Introduction to minerals

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Earth Materials: Minerals Today’s Lecture: Chapter Patterns in Nature: Minerals 1 Minerals: Why care? 2 Atoms, ions & isotopes of the elements 3 Atomic bonding and the formation of chemical compounds 4 Minerals: the building blocks of rocks Internal structure in relationship to physical properties 5 Introduction to rocks Minerals: Why care? Raw materials for nearly all of the manufactured products we use are obtained from minerals Examples: ➨ Aluminum: Soft drink cans ➨ Graphite (Carbon): Pencil lead and lubricant ➨ Copper: Electrical components and wire ➨ Talc: Baby powder ➨ Silver, gold, gemstones: Jewelry ➨ Silicon: Computer chips Malachite: Ore of copper and a gemstone Quartz: Source of silicon used in making computer chips Galena: Ore of lead Gemstones! Minerals: Why Care? Other reasons: ➨ Rocks inform us about geologic hazards, such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes etc., enabling us to make better decisions about how we interact with the Earth and use its resources (e.g siting and designing buildings) ➨ Rocks hold important clues for understanding processes of weathering and erosion This information can help us use the Earth’s resources more effectively (e.g extraction of mineral and petroleum resources, soil conservation, degradation of concrete structures, etc.) ➨ Rocks enable us to understand our past & place our lives in proper evolutionary context Understanding Matter… To understand minerals we need to understand matter and how it is organized The three states of matter: ▼ Solid ▼ Liquid ▼ Gas States of Matter Solids-Atoms and molecules organized into fixed structures with a defined shape (crystals, glass, plastics) Atoms move (vibrate) even in a solid! Just limited in a solid Liquids-Fluid mixtures of atoms and molecules existing as charged atoms or molecules (e.g “ions”) Atoms in solutions can form loose associations with each through transient electronic “bonds” However, the liquid lacks a fixed structure, like that seen in most solids Gases-Fluids in which atoms and molecules are in rapid motion, freely moving about with no fixed structure Gases expand to fill the available space Isotopes: Atoms that vary in the number of neutrons in the nucleus Again… mass variations of the same element are called “isotopes” Many isotopes are unstable, and disintegrate through a process called radioactive decay where particles and/or energy are emitted from the nucleus Example: Carbon-14 14 C is unstable The rate of radioactive disintegration is constant, so they can be used as a kind of clock for dating rocks! Classifying the Elements Let’s review using Carbon as an example: ●Number of protons determines the type of atom protons = carbon ● Number of neutrons in an atom can vary ● Number of neutrons plus the number of protons equals the atomic “mass” How we write it ●Here are the three isotopes of Carbon: protons & neutrons: mass number = 12 C protons & neutrons: mass number = 13 C protons & neutrons: mass number = 14 C 12 13 14 Elements are classified by the number of protons in the nucleus (I.e., their atomic number) Periodic table of the elements equals # of protons => protons Classifying the Elelemnts 112 known elements Only 92 occur naturally Classifying the Elements You’ve heard of many of these elements, for example: Helium Hydrogen Oxygen Aluminum Iron Calcium Titanium Gold Ions: Charged Atoms Atoms that lose or gain electrons develop a charge When atoms give away or gain electrons, they are no longer electrically neutral In other words, They take on an electrical charge Any atom possessing a charge is called an “ion” Atoms with a positive charge are called “cations” Those with a negative charge are called “anions” Making Minerals ~ 4000 minerals on Earth! ● Different elements combine to make chemical compounds… Example 1: water (2 hydrogen atoms + oxygen atom = H2O) Example 2: salt (1 sodium atom + chlorine atom = NaCl) Minerals are naturally-occurring compounds that are classified by their: ◆ Chemical composition ◆ Internal (“atomic”) structure Example: Quartz Quartz contains: silicon (Si) and oxygen (O) element name Chemical formula for quartz is: SiO2 symbol What are minerals? Definition of a mineral: -> To be considered a mineral, it must: Occur naturally Be inorganic Be a solid Possess an orderly internal structure Have a defined chemical composition Making Compounds ✦ Atomic Bonding How different elements combine to form compounds? => By bonding between atoms! main ways: “Ionic bonding” - loaning electrons “Covalent bonding” - sharing electrons “Metallic bonding” - electrons are free to move about from atom to atom Atomic Bonding ✦ Ionic Bonding Example: Table Salt: Sodium (Na) and Chlorine (Cl) Sodium gives up an electron becoming a positively-charged charged cation Chlorine picks up the electron from Sodium taking becoming a negatively charged anion The atoms bond based on these charge differences Ionic Bonding Example: Sodium (Na) and Chlorine (Cl) Atoms arrange in orderly fashion: w/ alternating sodium and chlorine atoms, so each negative ion is surrounded by positive ions, and visa versa Crystal Form Reflects Internal Structure Example: Sodium (Na) and Chlorine (Cl) Such orderly arrangement at the atomic level produces specific shapes in crystals at the macroscopic level that reflect the atomic structure The structure of minerals depends on: ◆ Size of the ions involved ◆ Electrical charge of the ions involved Crystal Form Reflects the Internal Arrangement of Atoms [...]... of minerals Atoms, elements and compounds: Building blocks of minerals (See Science Toolbox 5.1, page 112 of text) •Elements: Different types of atoms that, in their pure form, cannot be divided into other smaller units without changing their properties •Atom: Smallest division of an element, that still possesses the chemical properties unique to the element •Compounds: Two or more atoms bonded together... review using Carbon as an example: ●Number of protons determines the type of atom 6 protons = carbon ● Number of neutrons in an atom can vary ● Number of neutrons plus the number of protons equals the atomic “mass” How we write it ●Here are the three isotopes of Carbon: 6 protons & 6 neutrons: mass number = 12 C 6 protons & 7 neutrons: mass number = 13 C 6 protons & 8 neutrons: mass number = 14 C 12 13... electrical charge Any atom possessing a charge is called an “ion” Atoms with a positive charge are called “cations” Those with a negative charge are called “anions” Making Minerals ~ 4000 minerals on Earth! ● Different elements combine to make chemical compounds… Example 1: water (2 hydrogen atoms + 1 oxygen atom = H2O) Example 2: salt (1 sodium atom + 1 chlorine atom = NaCl) Minerals are naturally-occurring... thought of as a proton bound to an electron A single atom ons r t u ne protons electrons Orbiting the nucleus are electrons having essentially no mass ands a negative charge Understanding Matter… A simple “ Bohr” model for a single atom: T&L: Figure 2.4 A Structure of an Atom .in reality Nucleus of protons and neutrons T&L: Figure 2.4 B Types of Atoms and Elements Number of protons in the nucleus... nucleus of an element is called Its atomic number Model of one atom nucleus Elements are distinguished from each other by their atomic number Examples: All Helium atoms have 2 protons “ Carbon “ “ Uranium “ “ 6 “ 92 “ “ Isotopes: Same element, different mass Mass Variations in Elements: ● The number of protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus defines the atomic mass of the element ●However,... protons in the nucleus (I.e., their atomic number) Periodic table of the elements equals # of protons 6 => 6 protons Classifying the Elelemnts 112 known elements Only 92 occur naturally Classifying the Elements You’ve heard of many of these elements, for example: Helium Hydrogen Oxygen Aluminum Iron Calcium Titanium Gold Ions: Charged Atoms Atoms that lose or gain electrons develop a charge When atoms... defined chemical composition Making Compounds ✦ Atomic Bonding How do different elements combine to form compounds? => By bonding between atoms! 3 main ways: “Ionic bonding” - loaning electrons “Covalent bonding” - sharing electrons “Metallic bonding” - electrons are free to move about from atom to atom Atomic Bonding ✦ Ionic Bonding Example: Table Salt: Sodium (Na) and Chlorine (Cl) Sodium gives up... atoms of the same element, or combinations of several different elements Understanding Matter… What is an atom? An atom is made up of: -A nucleus: Central region of atom where most of the mass resides Comprised of protons and neutrons -Orbiting electrons: High-speed nearly “massless” particles of negative charge which orbit the nucleus electrons nucleus Understanding Matter… Nucleus contains: Protons... differ slightly in mass because of having different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus ●These “species”of elements are called isotopes Isotopes: Atoms that vary in the number of neutrons in the nucleus Again… mass variations of the same element are called “isotopes” Many isotopes are unstable, and disintegrate through a process called radioactive decay where particles and/or energy are emitted from... composition ◆ Internal (“atomic”) structure Example: Quartz Quartz contains: silicon (Si) and oxygen (O) element name Chemical formula for quartz is: SiO2 symbol What are minerals? Definition of a mineral: -> To be considered a mineral, it must: 1 Occur naturally 2 Be inorganic 3 Be a solid 4 Possess an orderly internal structure 5 Have a defined chemical composition Making Compounds ✦ Atomic Bonding How do
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