Slide semantic meeting 3

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Semantics Meeting Section 2: Word Meaning-Review 1/ semantic features – componential analysis Ex1.: boy + human Ex2.: girl + male + human + female - adult - adult 2/ semantic fields + teacher Ex4 Ex3 + living room + dining room + bedroom + student + table rooms in house + chair + bathroom + board + restroom + chalk classroom Section 2: Word Meaning- Review Lexical gaps Ex8: Ex7: grandparents father mother children nuclear family parents aunt/uncle children cousin extended family Section 2: Word Meaning- Review Referent (1), reference (2) and sense (3) Ex9: doctor (1) book ice-cream Ex11: Ex10: autumn = fall purchase = buy (3) toilet = restroom Ha Noi ↔ the capital of Viet Nam Ao Dai ↔ vietnamese traditional clothes (2) Uncle Ho ↔ the leader of Vietnam Section 2: Word Meaning 2.6 Denotation & Connotation Ex1: child + human + innocent + noisy - mature + affectionate + irritating ± male Ex2: woman + human + devoted + wicked + mature + patient + talkative + female positive dictionary  denotation emotions/attitude negative  connotation Section 2: Word Meaning 2.6 Denotation & Connotation - The denotation of a word is the core, central or referential meaning of the word found in a dictionary - The connotation of a word is the additional meaning that the word has beyond its denotative meaning It shows people’s emotions and/or attitudes towards what the word refers to Section 2: Word Meaning 2.6 Denotation & Connotation Ex3: fox + cunning + deceitful negative Ex5: slender = Ex4: mother + mom positive Ø woman neutral - witch negative skinny  positive  negative almost always have negative connotations Notes: - Some English words have positive, negative & neutral connotations - Some synonyms are not really synonyms at all Exercise + image of Christ trees  Christmas + family gatherings + presents and carols Section 2: Word Meaning 2.7 Multiple senses of lexical items 2.7.1 Primary meaning vs secondary meaning Ex6 pilot:- one who flies an aircraft ; navigator The first meaning in dictionary  primary meaning - guide, leader - something produced as an experiment before broader introduction Ex7 My father is a pilot in my family = My father is a person who leads and instructs every member in my family the derived meaning from the context  secondary meaning Section 2: Word Meaning 2.7 Multiple senses of lexical items 2.7.1 Primary meaning vs secondary meaning The primary meaning of a word is the first meaning or usage that the word will suggest to most people when it is said in isolation The secondary meanings of a word are the meanings besides its primary meaning context-bound Section 2: Word Meaning 2.7 Multiple senses of lexical items 2.7.2 Literal meaning vs figurative meaning Ex8 two wings of an airplane = part that projects from the side of an aircraft and supports it in the air the east/west wing of a house = part of a building that projects from the main part the left wing of his car was = projecting part of the body of a motor vehicle damaged in the collisionabove the wheel the radical wing of the Labour = part of a political party that holds certain views ty or has a particular function identified through the context  literal meanings  “The basic or usual meaning of a word” is usually referred to as its literal meaning Section 2: Word Meaning 2.7 Multiple senses of lexical items 2.7.2 Literal meaning vs figurative meaning Ex9 We hope college life will help him to spread his wings a bit = to extend his activities and interests Having a new baby to look after has clipped her wings a bit = has prevented her from achieving her ambition she immediately took the new arrivals under her wing = looked after the new arrivals He retires as chairman next year; his successor is waiting in the wings = is ready to replace him different from literal meaning Vivid mental images  figurative meanings Section 2: Word Meaning 2.7 Multiple senses of lexical items 2.7.2 Literal meaning vs figurative meaning  The figurative meaning of a word is one which is different from its usual/literal meaning which creates vivid mental images to readers or listeners Section 2: Word Meaning * Which statement is Denotation/Connotation/Primary Meaning/ Secondary Meaning/ Literal Meaning/Figurative Meaning? 1/ The meaning of a word is different from its usual/literal meaning and FM creates vivid mental images to readers or listeners 2/ The meaning of a word is the core, central or referential meaning of the word found in a dictionary 3/ The meaning of a word is the first meaning or usage that the word will suggest to most people when it is said in isolation 4/ The meaning of a word is the additional meaning that the word has beyond its denotative meaning D PM C 5/ The meaning of a word is the basic or usual meaning of a word LM / The meaning of a word is the meaning besides its primary meaning SM Section 2: Word Meaning 2.8 Figures of speech 2.8.1 Simile and metaphor Ex.10: My hands are as cold as ice Ex.12: He was a lion in the fight What is compared with what? “lion” indicates ……?  hand  ice  lion ~ he Ex.11: Tom eats like a horse  Tom  a horse Ex.13: She has a heart of stone “a heart of stone” indicates?  her heart of stone ~ her nature  “The use of comparison of one thing with another” is simile  “The use of a word or phrase to indicate something different from the literal meaning” is metaphor * Notes: implicit / indirect comparison * Notes: explicit / direct comparison function words: as as, like no function words Section 2: Word Meaning 2.8 Figures of speech Dead and live metaphor Ex.14: the leg/face of the table the back of the chair the mouth of the river Ex.15: Tom is a pig Is there any implicit comparisons in these?  Tom is short and fat  Tom is slow and lazy Is there any implicit comparisons in these?  Tom is greedy  Tom is not intelligent  Dead metaphor  Live metaphor Section 2: Word Meaning 2.8 Figures of speech Dead and live metaphor  Dead metaphors are in fact  Live metaphors are implied or idioms or fixed expressions that indirect comparisons which have native speakers of a language a variety of figurative meanings give special meanings and use through their endless use naturally and unconsciously Exercise When he gets going, Jack is a streak of lighting. metaphor  Jack is a streak of lighting = Jack is very fast The man is a demon for work  metaphor  The man is a demon for work = the man is an energetic person who works very hard My dormitory room is like a cave  simile  Dormitory  cave = my dormitory room is small and uncomfortable  explicitly compared Exercise 8 Come to see the dormitory and see what a  metaphor cave I live in  Cave  dormitory My dormitory is a small and  implicitly compared uncomfortable room 13 Albert was as sharp as a tack this morning He answered every question as soon as it was asked  Albert a tack  Albert was quick-minded  simile Exercise 16 After she heard the good news, she  simile grinned like a mule eating briars  She  a mule 20 Life is a dream  life  dream  smiled broadly  metaphor  Life is as beautiful as a dream  Life is short or Life passes quickly Exercise 25 Alice came in gently, like a May breeze  simile  Alice  a May breeze  Alice is as young, fresh, sweet and warm as a breeze signaling the beginning of a summer 26 Susie is a picture of loveliness in her new dress  Susie  picture of loveliness  metaphor  Susie is very lovely Exercise 31 There was a storm in Parliament last  metaphor night  A storm  a heated argument, a bitter disagreement or terrible conflict 34 We’ll just have to go our separate ways  Go our separate ways  Life is a journey 35 They were vital, unforgettable matches that gave us a new window on the game  new window on the game  metaphor  metaphor  new understanding of the game Exercise  simile 37 He is as mute as a fish  He rarely speaks 38 We stopped to drink in the beautiful scenery  drink in  metaphor  enjoy or admire 40 The police team has cemented close ties with the hospital staff  cemented = joined  cemented = firmly established  metaphor  close connections have been established b/w the police team & the hospital staff Exercise  metaphor 41 the boss gave her a hot look  a hot look = an angry look 42 He could not bridle his anger  bridle = control, restrain  metaphor  He failed to control his anger 43 He attacked every weak point in my argument  attacked = criticized severely  metaphor  He severely criticized every weak point in my argument Exercise  metaphor 46 The organization is keeping the brake on pay rises  Keep the brake on pay rises = control pay rises 47 Her father is a captain of industry  dead metaphor  a captain of industry – an idiom One who manages a large industrial company 49.To fall out of a tree in one’s early childhood is not  metaphor a particularly reassuring experience  It is terrible to be exposed to real life  To fall out of a tree = to be in one’s early childhood without any exposed to real life parental protection [...]... 8 31 There was a storm in Parliament last  metaphor night  A storm  a heated argument, a bitter disagreement or terrible conflict 34 We’ll just have to go our separate ways  Go our separate ways  Life is a journey 35 They were vital, unforgettable matches that gave us a new window on the game  new window on the game  metaphor  metaphor  new understanding of the game Exercise 8  simile 37 ... metaphor Ex.10: My hands are as cold as ice Ex.12: He was a lion in the fight What is compared with what? “lion” indicates ……?  hand  ice  lion ~ he Ex.11: Tom eats like a horse  Tom  a horse Ex. 13: She has a heart of stone “a heart of stone” indicates?  her heart of stone ~ her nature  “The use of comparison of one thing with another” is simile  “The use of a word or phrase to indicate something... special meanings and use through their endless use naturally and unconsciously Exercise 8 1 When he gets going, Jack is a streak of lighting. metaphor  Jack is a streak of lighting = Jack is very fast 3 The man is a demon for work  metaphor  The man is a demon for work = the man is an energetic person who works very hard 7 My dormitory room is like a cave  simile  Dormitory  cave = my dormitory... uncomfortable  explicitly compared Exercise 8 8 Come to see the dormitory and see what a  metaphor cave I live in  Cave  dormitory My dormitory is a small and  implicitly compared uncomfortable room 13 Albert was as sharp as a tack this morning He answered every question as soon as it was asked  Albert a tack  Albert was quick-minded  simile Exercise 8 16 After she heard the good news, she  simile... different from its usual/literal meaning and FM creates vivid mental images to readers or listeners 2/ The meaning of a word is the core, central or referential meaning of the word found in a dictionary 3/ The meaning of a word is the first meaning or usage that the word will suggest to most people when it is said in isolation 4/ The meaning of a word is the additional meaning that the word has beyond... unforgettable matches that gave us a new window on the game  new window on the game  metaphor  metaphor  new understanding of the game Exercise 8  simile 37 He is as mute as a fish  He rarely speaks 38 We stopped to drink in the beautiful scenery  drink in  metaphor  enjoy or admire 40 The police team has cemented close ties with the hospital staff  cemented = joined  cemented = firmly established... hospital staff Exercise 8  metaphor 41 the boss gave her a hot look  a hot look = an angry look 42 He could not bridle his anger  bridle = control, restrain  metaphor  He failed to control his anger 43 He attacked every weak point in my argument  attacked = criticized severely  metaphor  He severely criticized every weak point in my argument Exercise 8  metaphor 46 The organization is keeping
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