Slide semantic meeting 7

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Semantics Meeting Section1: Word Meaning 2.12 Homonymy EX1: I go to the bank (1) to loan money  a financial institution EX2: She often sits at the bank (2) of the river in her hometown  the shore of a river  bank (1) & (2): same sounds? + same written forms? + different meanings? = homonyms  Homonymy is a relation in which various words have the same ( sound and written) forms but have different meanings Section1: Word Meaning 2.12.1 Homophony EX3: hour = a twenty-four part of a day and night our = belonging to us /‘auә(r)/ “hour” & “our” : same sounds? + different meanings? + different written forms? = homophones  Homophony is a relation in which various words have the same sound form but have different meanings and written forms Section1: Word Meaning 2.12.2 Homography EX4: Does this road lead to town? /li:d/ (v) EX5: Lead is a heavy metal /led/ (n)  lead (v) & lead (n): different sounds? + same written forms? + different meanings? = homographs  Homography is a relation in which various words have the same written form but have different meanings and sound forms Section1: Word Meaning + : the same - : different Written form Sound form Meaning Antonymy - - - Synonymy - - + Homonymy + + - Homophony - + - Homography + - - Exercise 17,p.75-76 altar / ‘Ɔ:ltә(r)/ alter boar bore /bƆ: (r)/ beech / bi:tʃ/ beach coarse / kƆ:s/ course crews / kru:z/ cruise deer dear / diә(r) / draft / dra:ft/ draught fare fair / feә(r)/ flour / ‘fla‫ט‬ә(r) / flower 10 grate great / greit / Exercise 17,p.75-76 11 herd / hз:d/ heard 12 knight night / nai:t/ 13 nose /nә‫ט‬z/ knows 14 leek leak / li:k/ 15 maid / meid/ made 16 pail pale / peil / 17 reign rain 18 scene seen / si:n/ 20 whole hole / hә‫ט‬l/ / rein/ 19 thrown / θrә‫ט‬n / throne Exercise 18,p.76-77 lie (1) = tell lies / lai / lie (2) = put one’s body on a horizontal surface bat (1) = the small mouse-like animal that flies at night and feeds on fruit and insects / bæt/ bat (2) = a tool for hitting in baseball too (1) = more than it should be too (2) = also / tu:/ might (n) = great strength or power might (v) = possibility / mait/ Exercise 18,p.76-77 bare (a) = without the usual covering or protection / beә(r) / bare (v) = uncover or reveal (something) sound (n) = things can be heard sound (a) = healthy or in good condition / sa‫ט‬nd/ lead (v) = Does this road lead to town? lead (n) = He’s the chief trouble-maker The others just follow his lead / li:d/ Exercise 19,p.77-78 true - false binary antonymy pupil = at a school gloom - darknesssynonymy homonymy pupil = of an eye dark = a dark room polysemy dark = don’t look on the dark side of things wind = The wind is blowing hard homography wind = wind one’s watch cheap - expensive deny - admit binary antonymy gradable antonymy host - guest relational antonymy 10 coarse - course sow = sow a field with wheat homophony homography sow = a female pig Section1: Word Meaning 2.13 Polysemy EX6: chip (n): a small piece of some hard substance which has been broken off from something larger: a chip of wood/glass a small cut piece of potato which is fried for eating: Can I try one of your chips? a small but vital piece of a computer: this computer has got a faster chip than the old one 03 meanings = related together = small piece? chip = a polesymous word  Polysemy is a relation in which a single word has two or more slightly different but closely related meanings Section1: Word Meaning * How to distinguish polysemy and homonymy? EX7: I go to the bank (1) /bæŋk/ to loan money EX8: She often sits at the bank (2) /bæŋk/ of the river in her hometown bank (1) & bank (2) = same written form? = same sound form? = completely different meanings? = 02 meanings/not related? homonyms Section1: Word Meaning * How to distinguish polysemy and homonymy? EX9: chip (n): a small piece of some hard substance which has been broken off from something larger: a chip of wood/glass a small cut piece of potato which is fried for eating: Can I try one of your chips? a small but vital piece of a computer: this computer has got a faster chip than the old one 03 meanings of “chip” = same written form? = same sound form? = slightly different meanings? = 03 meanings/related? polysemy Section1: Word Meaning * How to distinguish polysemy and homonymy? 1/ Do words from a polysemous word have the same spellings? 2/ Do homonyms have the same spellings? 3/ Can we use spelling to distinguish a polysemy and homonymy? Section1: Word Meaning * How to distinguish polysemy and homonymy? bank (1) = financial institute (derive from Anglo-Saxon roots) bank (2) = shore of river ( has a Scandinavian origin) Do bank (1) and bank (2) have the same origin of words? Therefore, words with the different origins often are homonyms What about polysemous words, they have the same origin? In contrast, words with the same origin often are polysemy Can we use the origins of words (ETYMOLOGY) to distinguish polysemy and homonymy? Section1: Word Meaning * How to distinguish polysemy and homonymy? Ex10 plain (a) = clear or easy = undecorated = simple (a) # complex (a) plain = a polysemous word Ex11 sound (n) = things can be heard sound (a) = healthy or in good condition * Can you find any antonyms or synonyms for “sound” (n) and “ sound” (a)? So, “sound” (n) and “ sound” (a) are two homonyms * Can you use antonyms and synonyms to distinguish polysemy and homonymy? Section1: Word Meaning * How to distinguish polysemy and homonymy? Ex11 plain (a) = clear or easy (1) = undecorated (2) meaning (1) & meaning (2): related, both mean no complexity So, plain = a polysemous word Ex12 sound (n) = things can be heard (1) sound (a) = healthy or in good condition (2) Meaning (1) & meaning (2): unrelated meanings So, “sound” (n) and “ sound” (v) are two homonyms * Can you use commonality to distinguish polysemy and homonymy? [...]... a polesymous word  Polysemy is a relation in which a single word has two or more slightly different but closely related meanings Section1: Word Meaning * How to distinguish polysemy and homonymy? EX7: I go to the bank (1) /bæŋk/ to loan money EX8: She often sits at the bank (2) /bæŋk/ of the river in her hometown bank (1) & bank (2) = same written form? = same sound form? = completely different meanings?
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