Outer gas giants Venus as seen with radar Venus: Cloud-covered Venus by radar Mars: Largest Volcanoes in the Solar System Largest Canyon System Martian Meteorite A LH84001: Signs of Fossil Life- Probably Not! Post-Impact Magma Oceans Painting by William Hartman EFFECTS OF A 400 KM DIAMETER IMPACTOR g by William Hartman Stable atmosphere and ocean by ~4.2 billion years ago Humans arrive just a few seconds before noon Credit: Des Marais (2000) Hazards of asteroids and comets Planetary Geology World wide map of known impact structures Earth’s internal heat engine Sources of heat energy: Early on- impact Later on- heat of radioactive decay Magma Heat loss from the Earth’s interior drives plate tectonics Plate Tectonics: See Simulation SEAFLO~1.MOV Are there other Solar Systems with Earth-like planets in our Galaxy? Nature of scientific inquiry Process begins with observation and questions This leads to the formulation of hypotheses: Construction of a tentative (untested) explanations for things observed Best approach is to formulate multiple working hypotheses and then try and refute them! Testing hypotheses means: Evaluating their explanatory power under a variety of realistic circumstances Science progresses most quickly rough the refutation of hypotheses Nature of scientific inquiry Nature of Scientific Proof:  There is no certainty in science, only degrees of certainty  Hypotheses are less certain than theories Nature of scientific inquiry Theory - well-tested/widely accepted hypothesis that “acceptably” predicts observed facts - also: explains additional observations not used originally to form theory - predictive power - still testable and subject to disproof! Nature of scientific inquiry Homework Assignment: 1) Identify a major question about the nature or history of the Earth 2) State two of more alternative hypotheses that attempt to explain the available observations 3) Design a way to test each hypothesis If you can’t find a way to test a hypothesis, it probably means it is not very useful, so throw it out and identify another that can be tested 4) If you are using a historical example (e.g shape of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) from your text, then describe the outcome [...]... ~ 0.15% of the mass of the Solar System Sun accounts for the other 99.85%! Heat loss from the Earth’s interior drives convection in the outer core which creates the Earth’s magnetic field Movie of Earth’s interaction with the Sun: See file SUNSHI~1.MPG LEGACY OF APOLLO By going to the moon, we learned a lot about the early impact history of our planet! Paintings by William Hartman Formation of “protoplanets”... accretion Moon forming impact ~4.5 billion years Origin of the Moon: See simulation.file Origin of the moon1 QT” Post-Impact Magma Oceans Painting by William Hartman EFFECTS OF A 400 KM DIAMETER IMPACTOR g by William Hartman Stable atmosphere and ocean by ~4.2 billion years ago Humans arrive just a few seconds before noon Credit: Des Marais (2000) Hazards of asteroids and comets ... Ganymede Europa Callisto Jupiter’s moon Io •Most volcanically active object in the Solar System! Jupiter’s moon Io: Active volcanoes Europa’s Cracks are Transform Faults! San Francisco Peninsula and San Andreas Fault Fault systems on Europa Saturn Similar composition to Jupiter but twice as far from Sun ◆ Most extensive ring system ◆ Atmosphere winds: 930 m.p.h.! ◆ At least 21 moons ◆ Saturn’s Moon Titan:...Liquid Water on Mars?  Small channel networks located on steep, poleward-facing, high latitude slopes on Mars, may have been formed by recent outflows of near surface hydrothermal brines, providing potentially habitable environments for a subsurface biosphere on Mars today Mars Exploration Rovers Launch to Mars in June Jupiter Big! (2 Earths fit in red spot)
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