Slide semantic meeting 4

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Semantics Meeting minutes to review Figures of Speech- Simile & Metaphor Fill in the blanks with ‘Simile’ or ‘ Metaphor’ - The use of a word or phrase to - The use of comparison of one indicate something different thing with another is simile metaphor from the literal meaning is - Implicit comparison is used in - Explicit comparison is used in simile metaphor - No function words are used in - Function words are used in simile .metaphor - There was a storm in his family last night metaphor - Her life is as beautiful as a dream simile Section 2: Word Meaning Fill in the blanks with missing letters C H I L D H O O D This word refers to the time when you were young W O R L D This word refers to a lot of countries In English, can we use the following sentences? ‘The childhood of Mary was so good.’ ‘The childhood of the world was so good.’ Section 2: Word Meaning 2.8 Figures of speech (cont.) 2.8.1 Personification 2.8.2 Metonymy Section 2: Word Meaning 2.8.1 Personification Ex1.: cruel heat the deceitfulness of riches the childhood of the world human’s characteristic + abstract notion = personification inanimate thing Personification is a special kind of metaphor in which some human characteristic is attributed to an inanimate object or abstract notion is a lifeless thing or quality is stated as if it were living Can we use ‘The childhood of the world was so good.’? Section 2: Word Meaning 2.8.3 Metonymy Ex2:He drank the cup = the coffee, the tea, the chocolate, etc in the cup Ex3: He is the best pen of the day = the best writer What does “the cup” substitute for?  the coffee, the tea, the chocolate, et What does “the best pen” substitute for?  the best writer Metonymy What is Metonymy?  The substitution of the name of one thing for that of another to which it is related/with which it is associated is metonymy Section 2: Word Meaning * How to recognize a metonymy? (a) A sign substitutes for the person or the object it signifies or symbolizes Ex4: Can you protect your children from the cradle to the grave? signs childhood death Ex5: The new proposal might affect the cloth in some way the clergy Section 2: Word Meaning * How to recognize a metonymy? (b) An instrument substitutes for an agent Ex6: Who brought fire and sword into our country? a destructive war instruments Ex7: He is the best pen of the day the best writer Section 2: Word Meaning * How to recognize a metonymy? (c) A container substitutes for the thing contained Ex8: The kettle is boiling The water in the kettle containers Ex9: Why don’t you recognize the power of the purse? the money kept in the purse Section 2: Word Meaning * How to recognize a metonymy? (d) The concrete, like an organ of the human body substitutes for the abstract such as love, hatred, sincerity, mental ability, a natural talent, etc Ex10: She has an ear for music possesses a remarkable talent for learning, imitating, appreciating, etc music organs of the human body Ex11: She has a good head of business She is gifted in/is clever at dealing with business Exercise 8,p.50 11 Man does not live by bread alone  synecdoche  bread [+part]  necessaries/things needed for living [ + whole] 12 We now live under the same roof  synecdoche  roof [+part]  house [ + whole] 17 The captain was in charge of one hundred horses  metonymy  horses [+instrument]  soldiers fighting on horseback [+agent ] Exercise 8,p.52-53  synecdoche 24 It is amazing what a great mind he is  A great mind [+part]  an erudite scholar [ + whole ] = I am amazed by his intellectual power 28 I walked past the big sad mouth which didn’t know what to say then  mouth [+part]  person [ + whole ] = I passed by the talkative person who was then too upset to give an immediate response  synecdoche 30 Give every man thine ears, bid a few thy voice  metonymies  Give every man thine ears = listen to everyone bid a few thy voice = talk to only a few people = You should listen to everyone but talk to only a few people 39 His words can be trusted  metonymy His words = that person himself You can trust him 48 I am the captain of my soul  The captain [+ specific] = the leader [+ generic]  My soul [+ more abstract] = my life [ + less abstract]  metonymies = I can decide my own life or I can control myself Section 2: Word Meaning 2.8.5 Hyperbole Ex26: I’ve invited millions of people to my party overstatement a lot of Ex27: She sheds floods of tears whenever she is upset cried a lot Hyperbole, which is also called overstatement, is the use of “exaggerated statement that is made for special effect and is not meant to be taken literally Section 2: Word Meaning 2.8.6 Litotes Ex28: I don’t think I would agree with you I disagree with you using a negative Ex29: I am afraid that no passenger is allowed to smoke in here You are not allowed to smoke in here Litotes, which is also called meiosis, is the use of deliberately gentler, milder or weaker statements to express something in a controlled way Section 2: Word Meaning 2.8.7 Irony Ex30: What a lovely day Everything had went wrong ????? opposite Ex31: He is lucky to have such an ugly and awkward wife Irony is “the expression of one’s meaning by saying the direct opposite of one thoughts in order to be emphatic, amusing, sarcastic, etc.” Section 2: Word Meaning 2.8.8 Euphemism Ex32: morticians garbage man undertakers = Funeral engineer = Sanitation engineer “mortician” and “funeral engineer”, which one is more polite to hear? Euphemism is “ the use of pleasant, mild or indirect words or phrases in place of more accurate or direct ones” Section 2: Word Meaning * How to distinguish a taboo word and a euphemism? Ex33: love child = bastard “ love child” and “bastard”, which word is better to use?  euphemism  taboo word Notes: -A taboo word, a ‘dirty’ word, is the wrong or the linguistic expression that refers to a taboo act or behavior in a society, a culture or a speech community while a euphemism is the word or the linguistic expression that replaces a taboo word or serves to avoid a frightening or unpleasant subject - a taboo word and a euphemism share the same denotative meanings but differ in connotative meanings - the taboo word has a negative connotation whereas its euphemism has a positive connotation Section 2: Word Meaning 2.8.9 Onomatopoeia Ex34: Rain was dripping down from the trees Its steady drip kept me awake all night long Imitating sounds Ex35: We could hear the enemy guns booming in the distance  Onomatopoeia is the imitation of natural sounds by means of words or groups of words E.g cuckoo, pop, hiss etc Exercise 8,p.49 I found fifty-two pounds of books you left for me to carry Your kindness really moved me  irony  you were not kind to me at all When you take that course, plan to study thirty hours a day  overstatement  study thirty hours a day = study for a long time everyday Dick was fairly pleased when he won the brand-new car in the contest  fairly pleased = very pleased  irony Exercise 8,p.50 15 Keep overeating like that and pretty soon you’ll weigh a thousand pounds  Hyperbole  Weigh a thousand pound = get too fat 18 Joe cried a little when he lost the thousand dollars  irony  cried a little = cried a lot 19 You can depend on Gina; She is a rock when trouble comes  she>< rock She is strong-minded  metaphor 21 He’s so hardheaded that he won’t listen to anyone  dead metaphor  hardheaded= stubborn 22 Research says that these methods are best  personification  research[- animate,-human]  say [ + animate, + human] Research says = researchers say  research [+ controlled]  researcher [+ controller ] 23 Right at this minute, I could drink a barrel of water without stopping  A barrel of water = a lot of water  hyperbole Exercise 8,p.52-53 27 A thousand thanks are for your kindness  hyperbole  A thousand thanks = thank you very much for your kindness 29 We are tired to death of such movies  hyperbole tired to death = extremely bored with 32 I’m afraid he has misrepresented the facts He has misrepresented the facts = He has told lies  euphemism Exercise 8,p.54 33 He worked and worked until he breathed his last. euphemism  breathed his last = died 36 I’ve told you a thousand times not to touch that again  hyperbole a thousand times = more than one time Exercise 8,p.56 44 In 1940, after the fall of France, England had no defense left but her ancient valor  The fall of France = the failure of France  metaphor England = a woman who had no defense left but her former bravery in war  personification = after the failure of France in 1940, England could not defend herself against her war enemies 45 The fire snaps and crackles like a whip; its sharp acrid smoke stings the eyes It is the fire that drives a thorn of memory in my heart The fire snaps and crackles like a whip  a that of a whip  simile Smoke [ - human]  stings the eyes [ + human]  personification Fire [ - human]  drives a thorn in the heart [ + human] [...]... etc (2) 3/ A sign substitutes for the person or the object it signifies or symbolizes (2) 4/ It is a special kind of metaphor in which some human (1) characteristic is attributed to an inanimate object or abstract notion 5/ Some people feel bored with the deceitfulness of riches (1) Exercise 8-P .48 , item 5,6,10, 14 Interpret the meaning the following sentences and state what kind of figures of speech... US president [ + person] Exercise 8-P .48 , item 10, 14 Interpret the meaning the following sentences and state what kind of figures of speech used in each of them 10 If you are not happy with the service, go and talk to the City Hall  metonymy If you are not happy with the service, go and talk to the City’s Mayor  The City Hall [+sign] = City’s Mayor[ + person] 14 The river ate the bank away  ate the... wind howled angrily around the house all night 6 When the White House called, the ambassador went at once 10 If you are not happy with the service, go and talk to the City Hall 14 The river ate the bank away Exercise 8-P .48 , item 5,6 Interpret the meaning the following sentences and state what kind of figures of speech used in each of them 5 The wind howled angrily around the house all night  personification... connotation Section 2: Word Meaning 2.8.9 Onomatopoeia Ex 34: Rain was dripping down from the trees Its steady drip kept me awake all night long Imitating sounds Ex35: We could hear the enemy guns booming in the distance  Onomatopoeia is the imitation of natural sounds by means of words or groups of words E.g cuckoo, pop, hiss etc Exercise 8,p .49 2 I found fifty-two pounds of books you left for me to... and metonymy? NOTES: - Metaphor is based on the associated similarity shared by the two things being implicitly compared while metonymy does not depend on such similarity Section 2: Word Meaning 2.8 .4 Synecdoche a part or an aspect of a person Ex.20: Gray hairs should be respected = the whole person/object Old and elderly people Ex.21: This is a village of only more than one hundred souls people Synecdoche... experience] [ + abstract]  The hearts = metonymy a person [ + human] [ + concrete, + whole]  a kind heart = synecdoche Section 2: Word Meaning * How to distinguish between metonymy and synecdoche? Ex 24: spare the rod and spoil the child  If you do not punish a child when he Ex25: All hands on deck did help  All the people on one of the does wrong, you spoil his character floors of the ship worked... that are associated similar (1) each other are used in …… 2/ A part or aspect of a person, object, etc is meant to refer (3) to the whole person, object, etc 3/ The concrete stands for the abstract (2) 4/ The concrete stands for the concrete (3) 5/ Two implicitly compared things that are not associated similar each other are used in …… (2) Exercise 8,p.50 11 Man does not live by bread alone  synecdoche... synecdoche  roof [+part]  house [ + whole] 17 The captain was in charge of one hundred horses  metonymy  horses [+instrument]  soldiers fighting on horseback [+agent ] Exercise 8,p.52-53  synecdoche 24 It is amazing what a great mind he is  A great mind [+part]  an erudite scholar [ + whole ] = I am amazed by his intellectual power 28 I walked past the big sad mouth which didn’t know what to say... bid a few thy voice = talk to only a few people = You should listen to everyone but talk to only a few people 39 His words can be trusted  metonymy His words = that person himself You can trust him 48 I am the captain of my soul  The captain [+ specific] = the leader [+ generic]  My soul [+ more abstract] = my life [ + less abstract]  metonymies = I can decide my own life or I can control myself... authorities put an end to the riot The group of people who have the power to give orders or take action Section 2: Word Meaning * How to recognize a metonymy? (f) The material substitutes for the thing made Ex 14: The marble speaks The marble statue Ex15: He was buried under this stone the tombstone material Section 2: Word Meaning * How to recognize a metonymy? (g) An author/ a producer/ a place where goods
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