Slide semantic meeting 1

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Semantics Meeting Section 1: Introduction Linguistics Syntax Semantics Pragmatics The study of grammar The study of meaning The study of meaning in language EX1: in context A: ‘Did you finish that report?’ B: ‘I started it.’ 1/ ‘I began to it.’ (Semantic meaning) 2/ ‘I didn’t finish it’ (Pragmatic meaning) Section 1: Introduction EX2: A: ‘We are going to the movies.’ B: ‘I have got an exam tomorrow.’ 1/ Tomorrow there will be an exam for me (Semantic meaning) 2/ I am sorry I am not going to the movies (Pragmatic meaning) 1.1 What is semantics? The study of meaning in language (i.e what language means.) Semantics is a part of linguistics Section 1: Introduction 1.2 Semantics and its aspects Semantics Word meaning Ex: remarried Sentence meaning Utterance meaning Ex: She is not remarried A: ‘How is the pastor?’ [ + human] [ + married again] B: ’He is remarried.’ [ ± male] 1/ Pastors are allowed by rule [ + used to be married] to get married [ + married again] 2/ Pastor was once married Section 2: Word Meaning  Student (n):One who attends school One who seeks the knowledge from professional teachers  Tailor (n):One whose occupation is to cut out and make men’s garments 2.1 What is word meaning? - Word meaning is what a word means 2.2 Semantic features [+ human] Ex1 father: [+ male] [+ mature] [+ parental] [+ paternal] Semantic features Section 2: Word Meaning Ex2 hen: [+ animate] [+ bird] [+ fowl] [+ full grown] [+ female] Semantic features 2.2.1 What are semantic features?  The smallest units of meaning in a word  Semantic components  Semantic properties Section 2: Word Meaning 2.2.2 Characteristics 2.2.2.1 Redundancy rule Ex3 father girl + human + animate → Redundancy rule professor Ex4 father: [+ human / - inhuman ] [+ male / - female ] [+ mature / - immature] [+ parental/ - maternal ] → Negative semantic features Redundancy rule Section 2: Word Meaning 2.2.2.2 Different words  same semantic features Ex5.: Ex6.: Mother Doctor Engineer Father Teacher Son Physicist + professional Daughter Chemist Brother Tailor Sister hairdresser Grandparent Aunt Uncle + kinship Section 2: Word Meaning 2.2.2.3 Same semantic features → Different parts of speech Ex7.: Mother (n) Ex8.: school (n) Breast-feed (v) + female teacher (n) Pregnant (a) textbook (n) + educational Teach (v) Educate (v) Instruct (v) 2.2.2.4 Grammatically correct Syntactically perfect Semantically anomalous Ex9: My brother is an only child Brother [+ having at least one sibling] >< only child [+ having no other sibling] Section 2: Word Meaning Ex10: The bachelor is pregnant bachelor [+male] >< pregnant [+female] Ex11: Colorless green ideas sleep furiously colorless [-color] >< green [+green in color]  ideas [+abstract] >< sleep [+concrete/+animate]  sleep ( well/badly/soundly) >< sleep furiously • Notes : - The semantic properties of words determine what other words they can be combined with - Thanks to knowing the semantic properties of words, we know when two words are antonyms, synonyms or homonyms or unrelated in meaning EXERCISE 1 (a) lobster, shrimp, crab, oyster, mussel [ + shellfish] [+ edible water animal] (b) trout, sole, herring, salmon, mackerel [ + fish] (a) widow, mother, sister, aunt, seamstress [ + female ] (b) widower, father, brother, uncle, tailor [+ human] [ + male ] (a) bachelor, son, paperboy, pope, chief [ + human ] (b) bull, rooster, drake, ram, stallion [ + animal ] (a) table, pencil, cup, house, ship, car [ + solid ] [+ animate; + male] [+ inanimate; + concrete] (b) milk, tea, wine, beer, water, soft drink [ + liquid ] (a) book, temple, mountain, road, tractor [ +concrete thing ] (b) idea, love, charity, sincerity, bravery, fear [ + abstract notion ] [+ inanimate] EXERCISE (a) rose, lily, tulip, daisy, sunflower, violet [ + flowering plant] (b) ash, oak, sycamore, willow, beech [ + deciduous tree] [+ plant] (c) pine, cedar, jew, spruce, cypress [ + evergreen tree] (a) book, letter, encyclopedia, novel, note book, dictionary [ + thing to read or write] (b) typewriter, pencil, ballpoint, crayon, quill, charcoal, chalk [ + thing used to write or draw with ]  [ + non-living thing] (a) walk, run, skip, jump, hop, swim [ +movement made without the help of any means] (b) fly, skate, ski, ride, cycle, canoe, hang-glide[ + movement made with the help of a certain kind of means [+ movement/ +way of movement] EXERCISE (a) ask, tell, say, talk, converse [ + generic] (b) shout, whisper, mutter, drawl, holler [ + specific] [+ way of talking] 10 (a) alive, asleep, awake, dead, half-dead, pregnant 10 (b) depressed, bored, excited, upset, amazed, surprised  [ + state closely associated with living things] [ + physical state ] [ + emotional state ] EXERCISE Child: + human Hen: + animate - mature + bird ± male + fowl + innocent + fully grown + female Aunt: + human Oak: + plant ± mature + deciduous tree + female + tough hard wood + father’s/ mother’s sister (-in-law) EXERCISE flower: + part of a plant + colored + usually good-smelling + plant 6b Palm: + tree - branches + a mass of large wide leaves at the top + in warm or tropical climate 6a Palm: + part of a hand bachelor: + human + inner surface + mature + between the wrist and the fingers + male + stay single EXERCISE Actress: + human 10 Ewe: + animate + female + sheep + professionally artistic + fully grown + perform a role + female + producing wool and meat Plod: + motion + walk + slowly and laboriously 11a Fly : + motion + through air or space + fast + wings or a means of transport EXERCISE 11b Fly: + animate 14 Beauty: + insect + attractive feature + two wings + combination of shape, color, behavior, etc + in and around the house 12 Stallion : + animate + giving pleasure to senses 13 Police officer : + human + horse ± male +fully grown + member of the police force + male + disciplined + for breeding EXERCISE 15 imagine: + mental state 17 Drive: + motion + form a concept or an image + operate + thoughtfulness + related to a vehicle 16 + animate Doe: + deer + reindeer + rabbit or hare + fully grown + female 18 Home: + thing + place for human habitation + closely related to family EXERCISE + plant 19 Elm: + plant 21 Rose: + bush + deciduous tree + sweet-smelling flowers + large rough-edged leaves + different colors +tough hard wood + usually pinkish or red + thorns + symbol for love 20 Chalk +: thing + limestone + soft + white or colored + for writing or drawing 22 Chick : + animate + bird + fowl - fully grown ± male EXERCISE + plant 23.Pap: + thing 25 Pine: + evergreen tree + food + needle-shaped leaves + soft or semi-liquid + pale soft wood + for babies or invalids 24 Tiptoe: + motion + walk + on toes + silently 26 Owe: + state + be in debt + duty + pay EXERCISE 27.Computer : + thing 29 Maid: + electronic device + mature +storing/processing data + female +making calculation + servant + controlling machinery 28 Honesty: + abstract notion + virtue + trustfulness + hard to evaluate + human 30 Spinster: + human + mature + female + stay single EXERCISE 1.Sadara :+ born with the same parents 3a Anh: + born with the same parents Chị ± male 3b Em: + older + born with the same parents ± male Brother: Sister : + younger + born with the same parents ± male Huynh + born with the same Đệ parents Tỷ ± male Muội ± older [...]... fingers + male + stay single EXERCISE 2 8 Actress: + human 10 Ewe: + animate + female + sheep + professionally artistic + fully grown + perform a role + female + producing wool and meat 9 Plod: + motion + walk + slowly and laboriously 11 a Fly : + motion + through air or space + fast + wings or a means of transport EXERCISE 2 11 b Fly: + animate 14 Beauty: + insect + attractive feature + two wings + combination... the house 12 Stallion : + animate + giving pleasure to senses 13 Police officer : + human + horse ± male +fully grown + member of the police force + male + disciplined + for breeding EXERCISE 2 15 imagine: + mental state 17 Drive: + motion + form a concept or an image + operate + thoughtfulness + related to a vehicle 16 + animate Doe: + deer + reindeer + rabbit or hare + fully grown + female 18 Home:... +way of movement] EXERCISE 1 9 (a) ask, tell, say, talk, converse [ + generic] 9 (b) shout, whisper, mutter, drawl, holler [ + specific] [+ way of talking] 10 (a) alive, asleep, awake, dead, half-dead, pregnant 10 (b) depressed, bored, excited, upset, amazed, surprised  [ + state closely associated with living things] [ + physical state ] [ + emotional state ] EXERCISE 2 1 Child: + human 3 Hen: + animate...EXERCISE 1 1 (a) lobster, shrimp, crab, oyster, mussel [ + shellfish] [+ edible water animal] 1 (b) trout, sole, herring, salmon, mackerel [ + fish] 2 (a) widow, mother, sister, aunt, seamstress [ + female ] 2 (b) widower, father, brother, uncle, tailor... + related to a vehicle 16 + animate Doe: + deer + reindeer + rabbit or hare + fully grown + female 18 Home: + thing + place for human habitation + closely related to family EXERCISE 2 + plant 19 Elm: + plant 21 Rose: + bush + deciduous tree + sweet-smelling flowers + large rough-edged leaves + different colors +tough hard wood + usually pinkish or red + thorns + symbol for love 20 Chalk +: thing +... wine, beer, water, soft drink [ + liquid ] 5 (a) book, temple, mountain, road, tractor [ +concrete thing ] 5 (b) idea, love, charity, sincerity, bravery, fear [ + abstract notion ] [+ inanimate] EXERCISE 1 6 (a) rose, lily, tulip, daisy, sunflower, violet [ + flowering plant] 6 (b) ash, oak, sycamore, willow, beech [ + deciduous tree] [+ plant] 6 (c) pine, cedar, jew, spruce, cypress [ + evergreen tree]... female +making calculation + servant + controlling machinery 28 Honesty: + abstract notion + virtue + trustfulness + hard to evaluate + human 30 Spinster: + human + mature + female + stay single EXERCISE 3 1. Sadara :+ born with the same parents 3a Anh: + born with the same parents Chị ± male 3b Em: + older + born with the same parents ± male 2 Brother: Sister : + younger + born with the same parents ± male
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