Course introduction

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Geology 101 ✸ Instructor: Prof Jack D Farmer jfarmer@asu.edu PSF-550 965-6748 Office hours: MWF pm-4 pm ✸ TA: Aurora Hinckley (480) 965-5175 email: Aurora.Hinckley@asu.edu Office & hours: Please announce in class ✸ Website: http://geology.asu.edu/jfarmer/g_stu_1.html Today: Course Overview ✸ Why are we here? ✸ A few ground rules… ✸ Stuff about me ✸ Tools for succeeding in Geology 101 ✸ Course exams & grading ✸ Overarching goals for this course ✸ Prelude: What is Geology? OUR COURSE’S WEBSITE http://geology.asu.edu/jfarmer/g_stu_1.html Note: NO “www”!!! GROUND RULES ● Read the textbook - Cover-to-cover, see Syllabus on Web page for weekly assignments ● Attend lectures - Hear topical overviews & ask questions - Do in-class assignments & turn in & pick up HW - Exams, quizzes & extra credit opportunities ● In-class quizzes - ~ Seven quizzes, each given after we complete a major - Will be announced the class before ● In-class exercises and homework assignments - Exercises weekly & homework every other week GROUND RULES Required by all students: While in lecture, please DO NOT:  Forget to turn off cell phones  Read and rustle newspapers  Talk and have conversations  Sleep uncontrollably, endangering yourself and others  Break ASU rules/laws (e.g Don’t cheat, smoke, chew tobacco, spit., etc.) GROUND RULES Required by all students: While in the lecture, please DO:  Ask questions when anything is not clear  Engage in the discussions  Fully participate in in-class exercises Geology is great! Have fun with it! WHY YOU ARE HERE Top Five Reasons: ◆You absolutely LOVE geology ◆You need a science credit to graduate & think geology is easier than physics &/or need it NOW to graduate (We feel your pain) ◆Just curious, it seemed like it might be cool ◆There was an ASU registrar computer glitch (Again, we feel your pain) ◆You have absolutely no idea ABOUT ME ◆ I’m an ASU Professor in the Dept of Geological Sciences and a geobiologist by training and inclination I teach 2-3 classes/year & conduct research in geobiology, with applications to planetary exploration ◆ I am Director of ASU’s Astrobiology Program ◆ I love interacting with students and thrive on field work ◆I am actively involved with exploring the planet Mars and am a member of quite a few NASA advisory committees as well as the Mars Exploration Rover team, a mission that will launch to Mars this June ◆ I teach GLG101 every 3-4 years, and in between, other courses having to with geobiology, sedimentary processes and Astrobiology Ah! Mars… GEOLOGY 101 TOOLS Geology 101 Learning Tools: Book - Earth: Portrait of a Planet-Stephen Marshak - An excellent, up to date review of field - Nicely-illustrated with good study aids How to study - Read the chapters before lectures - Review class presentations afterwards: - Course website: http:// - Ask questions in class - Check for terms in glossary given at end of text - Science Toolbox sections develop specific concepts - Interlude sections introduce larger topics - Study guide Use the book’s Website to: - Reinforce concepts - Check knowledge by taking sample quizzes - See Geology in the news Use the Portrait of a Planet CDROM - Useful visualization tools Prelude: Box P-1 Science Toolbox Text pages 9-10 Nature of scientific inquiry Basic Concepts: ✦ Scientific method ✦Observation ✦ Hypothesis ✦ Test ✦ Scientific “certainty” ✦ Paradigms and the nature of scientific revolutions ✦ Theory Nature of scientific inquiry Science is based on: assumption that the natural world behaves in a consistent & predictable manner Goals of science: understand underlying patterns in nature (from careful observations/measurements) form hypotheses that lead to predictions Nature of scientific inquiry Scientific method gathering information through careful observation to formulate hypotheses and theories note: involves insight and creativity to break free from conditioned accepted views Nature of scientific inquiry Four basic steps: 1) collect the facts (observation/measurement) 2) develop hypothesis (one or more) 3) test hypothesis 4) accept/modify/reject Nature of scientific inquiry Process begins with Observation! Formulation of Hypotheses: Construction of a tentative (untested) explanation for something observed Value of multiple working hypotheses Testing hypotheses Evaluate explanatory power Certainty in science and the nature of scientific proof Science has been described as the orderly accumulation of rejected hypotheses Nature of scientific inquiry Theory - well-tested/widely accepted hypothesis that “acceptably” predicts observed facts - also: explains additional observations not used originally to form theory - predictive power - still testable and subject to disproof! Geology: The study of the Earth and its systems You are here! Prelude: Earth Systems ✦ Atmosphere ✦ Hydrosphere ✦ Cryosphere ✦ Solid Earth ✦ Biosphere Atmosphere Blanket of gases surrounding the Earth ● Protection from Sun’s heat & UV rays ● Weather: due to exchange of energy between Earth’s surface & atmosph between atmosph & outer space ● Strongly interacts w/ surface Hydrosphere Water portion of Earth ● Oceans (most prominent) 71% of surface of Earth ● Streams, lakes, glaciers, underground water ● Atmosphere Cryosphere Icy portion of Earth’s crust ● Glaciers ● Permafrost and ground ice ● Polar ice caps ● Frozen polar seas Biosphere Earth’s Ecosystems ● Earth’s surface and subsurface to depths of a few kilometers ● Life occupies an extreme range of environments ● Life strongly interacts with the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the solid earth (these interactions are called ecology!) Prelude: Earth’s internal structure distinct divisions: crust Oceanic 0-6 km (“young”, < 180 m.y.) Continental 0-34 km (older, up to 3.8 b.y.) mantle Upper 34-670 km Lower 670-2900 km core Outer (liquid) 2900-5160 km Inner (solid) 5160-6370 km Solid Earth ●Interior of the Earth is losing heat ●Primary source of heat: Radioactive decay ●Heat loss drives convection, based on density differences ●Hotter stuff is lighter and rises ●Cooler stuff is denser and sinks Prelude: Plate Tectonics Earth’s dynamic interior and crust ✦ Heat loss drives plate tectonics ✦Three types of plate boundaries [...]... and give a 2-3 minute summary to the class 3 Geology songs/poems Write a rap/poem/song that conveys geologic concepts for that part of course 4 In-class demos Devise a practical in-class demo for a specific topic GOALS FOR GLG101 ● ASU Course catalog says: GLG 101 Introduction to Geology I (Physical) Basic principles of geology, geochemistry, and geophysics Rocks, minerals, weathering, earthquakes,... provided it is on a topic drawn from the content for that part of the course This must be arranged ahead of time and the topic must be approved by the instructor The term paper will be due the day of the exam for which it is being substituted You will still be responsible for any major topical areas that are covered from that part of the course on subsequent exams EXAMS & GRADING Extra credit opportunities... Geology 101 Exams: 1 There will be three Exams -In class, 1-hour, 100 points each -One for each major section of course -See web page for more information 2 Review outline -Will be handed out before exams -Will provide a list of topics that will be covered 3 Final Exam -Covers last section of course, but all exams may call on basic concepts presented earlier 4 In class quizzes - Multiple choice, matching... Geology on a personal level and try to apply what you are learning - Think about how the concepts you are learning apply in your everyday life as you walk around on planet Earth! Our book’s chapters & course organization GEOLOGY 101 TOOLS PRELUDE: What is Geology? “CONTEXT” SECTION 1 Cosmology & Birth of the Earth 2 Journey to the Center of the Earth 3 Drifting continents and spreading seas 4 The way... from the inferno: Magma and igneous rocks 7 A surface veneer: Sedimentary rocks 8 Change in the solid state: Metamorphic rocks INTERLUDE B: The rock cycle Midterm I (February 28) Our book’s chapters & course organization GEOLOGY 101 TOOLS “INTERNAL PROCESSES” SECTION 9 The wrath of Vulcan: Volcanic eruptions 10 The violent pulse: Earthquakes INTERLUDE C: Seeing inside the Earth 11 Cracks, crags and... and Evolution 12 Deep time: How old is old? 13 A biography of the Earth 14 Squeezing power from a stone: Energy Resources 15 Riches in rocks: Mineral resources Midterm 2 (April 7) Our book’s chapters & course organization GEOLOGY 101 TOOLS “EXTERNAL PROCESSES” SECTION INTERLUDE E: Ever changing landscapes and the hydrologic cycle 16 Unsafe ground: Landslides and other mass movements 17 Streams and floods:... interact to produce what we see ◆ GOALS FOR GLG101 You will be learning a new language! Geology is a broad, interdisciplinary science with a rich vocabulary The terminology we will use throughout this course will require that you learn a new language We will all work together to find ways to become familiar with this vocabulary and the ideas it is designed to convey But more is needed than simply memorizing
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