Slide semantic meeting 8

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Semantics Meeting Section1: Word Meaning 2.1.4 Ambiguity Ex1: We watched the hunters with binoculars S V O Adv We watched the hunters with binoculars S V O Adj Section1: Word Meaning 2.14.1 Structural ambiguity NP S PRO VP NP PRO VP V S VP V AdvP NP NP AdjP NP PP We watch the hunters with binoculars We watch the hunters with binoculars Section1: Word Meaning  A sentence is considered as structurally ambiguous when its structure permits more than one interpretation 2.14.1 Lexical ambiguity Ex2: They were waiting at the bank They were waiting at the financial institution bank = a homonym They were waiting at the shore of the river Ex3: That robot is bright That robot is shining That robot is intelligent bright = a polysemous word Section1: Word Meaning  Any ambiguity resulting from the ambiguity of a word is lexical ambiguity  Both polysemy and homonymy contribute to lexical ambiguity Exercise 20,p.83 The long DRILL is boring - The long tool for drilling MAKES me bored/tired - The long TRAINING EXERCISE is uninteresting When he got the clear title to the land, it WAS a good deed - When he got the clear title to the land, it WAS a good act - When he got the clear title to the land, it WAS a great achievement The proprietor of the fish store WAS the sole owner - The proprietor of the fish store WAS the only owner - The proprietor of the fish store WAS single/unmarried Exercise 20,p.83 We like the ball - I like the sphere - I like the formal social gathering for dancing They PASSED the port at night - They WENT BY the harbour at night - They DELIVERED the Portuguese wine at night The captain CORRECTED the list - The captain CORRECTED the tilt - The captain CORRECTED the inventory Exercise 20,p.83 He WAS KNOCKED OVER by the punch - He WAS KNOCKED OVER because of a blow given with the fist - He WAS KNOCKED OVER near/beside the machine for cutting holes in leather,metal,paper etc The camel SWALLOWED the chocolate and then ate it - The camel GULPED the chocolate down and then ate it - The camel easily BELIEVED something to be chocolate and then ate it Exercise 21,p.84 (1) She cannot bear children - She cannot give birth to - She cannot tolerate children Bear = a homonym (2) The cat sat on the mat - The cat sat on a piece of material, made of straw, fibre,rushes etc used to cover part of a floor - The cat sat on a small piece of material placed under a hot dish, glass, a vase, etc mat = a polysemous word Exercise 22,p.84 They were waiting at the financial institution (bank1) bank = a homonym They were waiting at the shore of the river (bank2) Homonyms can create lexical ambiguity Exercise 23,p.84 That robot is shining (bright1) bright = a polysemous word That robot is intelligent (bright2) A polysemous word can create lexical ambiguity EXERCISE 24,p.85 S NP VP V NP 1(a) The drunkard visitor ROLLED UP the carpet EXERCISE 24,p85 S NP VP VP AdvP V PP 1(b) The drunkard visitor ROLLED up the carpet EXERCISE 24,p.85 2(a) Is he really that kind? that = a demonstrative adjective = Does he really belong to that kind of people? 2(b) Is he really that kind? That is an adverb of degree meaning ‘to such a degree’ = Is he really so kind? 3(a) My financee is reserved reserved = a past participle, part of the finite verb is reserved = My financee is kept only for me 3(b) My financee is reserved Reserved = an adjective = quiet = My financee rarely talks EXERCISE 24,p.86 4(a) I SAW her slip slip (n) = petticoat; loose sleeveless garment worn under a dress = I SAW the petticoat that belongs to her 4(b) I SAW her slip slip (v) = loose one’s balance = I saw her lose her balance and nearly fall 5(a) We SAW her duck duck(n) = domestic water bird = We SAW the domestic water bird that belongs to her 5(b) We SAW her duck duck(v) = move one’s head down quickly, to avoid being seen or hit = We SAW her lower her head EXERCISE 24,p.86 6(a) They ARE COOKING bananas cooking = a present participle = Bananas are cooked 6(b) They ARE cooking bananas cooking = a gerund = They are bananas for cooking 7(a) They ARE MOVING sidewalks moving = a present participle = The sidewalks are moved 7(b) They ARE MOVING sidewalks moving = a gerund = They are the sidewalks for moving EXERCISE 24,p.86-87 8(a) John LOVES Richard more than Martha (LOVES Richard) 8(b) John LOVES Richard more than (he LOVES) Martha 9(a) Old men and women WILL BE SERVED first = We first serve the men who are old and all of the women 9b) Old men and women WILL BE SERVED first = We first serve the men and women who are old 10(a) The thing that bothered Bill WAS CROUCHING under the table = Bill was annoyed by the thing that was crouching under the table 10(b) The thing that bothered Bill WAS CROUCHING under the table = it was crouching under the table that annoyed Bill Section1: Word Meaning 2.15 Anomaly EX: That bachelor is pregnant Bachelor [ +male] ; pregnant [ + female] Anomaly is “ violation of semantic rules to create nonsense” EXERCISE 25,p.88 Christopher is killing phonemes Killing [ + living organism] ; phoneme [ non-living thing] semantically anomalous My brother is a spinster spinster [ + female] ; brother [ + male ] semantically anomalous The boy swallowed the chocolate and then chewed it wrong order  chewed the chocolate first and then swallowed it EXERCISE 25,p.89 Babies can lift one ton babies [ + young, - strong]; how can they lift one ton  semantically anomalous Puppies are human puppies [ + animate, - human]  semantically anomalous My unmarried sister is married to a bachelor unmarried sister & bachelor [ + single, - husband/wife]  semantically anomalous EXERCISE 25,p.89 The bigger key and John opened the door The bigger key [ + instrument, - agent] James sliced the ideas ideas [ + abstract notion]; slice [ + tomato, +sausage ]  semantically anomalous Jack’s courage chewed the bones  Jack’s courage [ + abstract notion, - chew]  semantically anomalous EXERCISE 25,p.89 10 I hear the cloud hear [ + audible]; cloud [-audible]  semantically anomalous 11.The tiger remained alive for an hour after the hunter killed it  semantically anomalous; The tiger died right at the moment the hunter killed it EXERCISE 26,p.90 Christopher is killing him My brother is a bachelor The boy chewed the chocolate and then swallowed it EXERCISE 25,p.90 This crane can lift one ton Puppies are not human My unmarried sister will be married to a bachelor EXERCISE 25,p.89 John opened the door with the bigger key James sliced the tomatoes Jack chewed the bones EXERCISE 25,p.89 10 I hear the piece of news already 11.The tiger remained alive for an hour after the hunter injured it [...]... violation of semantic rules to create nonsense” EXERCISE 25,p .88 1 Christopher is killing phonemes Killing [ + living organism] ; phoneme [ non-living thing] semantically anomalous 2 My brother is a spinster spinster [ + female] ; brother [ + male ] semantically anomalous 3 The boy swallowed the chocolate and then chewed it wrong order  chewed the chocolate first and then swallowed it EXERCISE 25,p .89 4... strong]; how can they lift one ton  semantically anomalous 5 Puppies are human puppies [ + animate, - human]  semantically anomalous 6 My unmarried sister is married to a bachelor unmarried sister & bachelor [ + single, - husband/wife]  semantically anomalous EXERCISE 25,p .89 7 The bigger key and John opened the door The bigger key [ + instrument, - agent] 8 James sliced the ideas ideas [ + abstract... [ + abstract notion]; slice [ + tomato, +sausage ]  semantically anomalous 9 Jack’s courage chewed the bones  Jack’s courage [ + abstract notion, - chew]  semantically anomalous EXERCISE 25,p .89 10 I hear the cloud hear [ + audible]; cloud [-audible]  semantically anomalous 11.The tiger remained alive for an hour after the hunter killed it  semantically anomalous; The tiger died right at the moment... her head EXERCISE 24,p .86 6(a) They ARE COOKING bananas cooking = a present participle = Bananas are cooked 6(b) They ARE cooking bananas cooking = a gerund = They are bananas for cooking 7(a) They ARE MOVING sidewalks moving = a present participle = The sidewalks are moved 7(b) They ARE MOVING sidewalks moving = a gerund = They are the sidewalks for moving EXERCISE 24,p .86 -87 8( a) John LOVES Richard...EXERCISE 24,p .85 S NP VP V NP 1(a) The drunkard visitor ROLLED UP the carpet EXERCISE 24,p85 S NP VP VP AdvP V PP 1(b) The drunkard visitor ROLLED up the carpet EXERCISE 24,p .85 2(a) Is he really that kind? that = a demonstrative adjective = Does he really belong to that kind of people? 2(b) Is... swallowed it EXERCISE 25,p.90 4 This crane can lift one ton 5 Puppies are not human 6 My unmarried sister will be married to a bachelor EXERCISE 25,p .89 7 John opened the door with the bigger key 8 James sliced the tomatoes 9 Jack chewed the bones EXERCISE 25,p .89 10 I hear the piece of news already 11.The tiger remained alive for an hour after the hunter injured it ... reserved = a past participle, part of the finite verb is reserved = My financee is kept only for me 3(b) My financee is reserved Reserved = an adjective = quiet = My financee rarely talks EXERCISE 24,p .86 4(a) I SAW her slip slip (n) = petticoat; loose sleeveless garment worn under a dress = I SAW the petticoat that belongs to her 4(b) I SAW her slip slip (v) = loose one’s balance = I saw her lose her... participle = The sidewalks are moved 7(b) They ARE MOVING sidewalks moving = a gerund = They are the sidewalks for moving EXERCISE 24,p .86 -87 8( a) John LOVES Richard more than Martha (LOVES Richard) 8( b) John LOVES Richard more than (he LOVES) Martha 9(a) Old men and women WILL BE SERVED first = We first serve the men who are old and all of the women 9b) Old men and women WILL BE SERVED first = We
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