Enterprise operations management Handbook steve blanding

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Enterprise Operations Management HANDBOOK 2ND EDITION OTHER AUERBACH PUBLICATIONS A Standard for Auditing Computer Applications, Martin Krist, ISBN: 0-8493-9983-1 Analyzing Business Information Systems, Shouhong Wang, ISBN: 0-8493-9240-3 Broadband Networking, James Trulove, Editor, ISBN: 0-8493-9821-5 Communications Systems Management Handbook, 6th Edition, Anura Gurugé and Lisa M.Lindgren, Editors, 0-8493-9826-6 Computer Telephony Integration, William Yarberry, Jr., ISBN: 0-8493-9995-5 Data Management Handbook, 3rd Edition, Sanjiv Purba, Editor, ISBN: 0-8493-9832-0 Electronic Messaging, Nancy Cox, Editor, ISBN: 0-8493-9825-8 Enterprise Systems Architectures, Andersen Consulting, 0-8493-9836-3 Enterprise Systems Integration, John Wyzalek, Editor, ISBN: 0-8493-9837-1 Healthcare Information Systems, Phillip L.Davidson, Editor, ISBN: 0-8493-9963-7 Information Security Architecture, Jan Killmeyer, ISBN: 0-8493-9988-2 Information Security Management Handbook, 4th Edition, Harold F.Tipton and Micki Krause, Editors, ISBN: 0-8493-9829-0 IS Management Handbook, 7th Edition, Carol V.Brown, Editor, ISBN: 0-8493-9820-7 Information Technology Control and Audit, Frederick Gallegos, Sandra Allen-Senft, and Daniel P.Manson, ISBN: 0-8493-9994-7 Internet Management, Jessica Keyes, Editor, ISBN: 0-8493-9987-4 Local Area Network Handbook, 6th Edition, John P.Slone, Editor, ISBN: 0-84939838-X Multi-Operating System Networking: Living with UNIX, NetWare, and NT, Raj Rajagopal, Editor, ISBN: 0-8493-9831-2 Network Manager’s Handbook, 3rd Edition, John Lusa, Editor, ISBN: 0-8493-9841-X Project Management, Paul C.Tinnirello, Editor, ISBN: 0-8493-9998-X Effective Use of Teams in IT Audits, Martin Krist, ISBN: 0-8493-9828-2 Systems Development Handbook, 4th Edition, Paul C.Tinnirello, Editor, ISBN: 08493-9822-3 AUERBACH PUBLICATIONS http://www.auerbach-publications.com/ TO Order: Call: 1–800–272–7737 • Fax: 1–800–374–3401 E-mail: orders@crcpress.com Enterprise Operations Management HANDBOOK 2ND EDITION Steven F.Blanding EDITOR Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Enterprise Operations Management Handbook/edited by Steven F Blanding.—2nd ed p cm Includes index ISBN 0-8493-9824-X (alk paper) Information Technology—Management Client/server computer—Management Business enterprises—Computer networks— Management Electronic data processing departments—Management I Blanding, Steven F HD30.2.H364 1999 658′.05–dc21 99–39628 CIP This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated A wide variety of references are listed Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher All rights reserved Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the personal or internal use of specific clients, may be granted by CRC Press LLC, provided that $.50 per page photocopied is paid directly to Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 USA The fee code for users of the Transactional Reporting Service is ISBN 0-8493-9824X/99/$0.00+$.50 The fee is subject to change without notice For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431 Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe Visit the CRC Press Web site at www.crcpress.com © 1999 by CRC Press LLC Auerbach is an imprint of CRC Press LLC This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005 “To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/.” No claim to original U.S Government works ISBN 0-203-99757-3 Master e-book ISBN International Standard Book Number 0-8493-9824-X (Print Edition) Library of Congress Card Number 99-39628 Contributors ANN S.ANGEL, President, Technologies Training of the Triad, Inc., Winston-Salem and Greensboro, NC JOE AUER, Founder and President, International Computer Negotiations, Inc., Winter Park, FL C.WARREN AXELROD, Senior Vice President, Corporate Information Systems, Carroll McEntee & McGinley, Inc., New York, NY LAYNE C.BRADLEY, Vice President, Technology Management Group, Computer Sciences Corporation, Fort Worth, TX CHARLES V.BREAKFIELD, Senior Engineer, Symposium Professional Services, Nortel, Dallas, TX JOE R.BRIONES, Manager of Computer Services, Computer Sciences Corporation, Ft Worth, TX THOMAS A.BROWDY, Director, Center for the Application of Information Technology, Washington University, St Louis, MO ROXANNE BURKEY, Senior Consultant Designer, Symposium Professional Services, Nortel, Dallas, TX VISHAL DESAI, President, Savli Group, Silver Spring, MD EDWARD S.DEVLIN, Independent Consultant, Westchester, PA S.ANN EARON, Director, Telemanagement Resources International, Inc., Skillman, NJ COLE H.EMERSON, President, Cole Emerson & Associates, Fair Oaks, CA JOHN FISKE, Independent Writer, Prides Crossing, PA MICHAEL L.GIBSON, Professor of Management, Auburn University, Auburn, AL CARL STEPHEN GUYNES, Professor, College of Business Administration, University of North Texas, Denton, TX RON HALE, Senior Manager, Deloitte & Touche LLP, Chicago, IL IAN S.HAYES, Principal, Clarity Consulting, Salem, MA ROBERT L.HECKMAN, Assistant Professor, School of Information Studies, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY GILBERT HELD, Director, 4-Degree Consulting, Macon, GA LUKE HOHMANN, Vice President of Engineering, SmartPatents, Inc., Mountain View, CA KEITH A.JONES, Certified Quality Analyst and Senior Data Services Consultant, Dun & Bradstreet, Palm Harbor, FL LEON A.KAPPELMAN, Department of Business Computer Information Systems, University of North Texas, Denton, TX RANDY KECK, Technology Manager, Operations Control Systems, Palo Alto, CA CAROL L.LARSON, Freelance Desktop Publisher, Beaverton, OR JAMES A.LARSON, Senior Software Engineer, Intel Architecture Lab, Hillsboro, OR ANDRES LLANA, JR., Telecommunications Consultant, Vermont Studies Group, Inc., King of Prussia, PA MARTIN F.MEDEIROS II, Manager, Technology Procurement, United States Fidelity and Guarantee Co., Baltimore, MD STEWART S.MILLER, President and Owner, Executive Information Services, Carlsbad, CA NANCY BLUMENSTALK MINGUS, President, Mingus Associates, Inc., Williamsville, NY NATHAN J.MULLER, Independent Consultant, Huntsville, AL WILLIAM HUGH MURRAY, Executive Consultant, Information Systems Security, Deloitte & Touche, New Canaan, CT JEFF MURRELL, Manager, Enterprise Computing Operations, Information Systems and Services Division, Texas Instruments, Inc., Plano, TX KATE NASSER, President, CAS, Inc., Somerville, NJ PAUL NISENBAUM, Software Engineer, Candle Corp., Santa Monica, CA RAJ RAJAGOPAL, Principal Scientist, MITRE Corp., McLean, VA CHRIS ROOKE, Director of Product Marketing, Tandem Computers, Inc., Cupertino, CA SALVATORE SALAMONE, News Editor, Byte Magazine, New York, NY TARI SCHREIDER, Director of Research, Contingency Planning Research, Inc., White Plains, NY GREG SCILEPPI, Executive Director, RHI Consulting, Menlo Park, CA DUANE E.SHARP, President, SharpTech Associates, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada ROBERT E.UMBAUGH, Principal, Carlisle Consulting, Carlisle, PA MICHAEL E.WHITMAN, Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science and Information Systems, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA STEVEN M.WILLIFORD, President, Franklin Services Group, Inc., Columbus, OH JOHN WINDSOR, Interim Chairman, IS Department, University of North Texas, Denton, TX LEO A.WROBEL, JR., President and Chief Executive Officer, Premiere Network Services, Inc., DeSoto, TX Contents INTRODUCTION SECTION I IT MANAGEMENT Strategic Planning: Business and Technology Issues Layne C.Bradley The Corporate Information and Communications Hierarchy: Technological Management in Modern Enterprises Thomas A.Browdy Developing People Skills: A New I/T Priority Greg Scileppi Professional Consulting: The Analysis Methodology Charles V.Breakfield and Roxanne E.Burkey Pricing Methods Across Linked Networks Keith A.Jones Enterprise Modeling for Strategic Support Michael E.Whitman and Michael L.Gibson SECTION II DATA CENTER MANAGEMENT Reverting to Centralized Data Center Management C.Warren Axelrod Acquiring and Using a UPS System Gilbert Held Providing Quality Information Services to the Customer Joe R.Briones 10 Evaluating a Job Scheduler in the Open Systems Arena Randy Keck 11 Help Desk Technology Nathan J.Muller 12 Call Center Computer Telephony Integration: A Case Study Charles V.Breakfield and Roxanne E.Burkey 16 32 39 51 59 73 75 84 91 101 111 118 SECTION III APPLICATION INFRASTRUCTURE AND OPERATIONS 13 Maintaining Data in Mainframe and Network Environments Roxanne E.Burkey 14 Managing Data Storage and Distribution Roxanne E.Burkey 15 The Data Center Manager’s Guide to Networked Imaging Systems Nathan J.Muller 16 Collaborative Applications S.Ann Earon 17 Supporting Legacy Systems Nancy Blumenstalk Mingus 18 Client/Server Architecture and Implementation Nathan J.Muller SECTION IV ENTERPRISE NETWORK MANAGEMENT 19 TCP/IP Network Management: A Case Study Vishal Desai 20 Trends in Data Communications Services Nathan J.Muller 21 The Emerging Advantage of xDSL Technology Andres Llana, Jr 22 LAN Printing Techniques Gilbert Held 23 Preparing for Cable Modems Gilbert Held 24 LAN-WAN Interconnection Requirements and Implementation Considerations Duane E.Sharp 25 Enterprise Deployment: Building an IP PBX Telephony Network John Fiske SECTION V DESKTOP COMPUTING 26 A Quick Overview of LINUX Raj Rajagopal 27 Evaluating the Performance of NT-Based Systems Gilbert Held 28 Configuring TCP/IP on a Windows NT Workstation Gilbert Held 127 129 136 143 158 163 168 184 186 195 205 215 223 230 242 248 250 258 266 Index 606 choosing leasing company 393–397 contracts 388 leased lines, LAN-WAN 265 lease forms, changing 396 Legacy systems, supporting 183–188 Lights-out Linkages 57 Linux 279–286 available applications 281 customers 279 drawbacks 284 features 280 implications 284 newsgroups 286 operating requirements 281–282 sources 282–284 vendor support 280 Local loop access, xDSL 232 Lo-fi design 332 usability testing 322 Logical access control, disaster recovery 638 Logical formatting 507 Logic bomb 510 M Mainframes 84 compared to PCs 153, 154 databases 143 data storage costs 156 systems availability 105 Maintenance See Software maintenance, Hardware maintenance Malcolm Bridge Quality Award 488 Management client/server environment 192 technology learning curve 29–30 Mass storage 58 Master/agent architecture job scheduler 120 MBNQA framework 487 McCabe Metrics 559 MDU Internet service 237 Mechanistic organizational style 29 Medium-access protocol distributed networks 191 Meeting schedulers, aglets 202 Mesh topology 526 Message manager Oracle Mobile Agent 200 Messaging between clients and servers 197 Microcomputers compared to mainframe 153, 154 Index 607 connectivity 156, 343 history of computing 84, 86 remote printing 244–246 support 86 MIME 519 SMIME integration 520 Minicomputers history of computing 84, 86 Mobile computing CPQD 221 keyware 199 Modeling, SBE 69 Modems cable 249–255 image transfer 169 Modularity program quality 565 MS Anti-Virus, using 511 MS Word macro virus 534 Multicasting, CDPD 221 Multimedia conferencing 177 Multimedia transfer 226, 227 imaging system 159–176 Multiprocessor architectures, resource management 151 Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension, see MIME Multivendor environment client/servers 192 N National short-text messaging CDPD 221 Needs analysis, user support 426 Netlav 211 Netscout 216 Netview 211 Netware backups 612 LAN-WAN interconnections 262 Network management costs 343 in organic organization style 31 ISDN PRI 225 NMS 127, 209–218 Network manager mechanistic organization 31 organic organization 31 Network-centric computing compared to client/server 204 Networked data maintaining 143–150 Networkologist 257 Network printing 241–248 attachment problems 242 direct connections 247 Index document imaging 159–176 file servers 241–242 remote printing on a PC 244–246 print servers 244 Network throughput ATM 227 X.25 223 Networks access, anytime, anywhere 263 availability scaling 501–502 ATM 227 centrally controlled 191 congestion 227 contention medium-access protocols 164 disaster recovery 364 DMI and disaster recovery 364 effect of imaging systems 162 event reporting 217 expense categories 59 growing via ATM 227 heterogeneous 263 hierarchical vs distributed 190 history of computing 85 home 239 imaging systems 159–176 IP PBX 269–276 LAN management applications 423 LAN-WAN components 260 LAN-WAN interconnections 257 mesh topology 526 packet-switched 266 pooling costs 55 preventing physical damage 481 printing 241–248 resource categories 57 restore, ISDN PRI 225 scalability, ATM 227 security overview 473–485 smart 263 software costs 344 support 87, 214, 343 throughput 225, 227 use, measuring 62 X.25 223 NMS case study 209–218 help desk 127 Node-contact schema NMS, casestudy 214 Noise EMI and RFI 95 removing ambient electronic, Fastcopper‘ 235 608 Index 609 NT changing virtual memory paging 289 configuring TCP/IP 295–304 evaluating performance 287–294 IP address requirements 296 Performance Monitor utility 287, 291–294 swap file 289 system performance factors 287–288 virtual memory 288 Nx64 service 222 Nyquist theorem 250 O Object-oriented programming 193, 195 100Base-T Fast Ethernet communications trends 219 imaging systems 165 100VG-AnyLAN communications trends 219 Online systems availability 104 Open systems interconnection reference model 258 queuing process 116 Operational performance objectives 104 Optical fiber 220 FDDI 229 Optical storage manager 168 Oracle Mobile Agent 200 Organic organizational style 29 Organizational behavior analysis 71 Organizational goals Organizational strategies 70–71 Organizational style 29 OSI reference model 258 Outages 503 Outsourcing 43–54, see also Consulting asset management 392 consultant requirements 43 data center 11, 61 frame relay service 225 legacy system support 188 short term solution 61 system design 91 systems integration, client/server environment 192 systems integrators, imaging systems 174 P Packet grabbing 533 Packet-switched networks 266, 527 image transfer 170 Packet transmission, cable modem 254 Index 610 Paging files 289 Paranoid, firewall position 539 Passwords grabbing 533 preventing unauthorized access 479 reusable 541 PBX, IP telephony network 269–276 PC connectivity costs 156, 343 Peak traffic handling, ISDN PRI 225 Peer connections 528 security 532 client/server networks 190 PEM 519 Performance evaluating NT-based systems 287–294 goals 494 measuring 71, 103 objectives 103, 104 Performance control, ISDN PRI 225 Performance Monitor, NT 287 Peripherals, asset management and DMI 365 Permanent virtual connections, see PVC Permissive, firewall position 539 Personnel, job schedulers 113 PGP 517 PKZIP, backups 615 Platforms, reliability 497–505 Power failures, avoiding damage 478 interruptions, effects of 94 line filters 96 spikes and surges, effects of 94 UPS 93–100 voltage sags 94 PRANK 534 Premise branch exchange, see PBX Printers attachment problems 242 direct connections 247 LAN 242 print servers 243 Printing LAN 241–248 print servers compared to remote printing on a PC 244–246 LAN printing 243–244 remote printing on pcs 244 traffic 242 Privacy, e-mail 517–523 Privacy enhanced e-mail, see PEM Problem resolution 106 Index 611 Process improvement 30 Procurement management, outsourcers and integrators 392 Procurement process acquisition 373 asset management 376, 377–378 contract fulfillment 373 framework 371 internal and external relationships 380 management agenda 381 assessment, evaluation 380 design, efficiency 380 issues 376 processes 374 optimizing customer-supplier relationships 374 quality management 376, 378–379 supplier management 374 Product deliverability 105 Production abends 105 Production applications, scheduling 108 Production reports 107–108 Production reruns 105 Productivity frequency of change 547 measurement 548 Profit centers 10 Program quality ALTERs 564 cyclomatic complexity 560 essential complexity 560 GO TOs and GO TO exits 561 maintenance costs 558 metrics and standards 565 modularity 565 program size 557, 558, 565 structured programs 555, 556, 558, 565 unstructured programs 555, 557, 558 Program turnover 105–106 Promiscuous, firewall position 540 Proprietary systems 386 Protocols choosing for distributed network 191 collisonless 166 CSMA/CD 191 deterministic 163 filtering by 538 FTP 530 HTTP 204–205 impact on imaging systems 162 Internet 528, 529 LAN-WAN interconnections 258 medium-access 191 secure socket layer 523 Index 612 SMTP 530 TCP 529 telnet 529 timed token-passing access 165 X.25 170 Protocol standards, job scheduling 121 Prototyping, interface design 332 Proxies 541 Prudent, firewall position 539 Purchasing models 367 Purchasing, see also Leasing decentralized and asset management 387 process management 367 PVC frame relay 224 Q QAM, cable modem 250, 251 Quadrature amplitude modeulation technique, see QAM Quality assessing 489, 490 benchmarking 491 corporate-level goals 494 customer satisfaction 495 data center manager’s role 489 data center staff role 491 establishing value of 549 improving with software metrics 545–567 measuring program results 494 Quality assurance 493 databases 148 Quality of service negotiated with network 227 R RADSL 233 RAM, virtual memory 288 Rate determination, network services 61–62 RCA analysis process 106–107 Recovery, security functions 632 Red Hat Software 280 Redundancy databases 146 user-developed applications 464 Reengineering 70 Refresh cycles, asset management 388 Reliability 497–505 availability 504–505 clusters and points of failure 502 databases 148, 149 data integrity 500–502 Index 613 failover systems 499 fault tolerance 498 myths about 497–498 outages 503 scaling availability 501–502 terms 503–505 Remote access help desk technology 123, 420, 421 of networks 191 security 125 Remote facilities, security 477 Remote logon 531 Remote printing, disadvantages 245 Repeaters, described 261 Report distribution 106 Resource accounting network charges 56 Resource management 151 procurement 367 Responsiveness, Internet commerce 27 Return data rate, cable modem 252 RFI 95 Rivest-Shamir-Adleman encryption, see RSA Root directory 507, 509 directory infectors 510 Routers brouters 262 described 260–261 filters 538 RSA 518 S SAS, HPOV integration 213 Satellite, TCP/IP internetwork 209 Scalability 227 Scanning 160 Schedule management CDPD 221 Scheduling, aglets 202 SDLC, procurement process 369 SDSL compared to HDSL 233 Fastcopper‘ 235 ISP services 234 Secure directories 518–519 Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension, see SMIME Secure servers corporate security 520 Secure socket layer, see SSL Security 473–485 access control 444, 480–481, 484, 523 address spoofing 533 applications controls 444 avoiding damage 478 basic functions 473 Index bastions 536 browsing 535 communications controls 444 communications, disaster recovery 637 database access 444 decentralized computing 438 defending against attacks 535 defunct user accounts 521 denial of service attacks 535 detecting misuse and damage 482 detection methods 481 deterrence 479 digital signatures 522 disaster recovery, logical access 638 distributed management 438 during backups 635 during repair 639 eavesdropping 533 e-mail 517–523 e-mail bombs 522 encryption 481, 541 executive support 439 filters 537 financial transactions 480 firewalls 521, 538–540 firewalls and reusable passwords 541 help desk remote access 125 information classification 440 information protection policies 440 insecure links and nodes 533 Internet 532–544 Internet and firewalls 525–544 Internet Privacy Enhanced Mail standard 522 isolation 536 managing end-user computing 410 network and communications controls 444 packet and password grabbers 533 physical controls 441–442 PRANK 534 preventing physical damage 481 process controls 444 proxies 541 recovery 484, 632 security management committees 439 spamming 535 special provisions 638 SSL 523 system controls 442 televaulting 627 unauthorized access 474–476, 635 unlisted sites 523 user-developed applications 461 614 Index viruses 483 vulnerability 443 wrappers 537 Serialization, update operations 151 Servers, network cost allocation category 58 Service-level agreements 101–104 changing once established 103–104 defining user requirements 102 job schedulers 120 quality assurance 493 retaining customer data 110 standards 103 Signal amplification, repeaters 261 Smart networks 263 SMDS imaging systems 173 network management 226 X.25 223 SMIME 518 MIME integration 520 SMTP 530, 531 SNA, frame relay 225 SNMP job scheduling in open systems 121 management platform 213 platform evaluation criteria, case study 211 Software agents 419 contracts 388 fault tolerant 498 maintenance, job scheduling 102 metrics 545–567 piracy 385 reducing costs 344 SOHO network needs 233 SONET 228 carrier services supported 228 communications trends 219, 220 Spamming 535 SSL 523 Standalone backup maintenance 108 Standards e-mail 518, 519 establishing 103 Internet Privacy Enhanced Mail 522 Storage management 109, see also Data storage network cost 58 Store-and-forward job scheduling in open systems 120 X.25 223 Strategic business engineering 615 Index See SBE Strategic planning 70 data centers 12 example 78 reviewing user-developed applications 449 technologies considered in 13 Strategic support 65 Strategic technology relevance 25 Structured programs 555, 556 Subcontracting 61 Subnet mask 300 Sunnet Manager 211 Support see also Customer support, Help desk field service, CDPD 221 legacy systems 183–188 network, costs 343 strategic 65 subscribing to outside support 125 Support relevance 25 Surge protectors 96 Sustainable connectivity 27 Sustaining technology relevance 25 Swap file, NT virtual memory 289 Switchboard and privacy 518 Switched data pipes 222 Switched multimegabit data service, see SMDS Sybase, with ARS 215 Synchronization bytes 507 Synchronous optical network, see SONET System analysis, interface design process 320 System design, distributed 91 end-user developed 410 integrators, asset management 392 maintaining legacy systems 188 managing security holes 443 misuse 481 remote operation 91 service verification 124 Systems integrator 192 T T1 221 fractional 222 HDSL 233 imaging systems 171 inverse multiplexer 222 T3 221 construction costs 172 616 Index 617 fractional 222 imaging systems network 172 replaced by SONET 228 Tape vault off-site vaulting 109, 625–626 Task analysis 332 checklist 329 interface design and usability 323, 325 TCP 529 TCP/IP 191 configuring NT 295–304 network management 209–218 Technological synergy 28 Technology context 17 Technology implementation Technology learning curve 29 Technology relevance 24 sustaining 25 Telecommunications call center computer telephony integration 131–139 component synergy 28 managing 31 network cost 59 trends 219 Telecommuters, supporting 424 Teleconferencing 177 Telephony, IP PBX network 269–276 Televaulting 109–110, 625–627 Telnet 529 10Base-T advantage for imaging system 164 costs 255 Terminals, security 477 Third-party software, lights-out Throughput ATM 227 X.25 223 Time-shared option availability 105 Token-Ring imaging systems 163–164 medium-access protocol 191 Traffic types, defined by ATM 227 Training, imaging systems 175 Transition technology relevance 25 Trojans 510, 534 Trouble-ticket schemas 214 TSR, remote printing on a PC 244 TUT Systems, MDU services 238 Twisted-pair, FDDI 229 Index U Ubiquitous access, Internet commerce 27 Unchecked, defined 529 Unerase 509 Uninterruptible power supply See UPS Unstructured programs 555, 557 Updates concurrent vs serialization 151 Upgrades 12, 105 Upper management, and data center manager 38 UPS 93–100 configuration 96 diesel generators 97 evaluating 98 modes 95 sizing 97 Usability analysis development process 319–322 mental models 327 prototyping 321, 333 specifications 322 testing 320 attributes 323 development, staff roles 335 developers’ attitudes 334 economic incentives 318 engineers 335 function assignment 327 HTML implications 336 interface design 317 Java 337 specifications 332 specifications checklist 328–329 tests, GUIS 320 Web systems 336 Use cases, usability analysis 325–326 User accounts, defunct 521 User analysis 332 checklist 329 interface design and usability 323, 324 User-developed applications 409 access 461 advantages 412 application criticality 461 applications development controls 461 audit 456 best-guess review 456 centralized computing 459 data access 464 618 Index 619 development products vs programming languages 463 disadvantages 411 distributed environment 459 end-user environments 456 environment-function matrix 462 improving 465 inventory 456 management objections 451 misconceptions 451–452 review 449, 452, 464 methods 456 objectives 453 scope 457 technical benefits in client/server environment 414 security 461 statistical review 456 support 455 use and availability 463 user capabilities 463 user management of data 464 User interface flexible 305 User service see Customer service Users, saying “no” to 40 User support, see Customer support V Variable frame size 224 Vaulting, off-site 109, 625–627 Vendor support 126–127 Verification 464 VG-AnyLAN, imaging systems 166 Videoconferencing 178 bandwidth intensity 220 Nx64 service 222 Virtual memory, NT 289 Viruses 482–483, 507, 534 anti-virus software 511 attack software 510–511 boot sector 508 directory infectors 510 FAT as target 509 Morris virus 510 MS Word macro 534 physical formatting of disks 508 PRANK 534 root directory 510 Voice communications 177 Voltage sags 94 Index 620 W WAN 191 imaging systems 159–176 LAN connections 257 POTS 265 Washington University organization style and telecommunications 32 Web-based technology 205 Web-crawling, aglets 202 Web systems, interface design 336 Wireless technology CDPD 219, 221 imaging systems 167 Wizards 418 Work flow management 445 Workload data center staff 40 service-level agreements 103 Workstations network cost allocation category 58 security 477 Worms 510, 532 All Souls 564 Wrappers 537 WWW cable modem 254 interface usability 336 transmission description 254 X X.25 223 compared to frame relay 223 described 266 imaging systems 170 xDSL 231–240 cable modem 238 dry copper tariffs 239
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