Slide semantic meeting 6

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Semantics Meeting Section1: Word Meaning 2.10 Synonymy EX1: hide = conceal ?  Keep somebody/something from being seen or know about EX2: kind = type = sort = variety ? A group having similar characteristics  Synonymy is a relation in which various words have different( written and sound) forms but have the same or nearly the same meaning Section1: Word Meaning True synonymy vs partial synonymy Ex3: movie = film = flick= motion picture? Do they have the same Do they have the same referents in the real world? denotative meanings? Do they have the same connotative meanings? Movie : American English Motion picture : outdated word movie classics Film : British English Flick : used in very informal contexts art movies  movie, film, flick & motion picture: not true synonyms Section1: Word Meaning True synonymy vs partial synonymy Ex4: fast = quick = rapid?  Are they synonyms? - He is a fast/quick/rapid runner ( someone’s running speed) # A fast talker; one who is able to get out of trouble by talking clever # A quick talker; one who usually talks in a rapid manner - Some people may lead their lives in the fast lane not in the rapid/quick lane - He has a quick mind not a rapid/fast mind - He gave her a quick glance not a rapid/a fast glance Tom has made rapid strides in his math this term ( metaphor)  fast, quick & rapid: not true synonyms Section1: Word Meaning True synonymy vs partial synonymy 1a You have my deep sympathy = 1b You have my profound sympathy 2a.The river is very deep at this point # 2b The river is very profound at this point “deep” (1a) denotative meaning or connotative meaning? “deep” (2a) denotative meaning or connotative meaning? “profound” (1b) denotative meaning or connotative meaning? “profound” (2b) the denotative meaning or connotative meaning?  ”deep” (1a) = “profound” (1b) ; “deep” (2a) # “ profound” (2b)  “deep” & “ profound” are partial synonyms Section1: Word Meaning True synonymy vs partial synonymy Partial synonymy is a relation in which a polysemous word shares one of its meanings with another word Partial synonymy leads to collocations: a bunch of keys a herd of sheep a school of ants a flock of birds a group of teachers a gang of thieves etc Exercise 11,p.65 1/ strong/powerful (a) There are strong/powerful arguments for and against capital punishment (b) He loves strong coffee 2/ ripe / mature (a) This cheese is ripe/mature enough for us to eat (b) We cannot eat this fruit because it isn’t ripe yet Exercise 11,p.66 3/ broad/wide (a) The Thames is a broad/wide river (b) My boss is not broad-minded 4/ soil / earth (a) We can plant the trees on this good soil/earth (b) The rocket fell back to earth Exercise 11,p.66 5/ edge/side (a) This house is at the edge/side of the forest (b) I will be on your side 6/ permit / allow (a) Smoking is not permitted/allowed in this area (b) It is not permitted to smoke in this area Exercise 12,p.66 1/ deep (a) This is a deep well = Deep means extending a long way from top to bottom (b) He only gave a deep sigh = Deep means taking in or going out a lot of air (c) You have my deep sympathy = Deep means profound (d) With his hands deep in his pockets, he went away = Deep means far down in something  The third meaning of deep is synonymous with profound Exercise 12,p.66 2/ broad (a) This river is very broad at this point = Broad means wide or large in size from one side to the others (b) He just gave a broad smile = Broad means clear, obvious or unmistakable (c) Luckily, my boss is a man of broad views = Broad means liberal, tolerant (d) He speaks English with a broad Yorkshire accent = Broad means having many sounds typical of a particular region  The first meaning of broad is synonymous with wide Section1: Word Meaning 2.11 Antonymy EX5: pass # fail ? hot # cold? thinner # fatter ? EX6: true # false ? big # small? buy # sell ?  Antonymy is a relation in which two words have different ( written and sound) forms and are opposite in meaning Section1: Word Meaning Classification Binary antonymy vs gradable antonymy EX7: not alive = dead not dead = alive EX8: He is more single/ married than his brother EX9: How single/how married is he?  “alive dead” and “single married” are two pairs of binary antonyms Binary antonymy is a relation in which two members of a pair of antonyms are … mutually exclusive not used in comparative & superlative sense not used in questions with ‘How’ to ask degree Section1: Word Meaning Classification Binary antonymy vs gradable antonymy EX10: hot cold  warm-tepid-cool  gradable EX11: wider less narrow ; more difficult less easy EX12: How difficult is the test?  hot cold and difficult easy are two pairs of gradable antonyms  Gradable antonymy is a relation in which two members of a in comparative & superlative sense pair of antonyms are used … used in questions with ‘How’ to ask degree Section1: Word Meaning Relational antonymy EX13: If Mr Brown is Jack’s employer, then Jack is Mr Brown’s employee EX14: If Jenny is thinner than Mary, then Marry is fatter than Jenny EX15: If John bought a car from Fred, then Fred sold a car to John employer employee ; thinner fatter; buy– sell  symmetry in their meaning  relational antonyms Relational antonymy = two members of a pair of relational antonyms display symmetry in their meaning Section1: Word Meaning Relational antonymy Relational antonyms belong to various word classes: Verbs: Nouns: buy sell employer employee give receive grandparent grandchild father/mother son/daughter Nouns: fiancé -fiancée import – export debtor creditor own – belong to, etc parent child/offspring landlord/landlady tenant professor student husband wife teacher – pupil uncle – aunt doctor patient uncle/aunt – nephew/niece lend borrow Section1: Word Meaning Relational antonymy Relational antonyms belong to various word classes: Comparative adjectives: Comparative adverbs: thinner fatter more efficiently less efficiently cheaper more expensive faster more slowly Prepositions: greater than less than above below in front of behind over under before after north of south of west of – east of Section1: Word Meaning Markedness  How light is it?  How short are you? Unmarkedness  How shallow is the canal?  How heavy is it?  How cheap is this bracelet?  How tall are you?  How badly can you speak English?  How deep is the canal?  How expensive is this bracelet?  How well can you speak English? Section1: Word Meaning Unmarkedness Markedness high low tall short heavy light far near expensive cheap hot cold long short wide narrow deep shallow difficult easy married single well badly Which column is marked/unmarked? Exercise 13,p.71 (1) chalk cheese (2) same different (3) copper tin N O YES N O (4) dead alive YES (5) married unmarried YES (6) cheap – expensive N O Exercise 14,p.71 (1) below above YES (4) grandparent – grandchild YES (2) love hate YES NO (3) conceal reveal N O (5) greater than– less than (6) own – belong to YES Exercise 15,p.71 (1) love– hate: love, like, be indifferent to, dislike, hate (2) hot cold : hot, warm, tepid, cool, cold (3) big small: big, rather big, medium sized, rather small, small (4) rich poor : rich, wealthy, meager, poor (5) none all : none,few, some, half, most, almost all, all (6) possibly certainly : possibly, probably, quite probably, almost certainly, certainly (7) never always : never, rarely, occasionally, sometimes, often, usually, always (1) good bad: G Exercise 16,p.72 (9) import export (2) pass fail : B :R (10) better than– worse than : R (3) deciduous evergreen : B (4) expensive cheap :G (5) parent offspring :R (6) beautiful ugly (7) false true :G : B (8) lessor lessee : R (11) easy difficult :G (12) hot cold :G (13) legal illegal :B (14) asleep awake (15) rude polite :B : G (16) husband wife : R [...]... most, almost all, all (6) possibly certainly : possibly, probably, quite probably, almost certainly, certainly (7) never always : never, rarely, occasionally, sometimes, often, usually, always (1) good bad: G Exercise 16, p.72 (9) import export (2) pass fail : B :R (10) better than– worse than : R (3) deciduous evergreen : B (4) expensive cheap :G (5) parent offspring :R (6) beautiful ugly (7)... cheese (2) same different (3) copper tin N O YES N O (4) dead alive YES (5) married unmarried YES (6) cheap – expensive N O Exercise 14,p.71 (1) below above YES (4) grandparent – grandchild YES (2) love hate YES NO (3) conceal reveal N O (5) greater than– less than (6) own – belong to YES Exercise 15,p.71 (1) love– hate: love, like, be indifferent to, dislike, hate (2) hot ...Exercise 12,p .66 2/ broad (a) This river is very broad at this point = Broad means wide or large in size from one side to the others (b) He just gave a broad smile = Broad means clear, obvious or unmistakable (c) Luckily,... Broad means having many sounds typical of a particular region  The first meaning of broad is synonymous with wide Section1: Word Meaning 2.11 Antonymy EX5: pass # fail ? hot # cold? thinner # fatter ? EX6: true # false ? big # small? buy # sell ?  Antonymy is a relation in which two words have different ( written and sound) forms and are opposite in meaning Section1: Word Meaning Classification Binary... offspring :R (6) beautiful ugly (7) false true :G : B (8) lessor lessee : R (11) easy difficult :G (12) hot cold :G (13) legal illegal :B (14) asleep awake (15) rude polite :B : G ( 16) husband wife : R
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