Selling building partnerships 8th ed stephen castleberry and john

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This page intentionally left blank This page intentionally left blank Confirming Pages SE L L ING Building Partnerships cas30018_fm_i-xxix.indd i 08/10/10 9:43 AM This page intentionally left blank Rev Confirming Pages SE L L ING Building Partnerships Stephen B Castleberry University of Minnesota Duluth John F Tanner, Jr Baylor University cas30018_fm_i-xxix.indd iii 18/10/10 1:57 PM Rev Confirming Pages SELLING: BUILDING PARTNERSHIPS Published by McGraw-Hill/Irwin, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY, 10020 Copyright © 2011, 2009, 2007, 2004, 2001, 1998, 1995, 1992 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States This book is printed on acid-free paper QDB/QDB ISBN MHID 978-0-07-353001-7 0-07-353001-8 Vice president and editor-in-chief: Brent Gordon Publisher: Paul Ducham Managing development editor: Laura Hurst Spell Director of development: Ann Torbert Editorial coordinator: Jonathan Thornton Vice president and director of marketing: Robin J Zwettler Associate marketing manager: Jaime Halteman Vice president of editing, design, and production: Sesha Bolisetty Managing editor: Lori Koetters Senior buyer: Michael R McCormick Design coordinator: Joanne Mennemeier Senior photo research coordinator: Jeremy Cheshareck Photo researcher: Ira C Roberts Senior media project manager : Susan Lombardi Media project manager: Suresh Babu, Hurix Systems Pvt Ltd Cover design: Joanne Mennemeier Cover image: © Rob Melnychuk/Getty Images Typeface: 10/12 Sabon Compositor: Laserwords Private Limited Printer: Quad/Graphics Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Castleberry, Stephen Bryon Selling : building partnerships/Stephen B Castleberry, John F Tanner, Jr.—8th ed p cm Includes index ISBN-13: 978-0-07-353001-7 (alk paper) ISBN-10: 0-07-353001-8 (alk paper) Selling I Tanner, John F II Title HF5438.25.W2933 2011 658.85—dc22 2010025662 www.mhhe.com cas30018_fm_i-xxix.indd iv 18/10/10 1:57 PM Confirming Pages To Susie—you’re still my best friend, my trusted confidant, and my partner in all things And to my Creator, Redeemer, and Friend, without whom I would be nothing —Steve Castleberry To Karen—you make all the hard work worthwhile —Jeff Tanner cas30018_fm_i-xxix.indd v 08/10/10 9:43 AM Confirming Pages PREFACE To start the preface of the last edition, we wrote, “The selling profession is at a critical time For that past two years, Manpower, the placement agency, has reported that sales is the most difficult job to fill Never in our 20 years of teaching sales have we seen the demand for professional salespeople to be so great, which presents you with a great opportunity You have an opportunity to participate in a period of rapid change for the sales profession as you prepare young people for a career.” Then the economic tsunami hit, and things changed rapidly You know that even good salespeople were affected by the economic tsunami of 2008 and 2009 But some aspects haven’t changed Finding good salespeople is still difficult for most companies And our sales students are still in high demand At the same time, more collegeeducated sales professionals are now in the field than ever before, and they demand excellence from our students Salespeople are being asked to more because they are a critical element in the value chain Partnering skills, internal and external, are more important than they’ve ever been • Rapid economic change and the impact of the recession • Changing trends in how organizations buy— specifically continue increased use of technology, selfservice, and supplier relationship management As we’ve revised the text, faithful adopters will see that we’ve held to the principles that made this book unique when it was launched and kept it in a leadership position While others may have tried to copy role playing, partnering, or technology, none have truly captured the essence that makes this book the leading text WHAT’S NEW IN THE EIGHTH EDITION • “Selling Yourself”—a new feature at the end of each chapter that relates the material in the chapter to the student’s life right now It’s more than just the student’s job search process, however Selling Yourself helps students see the connections among the chapter material and all aspects of their lives, such as how a student can sell an organization to new members, how to work with apartment managers to resolve issues, how to improve interactions with friends and family members, how to add value as a group member in a class team project, and so forth • Original examples written specifically for this book, provided by current sales programs and salespeople, many of whom took the class and used this book • New chapter-opening profiles—all chapters open with a real salesperson or sales manager’s perspective on the chapter Each profile is new and original to this edition, and we’ve also integrated the profiles into each chapter as a running example to increase this feature’s functionality • All new “Building Partnerships”—boxed features that provide more detailed examples of chapter material and present chapter material in a slightly different light As a result, we’ve remained faithful to the premises that caused us to write the first edition almost 20 years ago: • Partnering skills are critical skills for all businesspeople • Adaptive communication skills—probing, listening, and presentation—are important in all areas of life, but especially for salespeople • Students need to practice these skills through role playing • Helping people make the right decisions is not only the most ethical sales strategy but also the most effective strategy for long-term success At the same time, we’ve recognized that several factors are changing the face of selling: • Increased use of multichannel go-to-market strategies, including inside sales • Changing roles for both technology and salespeople vi cas30018_fm_i-xxix.indd vi 08/10/10 9:43 AM Confirming Pages • • • • New “Sales Technology”—boxed features in each chapter, many new to this edition, that illustrate how technology is used The result is a much better understanding of what professionals are calling Sales 2.0 or Sales in the Cloud (cloud computing) You’ll find many types of technology, including knowledge management technology, CRM technology, and even GPS technology used in routing sales calls All new “From the Buyer’s Seat”—this feature was introduced in the last edition, and the feedback was overwhelmingly positive Buyers, though, are no more stationary than salespeople, so we’ve created all new features for this edition, integrating the best of the last edition into the text Feature questions—embedded in the end-ofchapter material are discussion questions that direct students back to the profiles, “Building Partnerships,” “From the Buyer’s Seat,” and “Sales Technology” features so these features are read and used more fully New NetSuite role plays—we’ve written a new set of role plays featuring NetSuite, the software used in the National Collegiate Sales Competition NetSuite is a hosted application, and its Web site has role-based demonstrations so students can learn what the product does for different people in the sales organization At the end of most chapters you will find a role play using NetSuite, and additionally there are 10 prospect scenarios (with two buyer information sheets each in the Instructor’s Manual) at the end of the book trends affecting buyers, such as supplier relationship management (SRM), also affect sellers A discussion of methods of internal and external partnering so that the supply chain delivers the right value, in recognition of the salesperson’s role in relationship management and value creation This emphasis also broadens the applicability of the course for students who may not be interested in a sales career An emphasis throughout the text on the need for salespeople to be flexible—to adapt their strategies to customer needs, buyer social styles, and relationship needs and strategies A complete discussion of how effective selling and career growth are achieved through planning and continual learning An emphasis on the growing need for salespeople in organizations to carry the voice of the customer to all parts of the organization and beyond to suppliers and facilitators This role is reflected in new product development, supply chain management, and many other functions in a customer-centric organization These unique content emphases are presented in a highly readable format, supported by the following: • Ethics questions—at least two questions at the end of each chapter relate the chapter material to ethics • Four-color exhibits and photographs to support the examples highlighted in the book Students find this book to be easy to read and use • “Thinking It Through”—these features embed discussion questions into the text itself; for this edition, we’ve also offered teaching suggestions to integrate this feature more fully There are several of these features in each chapter • Minicases—two small cases are available at the end of each chapter These are useful for in-class exercises or discussion or as homework • Ethics icon—because we’ve emphasized ethical partnering since the inception of this book, we highlight the integration of ethics by noting any ethics discussion with an icon in the margin You’ll find ethics discussed in every chapter • Key terms—each key term defined in a chapter is listed at the end of the chapter, along with the page number on which the term is discussed Key terms reflect current usage of sales jargon in the field, as well as academic terms • Glossary—key terms are also defined in a glossary at the end of the book IMPORTANT FEATURES OF SELLING: BUILDING PARTNERSHIPS The importance of partnering to business and partnering skills to students has changed the way sales is done and taught Moreover, partnering changes the way buyers buy Several unique features place this book at the cutting edge of sales technology and partnering research: A continued emphasis on the partnering process, with recognition that multiple sales models may be appropriate in a company’s total go-to-market strategy We focus on the partnering process as the highest level of selling because the other models of transaction—focus, problem solver, and relational partner—still need to be learned as a foundation to partnering A thorough description of the partnering and buying processes used by business firms and the changes occurring in these processes A number of important Preface cas30018_fm_i-xxix.indd vii vii 08/10/10 9:43 AM Rev Confirming Pages Ukuva iAfrica, 496 Underwriters Laboratories, 241 U.S Army, 257, 288 U.S Commerce Department, 169 U.S Commercial Service, 186 U.S Food and Drug Administration, 257 U.S Government Printing Office, 67 U.S Industrial Outlook, 169 U.S Marine Corps, 184 U.S Navy, U.S Postal Service (USPS), 85 University of Central Florida, 233 University of Cincinnati, 350 University of Minnesota–Duluth (UMD), 149, 431 University of Tennessee, 349 UPS, 345 I-4 cas30018_idx_I1-I18.indd I4 Verizon, 67, 386 Viatel, 352 VitaMix Corp., 387 Volkl, 183 Volkswagen, 315 Volvo, 54 Waco Tribune Herald, 423 Walker Muffler, 264 Wall Street Journal, 33, 169, 338 Wal-Mart, 14, 41–42, 59, 63, 251–252, 323, 393, 452 Waste Management, 179 Westin Hotels, 356 Whyte’s Family Foods, 413 Wilson Learning, 134, 486 Wintek, 69 World Watch, 169 Worldwide Express, 469 Wranglers, 356 Wright Grocers, 413 Xerox Corporation, 84, 159, 167, 195–196, 359, 388, 446, 455 Yammer.com, 385 Yellow Book USA, 124 YouTube, 161 Yummy Earth Organic Gummy Bears, 221 Zimmer, 185 ZoomInfo, 185 Index 18/10/10 11:35 AM Rev Confirming Pages SUBJECT INDEX ABC analysis, 412–413 Ability to pay, 152–153 Abratt, Russell, 372, 403 Accommodating mode, 331 Account opportunity, 414 Accounts classification of, 412–413 house, 154, 452 investing in, 417–418 key, 452 Account salespeople, 451–452 Account share, 416 Account team managers, 10 Acknowledge method, 278–279 Active listening explanation of, 104–105 strategies for, 106–108 during telephone conversations, 116–117 Activity goals, 410, 426 Activity planning, daily, 418–419 Activity quotas, 444 Adaptive planning, 328 Adaptive selling See also Selling explanation of, 129–130 to generate leads, 163 knowledge management and, 130–134 Adaptive selling skills knowledge and, 141 social styles and, 134–140 systems to develop, 141–143 versatility and, 240–242 Administrative functions, 440–441 Administrative laws, 48 Advantages, 219 Advertising banner, 161 function of, to generate leads, 162 on Internet, 80, 161 Agenda, negotiation, 333 Agent, 48–49 Aggarwal, Praveen, 318, EN-13 Aggressive salespeople, 301, 302 Agnihotri, Raj, 318, EN-5, EN-8 Agrawal, Shashank Shekhar, 97 Aik, Voon Chuan, 346 Aitken, Lucy, EN-12 Alexander, David, 176, 310 Alexander, Joe E., EN-12 Alexander, Shari, 125, EN-4 Aleynykov, Felix, 199, 229 Allen, Jeff F., 176 Allen, Woody, 416 Alonzo, Mark, 229 Alternative choice method, 306 Alvarez, Luis I., 372 Alvarez, Mark, 22 Always a share, 81 Ambush negotiation, 332 Amiables, 137, 209 Amyx, Douglas, 61, 147, EN-2 Analogies, 103 Analysis paralysis, 184 Analyticals, 137 Andersen, Julie, EN-4 Anderson, Ashley, 68 Anderson, Erin, 463 Anderson, James C., EN-6, EN-7, EN-8 Andersson, Svante, 96 Andrews, Betsy, 387 Ang, Lawrence, EN-11 Animation, 242 Anitsal, Ismer, 495 Anitsal, Meral, 495 Annual spend, 84 Anxiety, 253 See also Stress Appearance See Physical appearance Appel, David, 299, 314 Application forms, 471 Aramo-Immonen, Heli, 147 Araujo, M Luisa del Rio, 463 Arm movement, 109–110 Armstrong, Linda, EN-6 Armstrong, Robert W., EN-9 Arnold, Dana, EN-3 Aronauer, Rebecca, 21, EN-2, EN-4 Articulation, 102 Asare, Anthony, EN-9 Assertiveness characteristics of, 301, 302 explanation of, 134 indicators of, 135 social style matrix and, 135–137 Assessment centers, 472 Assumptive close, 307 Atkin, Thomas, EN-9 Attitudes display of improper, 309–310 maintaining positive, 262, 301 origins of, 38 Attitudinal loyalty, 352 Auctions, reverse, 86–87 Automatic replenishment (AR), 83, 252 Autry, Chad W., 96 Avery, Susan, EN-3 Avila, Ramon A., 231, 372, EN-2, EN-5 Avlonitis, George J., 463, 495 Avoiding mode, 331 Awareness stage of relationships, 359–360 Ayeb, B., EN-5 Baber, Anne, 176 Babin, Barry J., 231 Back, Aaron, EN-3 Backdoor selling, 40, 44 Backstrom, Lars, 372 Badrinarayanan, Vishag, 147 Baesens, Bart, EN-1 Bailey, Jeffrey, 308, 457, 485, 488 Balanced presentations, 223 Balance sheet method, 304–305 Baldwin, William, EN-5 Balfour, Frederik, 176 Banker, Rajiv D., EN-10 Barbeau, Azure, 99 Barber, Clifford S., 258 Barclay, Donald W., EN-9 Barker, Julie, 176 Barksdale, Hiram C., Jr., 318, EN-10 Barnes, Bradley R., 147 Barnes, John W., EN-11, EN-12 Barnett, Tim, 61 Barratt, Simone, EN-1 Barriers, 194–195 Barry, Bruce, EN-9 Barry, James M., 372 Baston, Jim, EN-11 Batislam, Emine Persentili, 28 Batt, Peter J., 346 Baugh, Frank, 426, 428 Bazerman, Max H., 346 Bearden, Lauren, 3–4 Bearden, William O., 45, 61, EN-2 Beauchet, Pascal, 318 Beauregard, Robert, EN-9 Beck, Erik R., 360 Beckwith, Sandra, EN-6 Behavioral loyalty, 351–352 Bellenger, Danny N., 346, EN-10 Bellizi, Joseph A., 61 Bello, Daniel C., 147 Belonax, Joseph J., Jr., 28, 231, 372, EN-7 Bement, Alex, EN-12 Benbasat, Izak, EN-5 Benchmarking, 411 Bendixen, Michael, 403 Benedict, Jan, 372 Benefit-in-reverse close, 307 Index cas30018_idx_I1-I18.indd I5 I-5 18/10/10 11:35 AM Rev Confirming Pages Benefit opening, 207 Benefits explanation of, 218 transition from features to, 219–221 Benefit statements, 299–300 Benefit summary method, 303–304 Ben Franklin method, 304–305 Bergeron, Jasmin, EN-8, EN-10 Bergstein, Cynthia, 145–146 Berry, Julian, 433 Berry, Wendell, EN-1 Berthon, Jean-Paul, 125 Berthon, Pierre, 125 Beverland, Michael, EN-11 Beyerlein, Michael M., 201 Bhalla, Gaurav, 28 Bhuian, Shahid N., 147 Bianchi, Constanza, EN-10 Biba, Erin, 201, EN-7 Biemans, Wim G., EN-11 Bienert, Marge, EN-2 Bienstock, Carol C., EN-3 Bird, Tom, 231 Bird dog, 165 Birk, Matthias M., 97 Birt, Phil, 157, EN-5 Bistritz, Stephen J., 231, EN-3, EN-8 Black, Cathie, 352 Blitz, 165 Blomqvist, Kirsimarja, EN-1 Blount, Jeb, 5, 233 Blythe, Jim, 176, EN-3 Body angle, 109 Body language See also Nonverbal communication elements of, 109–110 explanation of, 108 patterns in, 110–111 sending messages with, 111–113 space and physical contact and, 113–114 Body movements, 113 Bolander, Willy, 318 Boles, James S., 231, 318, 346, EN-10 Bond, M., EN-4 Bonner, Joseph M., 147 Bonney, Leff, 97, EN-10 Bonuses, 445, 447 Boomerang method, 277–278 Boretz, Adam, EN-11 Bottom-up forecasting, 443 Boulton, C., 201 Bounce-back card, 162 Boundary-spanning employees, 366–367 Bowden, Mark, 125, EN-4 Bowie, David, EN-10 Bowing, 113 Boyd, Russ, 82 Boyer, Stefanie L., EN-12 Bradberry, Travis, 28 Bradford, Kevin D., 258, 318 Brady, Tim, 176 Brainstorming session, 328 Branding, 488 Branton, John, 307, EN-8 Brashear, Thomas G., EN-9, EN-10, EN-12 Brehmer, Per-Olof, 463 I-6 cas30018_idx_I1-I18.indd I6 Brencic, Maja Makovec, EN-11 Bribes cultural differences and, 33, 40, 41, 55 legislation addressing, 56 lubrication payments and, 54–55 Briggs, Ellen, 96 Brill, Tracey, 141, 229–230, EN-7, EN-8 Brinkmann, Jorg, 96 Bristow, Dennis N., 61, EN-2 Britt, Julie, 299 Brock, Dave, 437–438, 459 Brodie, Roderick J., 96 Brogan, Chris, 176, EN-4 Broniarczyk, Susan M., 231 Brookes, Dave, 209 Brooks, Bradley W., 346 Brooks, Brendan, 131, 224 Brooks, Charles M., EN-12 Brooks, William T., EN-7 Browbeating, 338–339 Brown, Fred, 309, EN-8 Brown, Gene, 28, 147 Brownell, Eleanor, EN-8 Brubaker, Lee, 419, EN-11 Bruns, Travis, 90 Bud, Peter Paul, 289 Budget limitation tactic, 338 Building partnerships model, 22–23 Bumpurs, Harold, 314 Bun, Maurice J G., 372 Burn, Brian, 231 Burrows, Peter, 257 Bush, Alan J., 372, EN-12 Bush, Richard, 81 Business defamation, 52 Business-to-business channels explanation of, 12, 13 Internet and, 85–87 Buyers See Customers; Prospects Buyer’s remorse, 307 Buying centers See also Organizational buying decisions; Purchasing contact with, 76 explanation of, 74 multiattribute model and, 92–95 needs of members of, 77, 80–82 roles within, 76 supplier evaluation and choice by, 76–80 Buying community, 159 Buying decisions See also Organizational buying decisions modified rebuys, 72–74 new tasks, 72–73 straight rebuys, 72, 73 Buying signals, 298 Caceres, Ruben C., 403 Cadogan, John W., 61, EN-2 Calantone, Roger J., 96, 147 Calderaro, Fabio, 61 Callarman, Bill, 233 Camarero, Carmen, 372 Campbell, Colin, 125 Campbell, Dennis, EN-10 Campbell, Kim Sydow, EN-10 Campbell, Susie, 343 Canned presentations, 128 Canned sales pitches, 34 Cannon, Joseph P., EN-12 Capital equipment, 65, 296 Caprio, Frank, 440, EN-11 Caps, on earnings, 449 Caramanico, Dan, 176 Careers See Sales careers Carlysle, Rick, 35, 58 Carnegie, Dale, 206, 486, EN-4 Carr, Heather, 15, 25 Carr, Jon C., 372, EN-10 Carr, Matthew, EN-11 Carriger, William C., III, 124 Carros, Laura, 313 Carter, Louis, 147 Case, Scott, EN-3 Cash discounts, 295–297 Cash on delivery (COD), 49 Cassel, Jeremy, 231 Castleberry, Stephen B., 105, 149, 318, EN-4, EN-13 Center-of-influence method, 159–160 Cernell, Jessica, 234 Chabowski, Brian R., 97 Chakrabarty, Subhra, 147 Chakraborty, Goutam, EN-3, EN-10 Chakravorti, Samit, 147 Challagalla, Goutam, 346 Champions, 394 Chan, Albert, EN-8 Chan, Elaine, 231 Chandran, Rajan, EN-5 Chang, Chia-Chi, EN-10 Chang, Julia, EN-12 Change champions of, 394 positioning for, 394–395 rate of, 393 resources for, 395 scope of, 393–394 time-based strategy for, 395 Change agents, 393 Chaniotakis, Ioannis E., EN-10 Charan, Ram, EN-1 Charts, 238–239 Chen, Der-Fa Robert, 28 Chen, Injazz J., 97 Chen, Mei-Fang, 42 Cheng, Chen-Liang, 495 Chief executive officers (CEOs), 76 Chief financial officers (CFOs), 76 Choi, Sunmee, EN-9 Chonko, Lawrence B., 28, 61, 463, EN-2, EN-11, EN-12 Choo, David, EN-8 Chow, Clement S F., 403 Chow, Wing-ki, EN-9 Christensen, Clayton M., EN-1 Chuckalot, Marty, 145 Circular routing, 422 Clancy, Heather, EN-7 Clark, Paul, 372 Clayton Act of 1914, 51 Client relationship managers, 9–10 Clifford, Stephanie, 231 Clinton, Bill, EN-4 Clonch, Kevin, 349–350, 355, 369 Index 18/10/10 11:35 AM Rev Confirming Pages Clopton, Stephen W., 231 Closed questions, 213 Closing See also Commitment effective methods for, 302–306 explanation of, 292 trial, 221–222, 300 Closing cues, 298 Cloverleaf routing, 422, 423 Coach, 75 Coates, Graham, 372 Codes of ethics explanation of, 38 personal, 39–40 Cohon, Charles, 292 Cold calls, 165, 268 Cold canvas method, 165 Colgate, Mark, 29, 495 Collaborating mode, 331 Collateral, 242 Colleagues, 47–48 Collusion, 52–53 Comaford-Lynch, Christine, EN-7 Combination plans, 447 Comer, Lucette B., 372, 463, EN-1, EN-4 Commission advantages of, 446–447 combination plans using, 447 draw against, 446 explanation of, 445 rate of, 446 Commission base, 445 Commitment buyers comments and, 298–300 closing the interview following, 312 creeping, 71 during employment interviews, 481 examples of presale, 294 failure to obtain, 309–312 to financial terms and conditions, 295–398 importance of securing, 292, 294–295 nonverbal cues and, 300 objections during attempts to obtain, 263 process of obtaining, 292–294 in relationships, 390–391 responsibilities following, 306–309 Commitment methods alternative choice, 306 balance sheet, 304–305 benefit summary, 303–304 direct request, 303 list of traditional, 306, 307 probing, 305–306 types of, 300–303 Commitment stage of relationships communication in, 391–393 corporate culture and, 393 elements of, 390–391 explanation of, 361, 389–390 salesperson as change agent in, 393–395 Common law, 48 Communication active listening and, 104–108 breakdowns in, 100–101 cultural differences in, 102, 120–121 e-mail, 5, 117–119, 423–424 importance of skills in, 18–19, 310 methods of, 7–8 nonverbal, 108–116 (See also Nonverbal communication) open, 103–104, 365 process of, 100 in relationships, 391–393 social networking as, 118–120 stories as, 102–103, 237 technology and, 116–120, 456 telephone and voice mail, 116–117, 121, 166, 195, 423–424 voice characteristics and, 102 when dealing with objections, 283–284 word choice and, 101–102 word-of-mouth, 80, 81 Comparative cost-benefit analysis, 249 Compensation method, 276–277, 280 Compensation system establishment of, 445–446 explanation of, 21 Competence, 363 Competing mode, 331 Competitors failure to monitor actions of, 396–397 interference with, 53 relationships with, 48 switching jobs to work for, 46, 47 Complacency, 397–398 Complement opening, 207 Compromising mode, 331 Compton, Jason, 275, 289 Computers See also Technology for assistance with paperwork and communications, 424–425 to display visuals, 241–243 for time management, 420–421 Concessions, during negotiation, 327, 339–340 Conchar, Margy, EN-3 Confidence, 19 Confidential information, 36–37, 43 Conflict in negotiations, 330–331 in relationships, 398–399 Conlon, Ginger, 315–316 Conner, Regina, 240 Conspiracy, 52–53 Consumer channels, 12–14 Continuous yes close, 307 Contracts, 49, 50 Contract to sell, 49 Control system management, 444 Conventional résumés, 473 Conversion goals, 410–411 Conversion ratio, 428 Cooper, Randolph B., EN-9 Coote, Leonard V., EN-9 Cordón, Carlos, 231 Corporate culture, 393 Cost-benefit analysis, 249 Coughlan, Anne T., 61, 463 Cover letters, 476–478 Covington, Monty, 397 Crant, J Michael, 318 Cravens, David W., 372, EN-12 Creativity, 19 Credibility explanation of, 222 during sales calls, 207, 222–225 Credibility statements, 223 Credit-rating services, 153 Credit terms, 295–297 Credulous person standard, 51 Creeping commitment, 71 Cross, Lisa, EN-10 Cross, Mark E., EN-10 Cross-selling, 388–389 Croux, Christophe, EN-1 Crowder, Martin, 28 Crutsinger, Christy, 495 Culbert, Bruce, 297–298, 484, EN-8 Cultural differences awareness of, 209, 223 in communication, 102, 120–121 in ethical standards, 33, 55 in eye contact, 121 in hand gestures, 110, 113 in negotiation, 334 in space and physical contact, 113 Cultural relativism, 55 Cummings, Betsy, EN-6, EN-8, EN-10 Cumulative discounts, 295 Curran, James M., 385 Customer benefit proposition, 218 Customer-centric, Customer lifetime value (CLV) explanation of, 7, 350–351 variations in, 352–353 Customer orientation, 363–364 Customer relationship management (CRM) explanation of, 11 partnerships and, 351 software for, 360 use of, 133, 296, 378, 454, 456 Customers See also Prospects ability to identity with, 208–209 creeping commitment by, 71 dealing with tough, 284 decision-making process of, 186 ethical relationships with, 18, 36–37, 40–44 first impressions with, 205–206 getting attention of, 206–209, 234 getting signature of, 308 handling complaints from, 380–384 knowledge of, 18, 131–132 obtaining commitment from, 16, 298–306 obtaining leads from, 156–157 as pace setters, 301 precall information about, 181–183 sales call allocation grid to analyze, 415–416 selling to internal, 437, 439–440 showing appreciation to, 308 social styles of, 134–141 types of, 64–68 value of, 350–351 Customer satisfaction, 354, 384 Customer service, 441 Customer service reps (CSRs), 454 Customer share, 416 Index cas30018_idx_I1-I18.indd I7 I-7 18/10/10 11:35 AM Rev Confirming Pages Customer value proposition development of, 249 examples of, 248–249 explanation of, 5, 191, 248 Customized presentations, 128–129 Dace, Lionel, 78–79, EN-3 Daily activity planning explanation of, 418–419 process for, 419–420 Daily call reports, 45 Dalby, Marcel, 179 Danaher, Mary Kate, 317 Daniels, David, EN-11 Dapiran, G Peter, EN-11 Darlington, Hank, EN-3 Databases, 164 Data mining, 164–165 Davids, Meryl, EN-2 Davies, Andrew, 176 Davis, Brian, 470 Davis, Lenita, EN-10 Davis, Steve, EN-1 Dawes, Philip L., EN-1, EN-11 Dawson, Roger, EN-9 Day, Tom, 473, EN-12 Deception, 40, 41 de Chernatony, Leslie, 97 Deciders, 76 Decision-making process, 186 Decoding, 100, 101 Deeter-Schmelz, Dawn R., 403 Defamation, business, 52 De La Rue, Keith, 296 Delmar, Ken, EN-7 De Luca, Luigi M., EN-1 Demand, derived vs direct, 69 de Matos, Celso Augusto, EN-10 Demonstrations, product, 244–245 Denize, Sara, EN-1 Denizel, Meltem, 28 Dennis, David, 365 Denny, Susan, 457, EN-12 Dependability in relationships, 362–363 of salespeople, 18 Der Foo, Maw, 346 Der Hovanesian, Mara, 269 Derived demand, 69 Deutschendorf, Harvey, EN-2 Dey, Prasanta, EN-3 Diagnostic feedback, 132 Dickie, Jim, 46 Dickson, Peter R., 147 Diener, Marc, 346 Dietvorst, Roeland C., 147 Digital collateral management systems, 242–243 Digital easels, 244 DiNovis, Gregory, 99, 203 Diosdado de la Pena, Paulina, EN-3 Direct demand, 69 Direct denial method, 274–275 Direct mail, 162 Direct request method, 303 Discounting the cash flows, 251 I-8 cas30018_idx_I1-I18.indd I8 Discounts cash, 295–297 cumulative, 295 explanation of, 295 Disguised interviews, 481 Dissolution stage of relationships conflict in, 398–399 explanation of, 361, 395–396 failing to monitor competitor actions in, 396–397 failing to monitor industry in, 397 falling into complacency in, 297–298 limited personal relationships in, 396 Distribution channels efficiency of, 82 explanation of, 12, 13 Dixon, Andrea L., EN-12 Document cameras, 243 Dolan, John Patrick, EN-9 Dominguez, Meggie, 127 Donaldson, Michael C., 346 Donath, Bob, EN-6, EN-7 Doney, Patricia M., 372 Donley, Mike, 108 Donoho, Professor, 274 Do-Not Call Registry, 54 Donthu, Naveen, 318 Dooley, Ken, EN-7, EN-8 Doyle, Declan, 96 Draw, 446 Dritmanis, Sue, EN-7 Drivers, 135 Drollinger, Tanya, EN-4 Dudley, George W., EN-2, EN-12 Dudley, Robert C., EN-9 Dulworth, Michael, EN-5 Dunn, Troy, 176 Dunnett, Jane, EN-3 Dunnette, Marvin, EN-9 Dursun, Turkan, 372 Dwyer, Robert, EN-3, EN-9, EN-10, EN-11 Dynanics (Microsoft), 399 Dyson, Sir James, 145 Earls, Alan, EN-3 Eckert, James A., EN-9 Economic influencer, 75 Economics, buying decisions based on, 77 Efficiency, 82, 359 Efficient consumer response (ECR), 82, 252 Eggert, Andreas, 433 80-20 listening rule, 104, 412–413 El-Ansary, Adel, EN-11 El-Ansary, Waleed A., EN-11 Electronic data interchange (EDI), 83, 253, 377 Electronic whiteboards, 243–244 Elfenbein, Hillary Anger, 346 Eliason, Frank, EN-5 Ellwood, Mark, EN-1 Elmore, Bill, 457 E-mail communication guidelines for, 117–118 customer contact using, 423–424 filters for, 119 use of, Emotional close, 307 Emotional intelligence, 19–20 Emotional needs, 77 Emotional outburst tactic, 337–338 Empathy, 19 Employees, boundary-spanning, 366–367 Employment, ethical guidelines for switching, 46–47 Employment postings, 475–476 Encoding, 100 Endless-chain method, 157, 158 End users, 65 Entertainment gifts, 40, 43 Environmental issues, communication and, 101 Enz, Cathy A., EN-2 Erickson, G Scott, 147 E-selling, 162 Espinosa, Abel, 199, 229 Ethical behavior See also Legal issues with colleagues, 47–48 with competitors, 48 with customers, 18, 36–37, 40–44 factors influencing, 33, 36–40 with organizations, 44–47 unethical requests and, 450–451 Ethical imperialism, 55 Ethics codes of, 38–40 explanation of, 33 field sales managers and, 450 international issues related to, 54, 55 partnering relationships and, 34–36 sales executives and, 449 Ethics review boards, 449, 450 Etter, Lauren, EN-2 European Union, 54 Evans, Jason, 44, 58 Evans, Kenneth R., 28, EN-9 Evans, Meryl K., EN-4 Evanschitzky, Heiner, EN-5 Exclusive sales territories, 153–154 Excuses, 272 Executive briefing centers, 244 Executive summary, of proposals, 247 Expansion stage of relationships cross-selling in, 388–389 explanation of, 361, 384–385 full-line selling in, 388 generating repeat orders in, 385–387 Expense accounts, 45 Expense budgets, 443–444 ExpertNegotiator®, 326 Experts, salespeople as, 166–167 Expert systems, 142–143 Exploration phase of relationships ensuring proper use of product or service in, 378–379 expectations in, 377 explanation of, 276–277, 360–361 follow-up in, 379–380 handling customer complaints in, 380–384 monitoring order processing in, 377–378 Expressed warranties, 50 Index 18/10/10 11:35 AM Rev Confirming Pages Expressives, 136–137, 209 Extranets, 162 Eye contact, 109, 112, 121 Eyes, 109 FAB, 219 Facebook, 46, 81, 118–119, 122, 149, 160–161, 488, 491 Facial cues, 109, 112 Fadhel, N., EN-5 Fales, John, 162 False claims, 48 False Claims Act (1863), 32, 51 Fan, Chiang Ku, 495 Farber, Barry, 125, 258 Farquharson, Bill, 176, 201 Farragher, George P., EN-3 Fautsch, Leo, 231 Feature dumping, 218 Features explanation of, 218 transition to benefits from, 219–221 FEBA, 219–220 Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914, 51 Federal Trade Commission (FTC), 48, 54, 57 Feedback, 100, 132 Feel-felt-found method, 277–278 Feigon, Josiane Chriqui, 125 Felt stress, 490–491 Ferrell, O C., EN-2 Ferrin, Pilar Fernandez, 463 Field sales managers ethics and, 450 explanation of, 447 function of, 447–448 Field salespeople, 15–16, 454 Field support reps, 454 Filiztekin, Alpay, 28 Financial terms credit terms and, 295–297 discounts and, 295 presentation and, 295 price and, 297–298 shipping costs and, 297 Fiorello, Tony, 405–406 Fisher, Roger, EN-9 Fitzgerald, Michael, 176 Flaherty, Karen E., 463, EN-1 Flash (Adobe), 242 Flaviano, Susan, 418–419, 421, 429, EN-11 Fleischer, Mark, 433 Fleischman, Gary, EN-12 Fletcher, Heather, EN-12 Flexibility, 19, 421 Flynn, Terry, EN-4 FOB factory, 49 FOB installed, 297 Focus of dissatisfaction, 193 Focus of power, 193 Focus of receptivity, 192–193 Follow-up explanation of, 308 procedures for, 379–380 Forbes, Lukas P., EN-5 Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), 56 Forestall, 269–271 Forman, Howard, 403 Fournier, Christophe, EN-2, EN-11 Foust, Dean, EN-5 Fowler, William, 211 Fox, Edward, 28 Franklin, Benjamin, 304 Free on board (FOB), 49, 297 Frei, Frances, EN-10 Freijsen, Marion, 176 French, Warren, 125 Friendly silent questioning stare (FSQS), 274 Fu, Frank, 318 Fuhrman, Elizabeth, 457 Full-line selling, 388 Functional relationships explanation of, 354–355 nature of, 356 Functional résumés, 473–474 Gaffka, Andrew Eric, 233–234 Gaffney, John, 28 Gallagher, Chuck, 379, EN-10 Gallo, Carmine, 125, EN-7, EN-8 Gardner, Lenann, EN-8 Gardner, Sean, 83–84 Garrido-Samaniego, M José, EN-3 Garutti, Randy, 42 Gatekeepers, 75–76 Gates, Bill, 136, 245 Gee, Robert, 372 Gelles, David, 81 Gender, 113 Geographic salespeople, 451 Georges, Laurent, 147, 463, EN-8, EN-10 Geraint, John, EN-3 Gerlsbeck, Rob, EN-10 Gestures, hand, 110, 112–113 Gietl, Patricia, 31, 38, 51, 58 Gifts ethical behavior regarding, 40–43 as sales aids, 239 Gilley, Angela, 335 Girard, Joe, 150 Gladwell, Malcolm, EN-4 Glady, Nicolas, EN-1 Glynn, Mark S., 96 Goals activity, 410, 426 career, 407–408, 483–487 conversion, 410–411 nature of, 408–409 need for, 407–408 performance, 409–410 relationship, 365–366 sales, 411 Gober, Rachel, 261 Godson, Mark, 176 Goldsmith, Marshall, 147 Golicic, Susan L., 96 Gonzalez, Jose Antonio Varela, 463 Gonzalez-Padronn, Tracy, 96 Good, David J., 61, 372 Good-faith performance, 50 Good guy-bad guy routine, 335–336 Goodson, Shannon, EN-12 Gopalakrishna, Srinath, EN-9 Gordon, Geoffrey L., 463 Gorin, Eli, 346 Gosselin, Tom, 346 Go-to-market strategies, Gottry, Sarah, 257 Gough, Orla, 318 Government agencies as customers, 66–67 lead information from, 169 selling to, 31–32, 51 Graf, Todd, 224, EN-7 Graham, Ben, 85 Graham, John, 231, EN-12 Gramm, Phil, 193 Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999, 54 Granroth, Barb, 288 Graphics, 238–239 Gravier, Michael J., EN-3 Grayson, Kent, 28 Greco, Susan, EN-7 Green, Kenneth, Jr., 28 Greenberg, Kevin, 176 Greenberg, Paul, 315–316, 397, EN-1 Greengard, Samuel, EN-10 Greeters, 481 Grégoire, Yany, 147 Grid analysis, 414–416 Griffin, Jill G., 231 Grisaffe, Douglas B., 28, 96, EN-1, EN-2 Grooming, 205 See also Physical appearance Gross margin quotas, 444 Group interviews, 482 Groups ability to work with, 436 objections when selling to, 281 sales calls to, 225–226 Grover, Steve L., EN-2 Groves, Eric, 125 Gschwandtner, Lisa, 385, 488 Gu, Flora F., 176 Guarantees, 50 Guenzi, Paolo, 28, 147, 463, EN-1, EN-8, EN-10, EN-11 Gugnani, Divya, 209 Gulati, Rajesh, 61, EN-2 Gundy, Cynthia, 233 Gunter, Bernd, 433 Gutiérrez-Arranz, Ana María, EN-3 Gutterman, Loofie, EN-1 Hadaldo, Betty, 286 Hales, Marcia, EN-5 Halo effect, 115–116, 207 Hamilton, Cheryl, 125 Hamm, B Curtis, 415 Hancock, Mark, 280 Hand, David J., 28 Hand gestures, 110, 112–113 Handouts, 245–246 Handshaking, 112–113 Hansen, John D., 61, EN-1, EN-2 Hansen, Sofie, EN-9 Hanson, Ray, 220, EN-7 Index cas30018_idx_I1-I18.indd I9 I-9 18/10/10 11:35 AM Rev Confirming Pages Harassment, 47 Harding, Dan, 488 Hardy, Quentin, 176 Hargie, Owen, EN-4 Harrell, Ashley, 484 Harris, Anthony, 193 Harris, Eric G., EN-5 Hartley, Gregory, 125 Hartline, Michael D., 61 Hätönen, Jussi, EN-11 Hauser, John R., EN-10 Hawes, Jon M., EN-10 Hawkins, Timothy G., 201, EN-3 Haytko, Diana L., 403 Heath, Chip, 346 Heath, Dan, 346 Hedges, Dawn, 185, EN-6 Heger, Jean, 454 Heilman, T., 28 Heiman, Stephen E., 201, EN-3, EN-6 Helgesen, Oyvind, EN-11 Hellstrom, Markus, EN-12 Helm, Sabrina, 433 Henneberg, Stephan, EN-8 Henschen, Doug, EN-10, EN-12 Herasimchuk, A., EN-7 Heritage, Valerie, 433, EN-11 Herrin, Richard, EN-12 Hersma, Jim, EN-6, EN-7 Hester, Chuck, EN-5 Heyden, Bill, 346 Hill, James, 104 Hilliard, Brian, 176 Hinsch, Steve, 377–378 Ho, William, EN-3 Hobday, Michael, 176 Hodge, Richard, EN-8 Hoff, Garth, 28 Hoffer, Eric, 485 Hoffman, Leah, EN-7 Hoivik, Heidi von Weltzien, 61 Holden, Reed K., EN-8 Holder, Dick, 10 Hollenbeck, Candice R., 125 Hollet, Sandrine, EN-11 Hollmann, Sabine, 433 Holloway, Pam, 231 Homburg, Christian, 28, 176 Homer, Alex, 299, 309, 315 Honesty, 364 Honigman, Daniel B., EN-6 Hopkins, Tom, 486 Hosford, Christopher, 28, EN-6, EN-11 Hostile work environment, 47 House accounts, 154, 452 Houston, Mark B., EN-9 Howard, Paul, 96 Howatt-Moberg, Nicole, 233 Howell, Ted, 490, EN-13 How Winners Sell (Stein), 310 Hrehocik, Maureen, EN-6 Hu, Michael Y., 495, EN-12 Huag, Laura, EN-12 Hubbard, Jack, EN-5 Hult, G T M., 96, 97 Hulten, Bertil, 372 I-10 cas30018_idx_I1-I18.indd I10 Humor, in sales presentations, 237–238 Humrichouse, Jim, 451, 488, EN-12 Hung, Humphry, EN-9 Hung, Kineta, 176 Hunger, Shirley, EN-2 Hunt, C Shane, 463 Hunter, Gary K., 147 Hunter, Shirley, 43, 312–313, 365–366 Hurd, Mark, 31, 466, 484 Hutt, Michael D., 463, EN-11, EN-12 Iacobucci, Dawn, 463 Iizuka, Izabella, 242, EN-5, EN-7 Illustrations, 239, 241 Implication questions, 215–216 Implied warranties, 50 Importance weights, 93–94 Impression management explanation of, 204 first impressions and, 205–206 getting customer’s attention and, 206–209 identifying what went wrong and, 210 rapport development and, 208–210 seat selection and, 206 with strong presentations, 234–236 waiting for prospect and, 204–205 Inbound salespeople, 454 Inbound telemarketing, 166 Incentive pay, 445 Indirect denial method, 275–276 Industry associations, 486–487 Industry monitoring, 397 Inflection, 102 Influencers, 74–75 Influential adversaries, 182 Information clarifying, 106–107 repeating, 106 restating or rephrasing, 106 summarizing, 107 withholding, 41 Information sources Internet as, 184–185 noncompeting salespeople as, 186 prospects as, 186 salespeople as, 10–11 secondary, 186 secretaries and receptionists as, 185–186 within your company, 184 Information technology, 18 See also Technology Ingram, Thomas N., 45, 357, EN-2 Initiators, 74 Inman, W R Anthony, 28 Innovation, access to, 358–359 Inside salespeople, 15–16, 454, 484 Institutions, as customers, 67 Integrated marketing communications, Intelligence, emotional, 19–20 Internal partnerships explanation of, 436 importance of, 436 sales role in, 436–440 International markets account classification and, 414–415 buying process and, 68–69 communication and, 102, 120–121 ethical and legal issues for, 54–56 sales forecasting in, 443 selling to government agencies and, 67 technology management of accounts in, 425 Internet advantages of selling on, 8–9 advertising on, 80, 161 business-to-business selling and, 85–87 e-mail and, 5, 117–119, 423–424 gathering information about prospects and organization on, 184–185 generating leads through, 161–162 search engines for, 161, 184–185 social networking and, 118–120, 133, 160–161 Interviews (employment) follow-up to, 482–483 function of, 472 guidelines for, 480–481 preparing for, 478–480 process to gain, 474–478 types of, 481–482 Intimate zone, 113 Introduction opening, 207 Inventory turnover, 252–253 Invitation to negotiate, 49 Ivens, Björn Sven, 201 Jackson, Donald W., Jr., EN-11, EN-12 Jaffe, Joseph, 176 Jalkala, Anne, 258 Janes, Erika Rasmusson, EN-4 Jap, Sandy, EN-9 Jaramillo, Jorge Fernando, 28, 495, EN-1, EN-2, EN-5, EN-12 Jashinsky, Karen, 209 Javers, Eamon, EN-7 Jayachandran, Satish, 28 Jensen, Ove, 28 Jobs, ethical guidelines for switching, 46–47 Johnson, Ben, 323 Johnson, Devon, 28 Johnson, Johna Till, EN-8 Johnson, Julie T., 318, EN-10 Johnson, Kevin, 149 Johnson, Mark S., 231 Johnson, Michael D., EN-9 Johnson, Norman A., EN-9 Johnston, Brian, EN-4 Johnston, Mark W., EN-1 Johnston, Wesley, 346 Jolson, Marvin A., 301, EN-8 Jones, Eli, 318, 463, EN-12 Joshi, Ashwin W., 463, EN-11 Joshi, Yogesh V., 372 Joyner, Jerry, 237 Judson, Kimberly, 463 Just-in-time (JIT) inventory control, 82–83, 252 Kagermann, Henning, EN-1 Kamakura, Wagner, EN-11 Karinch, Maryann, 125 Index 18/10/10 11:35 AM Rev Confirming Pages Kashyap, Vishal, 231, EN-9 Katsikeas, Constantine S., 97 Kazanjian, Kirk, 11, 176, EN-9 Keeney, Rob, 292, 416 Keh, Hean Tat, 231 Kendall, Brent, EN-3 Kendy, William F., EN-5 Kennedy, Helene, 416 Ketchen, David J., Jr., 97 Key accounts, 452 Khabibrakhmanov, Ildar, 417 Khoshgoftaar, T., 147 Kickbacks, 41 Kidwell, Blair, 372, EN-2, EN-5 Kienzler, Donna, EN-3, EN-4, EN-5 Kilic, Ceyhan, 372 Kim, Dong Ryul, 289 Kim, Hae-Jung, 495 Kim, Kyung Hoon, 289 Kim, Sang Yong, 176 Kinnard, Andrea, 441 Klamfoth, Dale, EN-4 Klein, Karen E., EN-4 Klein, Noreen M., EN-7 Kling, Nathan D., EN-12 Knight, Dee K., 495 Knowledge product, 18, 131–132, 223–224 retrieval of, 132–133 in social style matrix, 141 sources of, 132, 486–487 Knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs), 485–487 Knowledge management elements of, 131–133 explanation of, 130, 296 Knowledge management system, 132–133 Knowledge management technology, 359 Ko, Eunju, 289 Kohli, Ajay K., 346 Kok, Charmian, EN-3 Koller, Monika, 433 Konrath, Jill, 125, EN-8 Kotabe, Masaaki, 96 Kothandaraman, Prabakar, 403 Kozak, Robert, EN-9 Kramer, Jeff, 152, 183 Krasnikov, Alexander, 28 Kraus, Rich, 50–51, EN-2 Krause, Mike, 160, EN-5, EN-6 Krell, Eric, EN-1 Krohmer, Harley, 28 Krotz, Phil, 82 Krzanowski, Wojtek, 28 Kulmala, Harri I., 231 Kumar, Ajith, 463, EN-11, EN-12 Kumar, Nirmalya, EN-6, EN-7, EN-8 Kumar, V., 28, 231, EN-1, EN-6, EN-9, EN-10 Kurlan, Dave, 176 Laaksonen, Toni, 231 LaForge, Raymond W., 45, 415, EN-2 Lager, Marshall, 176, 231, 416 Lages, Carmen, 346 Lages, Luis Filipe, 346 Lai, Jennifer, EN-5, EN-6 Laing, Angus W., EN-1 Lam, Long W., 403 Lambert, Brian, EN-12 Lambert, Douglas M., 433 Lammers, Frauke, 346 Lamont, J., 147 Lancastre, Andrew, 346 Lancioni, Richard A., EN-5 Lane, Nikala, 97, 372, EN-12 Langlois, J., 257 Langlotz, Richard, 487–489, EN-11 Laroche, Michel, EN-8, EN-10 Larsen, Trina, 463 Larson, Gary, Lassar, Walfried M., 147, EN-2, EN-10 Lasserre, Christophe, 318 Latz, Marty, 346 Lawrence, Rick, 417 Laws See Legal issues Lawson, Diana R., 346 Leach, Mark P., 96 Lead management system, 170–171 Lead qualification system, 169–171 Leads See also Prospects common sources of, 155–169 explanation of, 150 method to qualify, 151–155 prequalification of, 169 referred, 156–157 Lead users, 358 Leaf, Matt, EN-7 Leapfrog routing, 422 Lee, Chang Hyun, 176 Lee, Jung-Ah, EN-3 Lee, Michael Soon, 346 Lee, Nancy, 28 Lee, Nick, 61, EN-2 Lefaix-Durand, Aurelia, EN-9 Legal issues See also Ethical behavior business defamation as, 52 illegal business practices as, 51–54 international, 54–56 interview questions as, 478, 479 misrepresentation or sales puffery as, 50–51 related to business transactions, 35–36 uniform commercial code and, 48–50 Leg positions, 110 Lehman, Jeff, 5, 233, EN-1 Lehnus, Darryl, 396, EN-11 Leininger, Eric, 29 Le Meunier-FitzHugh, Ken, EN-1 Lenling, David, 79–80, EN-3 Leone, Robert P., EN-6 Leong, Ming Haw, EN-3 Letters in response to job postings, 476–478 sales, 167–168 Levinson, Jordan, 42 Levy, Michael, EN-5 Lewicki, Roy J., EN-9 Lewin, Jeffrey E., 201, 495, EN-12, EN-13 Lewis, Barbara, 403 Lian, Paul C S., EN-1 Liang, Chiung-Ju, EN-9 Liao, S., 147 Lichtenthal, J David, 372 Life-cycle costing, 77, 79 Likability, 364–365 Limas, Francisco, 486 Limbu, Y., EN-7 Lindgreen, Adam, 96 LinkedIn, 118–119, 122, 149, 160–161, 185, 270, 488 Lippert, Susan K., 403 Listening active, 104–108 to objections, 271–272 in telephone conversations, 116–117 Liu, Sandra S., 372, 463, EN-1 Liu, Songqi, EN-12 Locander, William B., EN-2, EN-5, EN-12 Locker, Kitty O., EN-3, EN-4, EN-5 Loe, Terry W., 61 Loehr, Dawn, 470 Lohtia, Ritu, 147 Lone wolves, 10 Long, Mary M., 372 Long-term partnerships See also Partnerships; Relationships commitment phase of, 389–395 dissolution phase of, 395–399 expansion phase of, 384–389 exploration phase of, 376–384 selling in, 357 Lopez, Tará Burnthorne, 372, EN-10 Lorigan, Tara, EN-6 Lost for good, 81 Loudness, 102 Lovas, Michael, 231 Lowballing, 335, 337 Loyalty, 351–352 Lubrication, 54–55 Lucero, Carrete, 96 Lukes, Tim, EN-11 Luntz, Frank, EN-3 Luo, Xueming, 318 Lurz, Bill, EN-8 Lymperopoulos, Constantine, EN-10 Lynch, Daniel F., EN-10 Lynch, Joanne, 97 Macintosh, Gerrard, EN-10 MacIntosh, M H “Mac,” 457 Macko, Sherri, 78 Madden, John, 210 Madhavaram, Sreedhar, 147 Madison, Roland, EN-6 Madu, Christian N., EN-8 Maguire, Bill, 430 Maguire, Marie, 176 Main, Angie, 213, EN-7 Maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO), 65 Major sale, 214 Maldonado, Natalia, EN-4 Malhotra, Deepak, 346 Mallin, Michael L., 318, 433, 495, EN-12 Malshe, Avinash, EN-1, EN-11 Management positions, 22 Mangione, Frank, 462 Index cas30018_idx_I1-I18.indd I11 I-11 18/10/10 11:35 AM Rev Confirming Pages Manipulation, 36 Manolis, Chris, EN-2, EN-11, EN-12 Mantel, Susan P., 61 Manufacturers’ agents, 14 Manufacturing, 440 Maps, 241 Maremont, Mark, EN-2 Marker, Scott, 125 Market exchanges explanation of, 353 functional relationship, 354–355 selling in, 357 solo, 353–354, 356, 389 Marketing relationship, 351 sales and, 441–442 Marketing communications program, 7–8 Marshall, Fred, EN-3, EN-10 Marshall, Greg W., EN-1, EN-2 Marshall, Roger, 97, EN-1 Martin, Craig A., EN-12 Martinez, Carlos Ruy, 61 Mashruwala, Raj, EN-10 Massey, Graham R., EN-1, EN-11 Mast, Kenneth, EN-10 Material requirements planning (MRP), 83 Matthyssens, Paul, 258 Mattila, Anne S., EN-9 Matton, Joseph, EN-10 Mattson, David, 201 Mau, Liang-Hung, 42 Mavondo, Felix T., EN-9 Maxwell, Megan, 200 May, Neville, EN-11 Mays, Jerry, 288 McAdam, Neil, EN-12 McArdle, Kevin, 28 McCahill, N C., McCartney, Paul, 136 McColl-Kennedy, Janet, EN-9 McConnon, Aili, EN-4 McCord, Paul, 176 McCorkle, Denny E., EN-12 McCrum, Mark, EN-4 McCue, Mike, EN-1, EN-6 McFarland, Richard G., 372, EN-2, EN-5, EN-12 McGaulley, Michael, 258, 289 McGrath, Diane, EN-12 McGugan, Gary D., 176 McKee, Judy, 28 McMains, Andre, 78 McSpadden, Beauchamp, 397 McSwain, Cheryl, 481 Meagher, Stephanie, 375–376, 401 Media to display visuals, 241–244 representation of salespeople by, Medrano, Mario, 371 Meisner, Jeff, 391, EN-11 Merchandise markets, 163 Merrill, David, 134, 138–139, 141, 144, EN-5 Meshel, Jeffrey, EN-5 Mettler, Tobias, EN-3 Meuter, Matthew L., 385 I-12 cas30018_idx_I1-I18.indd I12 Meyer, Bob, 10 Miao, C Fred, 28 Michell, Paul, 147 Microsoft Dynamics, 399 Microsoft Outlook, 161 Milgrom, Paul, EN-2 Millard, Pete, EN-6 Miller, Katherine I., EN-3 Miller, Kenneth E., 372 Miller, Robert B., 201, EN-3, EN-6 Mills, Harry, 258 Minifie, Jan, 389 Minimum call objectives, 189 Minimum position, 327 Minor-point close, 307 Misner, Ivan, 176 Misrepresentation, 50–51 Moberg, Christopher R., 403 Models, 239 Modified rebuys, 72–74 Mol, Michael J., 96 Moller, Kristian, 97 Molloy, Donald, 124 Moncrief, William C., EN-2 Money, R Bruce, 61 Moon, Hak Il, 289 Moon, Mark A., 97 Moore, Matt, 296 Moorman, Christine, 28 Moran, Gwen, EN-8 Morgan, Felicia, 403 Moss, Jeff, 484 Motion, Judy, 96 Motivation, 18, 467 Mousas, Stefanos, EN-8 Mrazek, Debbie, 176 MRO supplies, 65, 73 Muir, Clive, 346, 372 Mulki, Jay Prakash, 495, EN-1, EN-2, EN-12 Mullen, Jim, EN-9 Multiattribute model explanation of, 85, 92 implications for salespeople and, 95–96 importance weights and, 93–94 overall evaluation and, 94 performance evaluation of characteristics and, 92–93 supplier selection and, 94–95 value offered and, 94 Multichannel strategy, Multilevel selling, 455–456 Multiple-sense appeals, 234 Mulvey, Richard, 289 Munuera, José Luis, 61 Murchison, Craig, 384, EN-10 Murchison, Myles, EN-7 Murphy, William H., EN-12 Murray, Janet Y., 96 Musalem, Andrés, 372 Musico, C., 28 Mutual investments, 366 MySpace, 491 Nakata, Cheryl, EN-9 Napier, John, 108 Narayandas, Das, EN-9 Narus, James A., EN-6, EN-8 National account managers (NAMs), 452 Naude, Pete, 147 Naudé, Peter, EN-8 Nchege, Onyeka, 457 Ndubisi, Nelson Oly, EN-8 Nedelka, Jeremy, EN-6 Need payoff questions, 216 Needs emotional, 77 identification of, 210–218, 480 individual, 80–82, 467 of leads, 152 objections related to, 264–265 organizational, 7780 rational, 77 Negative referrals, 157 Negotiation ambush, 332 concessions during, 327, 339–340 cultural differences in, 334 elements of successful, 340–341 explanation of, 322 general guidelines for, 332, 334 meeting preliminaries for, 333 nature of, 322, 325 nonnegotiation selling vs., 322–324 planning for, 325–332 traits for successful, 324–325 win–lose, 322, 332, 333, 335–339 win–win, 322, 336, 338 Negotiation jujitsu, 338–339 Negotiation teams individual behavior patterns in, 330–332 selection and management of, 328–330 Neidecker, John, 194 Neidermeyer, Presha, EN-3 Neis, Jason, 152 Nelson, Michael, 194 Net present value (NPV), 251 NetSuite, 27, 61, 132–133, 144, 146, 175–176, 233, 303, 310, 345, 360, 371, 380, 397, 425, 468, 500–502 Networking See also Social networking explanation of, 157 strategies for, 157–159 Nevins, Jennifer L., 61 Nevo, Dorit, EN-5 Newell, Stephen J., 28, 231, 372, EN-7 New-tasks buying decision, 72–73 Ni, Jessica, 42 Nibbling, 337 Nicholson, Mike, 372 Nicholson, Pamela, 341 Noella, Lynne, EN-6 Noise, 101 Nonverbal communication See also Communication appearance and, 114–116 arms and, 109–110 body angle and, 109 explanation of, 108 face and, 109 hands and, 110 Index 18/10/10 11:35 AM Rev Confirming Pages impression management and, 205 legs and, 110 patterns in, 110–111 sending messages with, 111–113 space and physical contact and, 113–114 Nonverbal cues explanation of, 108 indicating commitment readiness, 300 message delivery and, 98, 108 during sales presentations, 221–222 types of, 109–113 Nordstrom, Alfred, 145 North American industry classification system (NAICS), 164 Nurullah, Mohamed, 318 Nussbaum, Ken, 209 Nyaga, Gilbert N., EN-10 Nyden, Jeanette, 346 Oaks, Ken, 349 Obama, Barack, 136 Obama, Michelle, 89 Obermayer, James, 176 Objection response methods acknowledgment as, 278–279 compensation as, 276–277 direct denial as, 274–275 explanation of, 273–274 indirect denial as, 275–276 postponement as, 279 referral as, 277 revisit as, 277–278 use of, 279–281 Objections anticipation of, 268–269 evaluation of, 272 explanation of, 262 forestalling known concerns about, 269–271 listening to, 271–272 price, 281–283 related to needs, 264–265 related to price, 267, 281–284 related to product, 265–266 related to source, 266 related to time, 268 from tough customers, 284 truthfulness in dealing with, 272–273 when buyers raise, 263–264 when selling to group of buyers, 281 Obligations, 50 O’Donnell, Edward, 495, EN-12 Offer, 49 Office scanning, 208 Oh, Sejo, EN-9, EN-10 Olavarrieta, Sergio, EN-3 Olsztynski, Jim, EN-11 Onkvist, Sak, EN-2 Onvernah, Vincent, 495 Open communication, 103–104, 365 Open-door policies, 449 Opening position, 327 Openings, sales presentation, 207–208 Open questions, 212–213 Opportunity costs, 251, 267 Opportunity management, 418 Optimism, 19 Optimistic call objectives, 189 Oral agreements, 49 Orders explanation of, 49 generating repeat, 385–387 Orem, Tina, 125 Organizational buying decisions See also Purchasing complexities of, 68–69 creeping commitment in, 71 individual needs of buying center members for, 80–82 individuals responsible for, 74–76 process of, 69–71 purchasing trends and, 82–87 supplier evaluation and choice and, 76–80 types of, 71–74 Organizational conflict of interest (OCI), 32 Organizational needs economic criteria and, 77 quality criteria and, 78–79 service criteria and, 79–80 Organizations codes of ethics of, 38 as information source, 184 knowledge of, 468–469 needs of, 469–470 precall information about, 181–183 relationships with salesperson’s, 44–47 structure and culture of, 367 Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) buying decisions and, 73, 74 explanation of, 64–65 function of, 66 Orning, Russ, 192 Outbound salespeople, 454 Outbound telemarketing, 166 Outlined presentations, 128, 129 Ozer, Jan, EN-7 Page, Thomas J., Jr., EN-9 Pajunen, Kalle, 231 Palmatier, Robert W., 372, EN-9 Palmer, Jonathan, EN-1 Panagopoulos, Nikolas G., 463, 495 Panel interviews, 482 Paparoidamis, Nicholas G., 403, 463 Paperwork, 424–425 Pappas, James M., 463, EN-1 Parasuraman, A., EN-1 Pardo, Catherine, 147, 201, 463 Parinello, Anthony, 201 Park, Myung Hwan, 289 Parker, Shirley, 91 Parolo, Dario, 417 Partnership phases commitment, 389–395 dissolution, 395–399 expansion, 384–389 exploration, 376–384 Partnerships See also Relationships characteristics of successful, 361–362 commitment to mutual gain in, 366 common goals in, 365–366 ethics in, 34–36 internal, 436–440 long-term, 376–399 management of, 357–359 model of building, 22–23 open communication in, 365 organizational support for, 366–367 relational, 355 with sales managers, 490–491 in sales organization, 15, 442–448 securing commitment in, 390–391 strategic, 355–357 technology for efficiency in, 359 trust in, 42, 362–365 Pass-up method, 278 Patterson, Eddy, EN-3 Paulraj, Antony, 97 Paulssen, Marcel, 97 Pavlovich, Tim, 64 Payback period, 250–251 Pearce, Lydia, 427, 429 Pearson, Leigh Ann, EN-11 Pederson, Evan, 124 Pelham, Alfred, EN-9 Pels, Jaqueline, 97 Penney, James Cash, 355 Penttinen, Esko, EN-1 Peppers, Don, EN-5 Perez, Evan, EN-3 Performance feedback for, 132 goals for, 409–410 Performance evaluation activity analysis for, 426 field sales managers’ role in, 447–448 performance goals and, 426–427 postcall analysis for, 425–426 productivity and, 428 Performance quotas, 444–445 Perkins, Caroline, 42 Perlich, Claudia, 417 Permeh, Amir, 235 Perreault, William D., 147 Perry, John, EN-4 Personal attire, 114–116 Personal branding, 488 Personal development, 410 Personal selling See also Adaptive selling; Selling effects of, 128 ethics and, 33–40 explanation of, flexibility of, principles of, 5–7 reasons to learn about, 4–5 Personal space, 113–114 Personal zone, 113 Persuasion, 36 Petauhoff, Natalie, 385 Peters, Cara, EN-3 Peterson, J Andrew, EN-6 Peterson, R., EN-7 Pettijohn, Charles E., 28, 61 Pettijohn, Linda S., 28, 61 Phillips, Joan M., 318 Index cas30018_idx_I1-I18.indd I13 I-13 18/10/10 11:35 AM Rev Confirming Pages Photographs, 239, 241 Physical appearance first impressions and, 205 as nonverbal communication, 114–115 of salespeople, 115–116 Physical contact, 113–114 Piercy, Nigel F., 28, 97, 372, EN-1, EN-12 Pilgrim, Frank, 370 Pilgrim, Jackie, 370–371 Pilgrim, John, 370–371 Pinkard, Diane Marie, 125 Pinkham, Will, 409 Pioneer selling, 264 Pipeline analysis, 418 Pitt, Leyland, 125 Plank, Richard E., 28, 231, 372, EN-7 Pledger, Chris, 371 Plott, John, 421, EN-11 Plouffe, Christopher R., 147, EN-5, EN-9 Podesta, Connie, EN-8 Pollock, Todd, 291, 315, 484 Polonsky, Mark, 402 Pope, Jeff, 364 Popyk, Bob, EN-4 Porkka, Pasi, 147 Port, Michael, EN-2, EN-7 Porter, Constance Elise, 147 Portfolios, 241–242 Postcard pack, 162 Postpone method, 279 Postpurchase dissonance, 307 Posture, 113 See also Nonverbal communication Poujol, F Juliet, 28, EN-2, EN-10, EN-12 Poulin, Diane, EN-9 Power, Mike, 391, EN-11 PowerPoint (Microsoft), 243 Powers, Diane, EN-12 Powers, Thomas L., 147 Predmore, Carolyn E., EN-2 Preferred suppliers, 389 Prequalification, of leads, 169 Presentations See Sales presentations Price credit terms and, 295–297 discounts and, 295–297 objections related to, 267, 281–283 presentation of, 297–298 shipping costs and, 297 Price, Glenn R., 10, EN-1 Price discrimination, 53–54 Primary call objectives, 188–189 Prime selling time, 419 Pritchett, Lou, 14 Privacy laws, 54 Probing method to obtain commitment, 305–306 to respond to objections, 273–274 Problem questions, 215 Problem/solution model, 220 Procurement Integrity Act, 32 Producers, 64 Productivity, 428, 457 Product opening, 207 Products buying decisions for, 70 demonstration of, 244–245 I-14 cas30018_idx_I1-I18.indd I14 evaluating performance of, 71 insuring proper use of, 378–379 knowledge of, 18, 131, 223–224 nature of selling, 16 objections related to, 265–266 servicing of, 386 upgrading, 388 vulnerable features of, 269–270 Product specialists, 453–454 Professional associations, 486–487 Profit, Profit margin, 65, 252 Profit quotas, 444 Prohibition, 235 Promoters, 156 Proposals acquisition and analysis of, 70 evaluation of, 70 presentation of, 247 request for, 246–247 written, 237 Prospecting allocating time for, 419 explanation of, 150 importance of, 150 overcoming reluctance for, 171–172 Prospecting directories, 164 Prospects See also Customers ads and direct mail to obtain, 162 appointments with, 204–210 characteristics of good, 150–155 cold calling to obtain, 165 data mining and CRM systems to obtain, 164–165 developing lists of, 164 endless-chain method to obtain, 157, 158 expertise in methods to obtain, 166–167 identifying needs of, 210–218 information sources about, 183–186 Internet sources to obtain, 161–162 leads to obtain, 169–171 lists and directories to obtain, 164 networking to obtain, 157–160 offering value to, 218–222 precall information about, 181–183 sales letters to obtain, 167–168 satisfied customers as leads to obtain, 156–157 seminars to obtain, 164 shows, fairs and merchandise markets to obtain, 162–163 social networking to obtain, 160–161 sources for, 155 spotters to obtain, 165 telemarketing to obtain, 166 use of proposals by, 247 webinars to obtain, 164 Publicity, Public sector as customers, 66–67 selling to, 31–32, 51 Public speaking, 253 Public zone, 113 Pugatch, Courtney Beth, 176 Pullins, Ellen Bolman, 318, 433 Purchasing See also Buying centers; Organizational buying decisions decisions regarding, 14–15 diversity in, 78 supplier relationship management and, 3–85 supply chain management and, 82–83 trends in, 82–87 Purchasing agents, as gatekeepers, 75–76 Push money, 53 Pyropoulou, Stavroula, 97 Quaddus, Mohammed, 177 Qualify the lead, 151–155 See also Leads Quality, buying decisions based on, 78–79 Quantifying the solution, 248 See also Value analysis Question opening, 207 Questions about buyer’s needs, 211–217 employment interview, 478, 479 need payoff, 216 open and closed, 212–213 problem, 215 situation, 214–215 that signal readiness for commitment, 298–299 Quick response (QR), 82, 252 Quintilion, 101 Quotas, 444–445 Rackham, Neil, 187, 192, 220, 352, EN-6, EN-7, EN-8, EN-9 Radin, Tara J., EN-2 Radio frequency identification (RFID), 259 Raghavan, Anita, 125, EN-4 Ragsdale, John, 416 Rai, Illiki, 311, EN-8 Raiffa, Howard, 328 Rajan, Bharath, 28, EN-1 Ramamurthy, Ram, 295, EN-8 Ramani, Girish, 231 Ramsey, Robert D., EN-4 Ramsower, Reagan, 416 Randall, Wesley S., EN-3 Rangarajan, Deva, 463, 495 Rapp, Adam, 318, EN-5, EN-8 Rapport, 208–210 Rasmusson, Erika, 468 Rate of change, 393 Rational needs, 77 Rauyruen, Papassapa, 372 Rawls, Margaret, 78 Read, Nicholas A C., 231, EN-8 Reagan, William R., 147 Reardon, James, EN-12 Receptionists, 185–186 Reciprocity, 52 Recruitment challenges of, 470 interviews for, 472–483 process for, 471–473 Reday, Peter Alan, 97, EN-1 Reed, Eric, 174 Reed, Stanley, EN-7 References, employment, 472 Referral events, 156 Index 18/10/10 11:35 AM Rev Confirming Pages Referral method, 277–278, 280 Referral openings, 207 Referrals, 156–157 Referred leads, 156–157 Rehme, Jakob, 463 Reid, Roger, 134, 138–139, 141, 144, EN-5 Reilly, Jack, 430 Reilly, Tom, 289, EN-8 Reinartz, Werner J., 28, EN-9, EN-10 Reinders, Adrie, 176 Rejection emotional strain of, 262 methods to deal with, 311–312 in sales positions, 467 Relational partnerships, 355 Relationship development characteristics of successful, 361–362 commitment to mutual gain in, 366 common goals in, 365–366 mutual trust in, 362–365 open communication in, 365 organizational support for, 366–367 phases in, 359–361 Relationship marketing, 351 Relationships See also Partnerships choosing the right, 358–359 communication in, 391–393 efficiency in, 116–120, 359 ethics in, 40–47 functional, 354–355 management of, 357–358 market exchange, 353–354 partnerships as, 355–359 with salesperson’s organization, 44–47 selling and, 351–353 solo exchange, 353–354, 356, 389 stages in buyer-seller, 14 win–win, 355 Reports, 424–425 Request for bid (RFB), 246 Request for proposal (RFP), 32, 246–247 Request for quote (RRQ), 246 Requirements, prepurchase, 299 Resale price maintenance, 53 Resellers explanation of, 50, 65–66 restrictions on, 53, 54 sales to, 50 selling value to, 251–253 Resource allocation account classification and, 412–416 explanation of, 411 investing in accounts and, 417–418 opportunities for, 412 types of resources for, 412 Responsiveness explanation of, 134 indicators of, 135 social style matrix and, 135–137 Résumés conventional, 473 explanation of, 471–472 functional, 473–474 Return on investment (ROI), 66, 249–250 Revenue quotas, 444 Reverse auctions, 86–87 Revesz, Balazs, 96 Revisit method, 277–278, 2870 Rewards, in relationships, 367 Ribeiro, Aurea H P., EN-9 Rich, Dave, EN-1 Rich, David, 28 Richardson, David, 386 Ridnour, Rick E., 105, 318, 321, 463, EN-4 Rigdon, Edward E., EN-10 Riggle, Robert J., 61, EN-1, EN-2 Rinehart, Lloyd M., EN-9 Risk of loss, 49 reduction of, 80–82 Ritter, Thomas, 97 Roberts, James A., 28, 463 Robinson-Patman Act of 1934, 51, 53 Rocco, Richard A., 372 Rodrigo, Elaine M., EN-9 Rogers, Beth, 433, EN-11 Rogers, Martha, 275, EN-5 Rohner, Peter, EN-3 Role ambiguity, 490 Role conflict, 490 Role overload, 490 Role stress, 490 Rolfes, Ludger, 433 Román, Sergio, 61, EN-2 Romdhane, L., EN-5 Rose, Randall L., 346 Rosenbloom, Bert, 463 Rosset, Saharon, 417 Rossi, Carlos A V., EN-10 Rossomme, Jeanne, EN-3 Rothberg, Helen N., 147 Routing explanation of, 421–422 types of, 422–423 Rouziès, Dominique, 28, 463 Roy, Subroto, 97 Royne, Marla B., EN-3 Rudd, Jill E., 346 Ruiz, Eric, 491, EN-13 Ruiz, Salvador, EN-2 Ruokonen, Mika, EN-11 Russell-Bennett, Rebekah, EN-9 Rust, Roland T., 28 Rutherford, Brian N., 318, EN-10 Rutland-Brown, W., 257 Rutter, Jenifer, 424, EN-11 Sager, Jeffrey K., 201, 495, EN-12, EN-13 Salami, Mojtaba P., EN-9 Salaries, 445 Sale, 49 Saleh, Abu, EN-10 Salehi-Sangari, Esmail, 97 Sales appointments being on time for, 204–205 guidelines for making, 191–194 responses to objections to, 196, 263 telephoning for, 195 Sales asset management systems, 242 Sales call allocation grid, 414–415 Sales calls appointments for, 191–195 asking questions during, 210–218 assessing reactions during, 221–222 building credibility during, 207, 222–225 cultivating future, 308 going to right person for, 192–193 to groups, 225–336 impression management for, 204–210 information sources for, 183–186 method to complete, 312 objectives for, 186–191 offering value during, 218–221 planning for, 180, 195–196, 421–424 precall information for, 180–183 right place for, 193–194 right time for, 193 SPIN® technique for, 213–216, 437 virtual, 194 Sales careers goals for, 407, 408, 484–487 interviews for, 474–483 opportunities in, 466–470 recruitment process for, 471–473 résumés for, 473–474 stress management in, 487–491 transition from college to, 483–484 Sales executives compensation and evaluation decisions by, 445–447 control and quota setting by, 444–445 ethics and, 449 expense budgets decisions by, 443–444 forecasting by, 443 role of, 442–443 size and organization of sales force decision by, 443 Sales force, size of, 443 Sales force automation software, 360 salesforce.com, 293, 500 Sales force-intensive organizations, Sales forecasting, 443 Sales jobs description of, 14–16 examples of, 16–17 inside, 484 management positions following, 22 types of, 20 SalesJobs.com, 477, 491 Sales jobs continuum, 16 Sales letters, to obtain prospects, 167–168 Sales management ethical climate established by, 38–39 field, 447–448 partnerships with, 490–491 sales executive role in, 442–447 The Sales Manager’s Mentor (Lehman), Salespeople account, 451–452 as account team managers, 10 as change agents, 393–395 characteristics of successful, 17–20, 268–273, 470 as client relationship managers, 9–10 communication function of, 18–19, 310 company areas important to, 440–442 creativity of, 19 dress considerations for, 115–116 ethical behavior of, 36–40, 448–451 as experts, 166–167 Index cas30018_idx_I1-I18.indd I15 I-15 18/10/10 11:35 AM Rev Confirming Pages Salespeople Cont field, 15–16, 454 geographic, 451 goals for, 409–411 identifying customer needs as role of, 436–437 inbound, 454 as information providers, 10–12, 186 inside, 15–16, 454 multiattribute model use by, 95–96 as negotiators, 322, 324–325 orientation of, 34 outbound, 454 as partners, 451–456 personal codes of ethics for, 39–40 personal needs of, 36–37 recruitment of, 470–473 resource allocation for, 411–418 responsibilities of, 21 role of, 7–9, 14 securing customer commitment by, 16 taking advantage of other, 48 trade, 12 truthfulness of, 272–273 types of, 11–12, 442 as vendor and channel managers, 10 versatility of, 140–141 Sales portals, 184 Sales presentations balanced, 223 building credibility during, 207, 222–225 characteristics of strong, 234–236 customized, 128–129 dealing with jitters during, 253 developing strategy for, 218 handouts for, 245–246 methods to strengthen, 236–237 objections during, 263 outlined, 128 product demonstrations for, 244–245 social styles and, 138–140 standard memorized, 128 value analysis for, 247–253 verbal tools for, 237–238 visual tools for, 238–244 written proposals for, 246–247 Sales promotions, Sales puffery, 50–51 Sales quotas, 444 Sales seminars, 486–487 Sales teams, 10, 184, 455–456 Salkever, Alex, EN-6 Salminen, Risto T., 258 Salzberger, Thomas, 433 Samples, 239 Sanchez, Diane, 201, EN-6 Sanchez, Lillie, 435–436, 459 Sanders, Tim, EN-5 Sangtani, Vinita, 61 San José-Cabezudo, Rebecca, EN-3 Santos, Maria Leticia, 372 Sanzo, Maria José, 372 Saren, Michael, 97 Sashi, C M., 97 Saunders, David, EN-9 Sawyer, Christopher A., EN-3 I-16 cas30018_idx_I1-I18.indd I16 Saxon, Albert, 176 Scenario questions, 478 Schaars, Teo, 306 Schachter, Lou, EN-8 Scheer, Lisa K., 372, EN-9 Schepp, Brad, 176, 209 Schepp, Debra, 209 Scher, Kimberly, EN-10 Schieffer, Robert, 29 Schiffman, Stephan, 177 Schlesinger, Steve, 293 Schnebel, Eberhard, EN-2 Schoder, Detlef, 29 Schoenbachler, Denise D., 463 Schrader, Dave, 488 Schuele, Karen, EN-6 Schurr, Paul, EN-9, EN-10 Schwepker, Charles H., Jr., 61, 372 Scism, Leslie, EN-2 Scope of change, 393–394 Scott, Kristen, 468, EN-12 Screens, 194–195 Searby, Edmund W., EN-3 Search engines, 161, 184–185 Seating, during sales calls, 206 Sebor, Jessica, 29, EN-6, EN-11 Secondary call objectives, 189 Secretaries, 185–186 Seeding, 196, 215, 216 Seidman, Dan, EN-7 Selective perception, 222 Seley, Anneke, 385 Self-management process explanation of, 407 goal setting in, 407–411 implementing time management strategies ìn, 418–425 performance evaluation in, 425–428 resource allocation in, 411–418 Selling See also Adaptive selling; Personal selling backdoor, 40, 44 cross-, 388–389 evolution of, 33–34 full-line, 388 internal, 437, 439–440 multilevel, 455–456 opportunities in, 466–470 pioneer, 264 principles of, 5–7 relationships and, 351–353 rewards in, 20–22 team, 10 Selling centers, 184 Selling deeper, 156–157 Selling Yourself, 23, 56, 87, 121, 143, 172, 196–197, 226, 254, 284–285, 312–313, 341–342, 367–368, 399–400, 428, 456–458, 481, 491 Selnes, Fred, EN-9 Seminars, 164 Sengupta, Jaideep, 231 Seppanen, Risto, EN-1 Servais, Per, 96 Services buying decision based on, 79–80 explanation of, 65 insuring proper use of, 378–379 nature of selling, 16 vulnerable features of, 269–270 Sexual harassment, 47 Shakespeare, William, 467 Shaking hands, 112–113 Shaltz, Gerry, 289 Share of wallet, 416 Sharma, Arun, 372, EN-5 Shaw, John, EN-2 Shelton, Robert, 201 Shepherd, C David, 105, 318, EN-4 Sheppard, Amy, 402 Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, 51 Shi, Junqi, EN-12 Shipping, 441 Shipping costs, 207 Silences, 107 Simon, Carter, 312 Simple cost-benefit analysis, 249 Sirianni, Anita, EN-7 Sittig-Rolf, Andrea, 177 Situational stress, 489 Situation questions, 214–215 Sivadas, Eugene, 231 Sivakumar, Kiva, 97 Six sigma selling programs, 10 Skaer, Mark, EN-8 Skarmeas, Dionysis, 97 Skin color, 109 Skinner, Lauren, EN-10 Slack, Jennifer, 61, EN-2 Slang, 120 Slavin, Al, EN-5 Small talk, 208 Smaros, Johanna, EN-12 SMART, 188, 408 SMART boards, 244 Smith, Brent, 463 Smith, J Brock, 29, 495 Smith, Michael, EN-6 Smith, Robert, 177 Sneak attack, 332 Sneider, Mark, 177 Social networking benefits of, 149 considerations for, 119–120 explanation of, 118 to get customer’s attention, 208, 209 knowledge retrieval from, 133 prospecting with, 160–161 sites for, 118–119 Social style matrix categories of social styles and, 134–137 dimensions of social styles and, 134 explanation of, 134, 332 identifying customers’ social styles and, 137, 138 role of knowledge and, 141 sales presentations and, 138–140 versatility and, 140–151 Social styles assertiveness as, 134 categories of, 134–137 identification of, 137, 138 responsiveness as, 134 Index 18/10/10 11:35 AM Rev Confirming Pages sales presentations and, 138–140 versatility and, 140–141 Social zone, 113 Sodoma, Jim, 154 Sohi, Ravipreet S., EN-1 Solo exchanges, 353–354, 356, 389 Solovic, Sisan W., EN-3 Song, Ji Hee, 125 Sooder, Karl, 233, EN-5, EN-7, EN-8 Space personal, 113–114 return on, 253 Speaking-listening differential, 104 Spector, Paul E., EN-5 Sperides, Ted, 165, EN-6 Spiffs, 53 SPIN® technique, 213–216, 437 Spotters, 165 Srivastava, Prashant, EN-3, EN-10 Srivastava, Rajesh, 495 Standard industrial classification (SIC), 164 Standard memorized presentations, 128 Standing-room only close, 307 Stanko, Michael A., 147 Stanley, Jennifer, EN-11 Statutory law, 48 Steel, Marion, EN-11 Steenkamp, E M., 372 Stein, Alex, EN-6 Stein, Dave, 147, 310, 448, EN-8, EN-12 Stein, Debra, EN-4 Steward, Michelle D., 463 Stoddard, James E., 231 Stone, Evan, 269 Stories, 102–103, 237 Stradinger, Jim, 488 Straight commission, 445 Straight-line routing, 422, 423 Straight rebuys, 72, 73 Straight salary, 445 Strategic account managers (SAMs), 452 Strategic partnerships See also Partnerships explanation of, 355–356 factors influencing choice of, 358–359 management of, 357–358 pluses and minuses of, 357 Strelecky, John, 346 Strength of position, 414 Stress felt, 490–491 from public speaking, 253 sales jobs as source of, 487–489 in sales positions, 467 situational, 489 Stress interviews, 482 Strouth, Erin, EN-10 Stuart, Anne, EN-6 Stubblefield, C B., 496 Stundza, Tom, EN-3 Su, Lac D., EN-2 Submissive salespeople, 301, 302 Subordination, 55 Sulkowicz, Kerry J., EN-5 Sullivan, Elisabeth A., EN-5 Sundqvist, Sanna, 61, EN-1, EN-2 Sundtoft Hald, Kim, 231 Superior benefit method, 276–277 Supplier relationship management (SRM) explanation of, 83–85 trends in, 359–360 Suppliers See also Vendors developing relationships with, 9–10 evaluation and choice of, 76–80 preferred, 389 risk reduction and, 80–81 search for qualified, 70 Supply chain management (SCM), 82–83 Supreme Court, U.S., 54 Suspects See Leads; Prospects Sustainability, 85 Svahn, Senja, 97 Swan, John E., EN-10 Sweet, Catherine, 433, EN-11 Sweet, Tim, 433, EN-11 Swift, Marie, EN-7 Swift, Ron, 74, EN-3 Systems integrators, 153 Tagansky, Alex, 321 Tagging, 133 Talley, Linda, EN-4 Tan, Hwee Hoon, 346 Tanner, Emily, 312, 465–466, 493 Tanner, John F., Jr., 28, EN-2, EN-3, EN-10, EN-11, EN-12, EN-13 Taphous, Rusty, 387 Target position, 327 Tarkainen, Anssi, 61, EN-2 Tasler, Nick, EN-2 Taulli, T., 29 Taylor, A J., 28, 61 Taylor, Ben, EN-11 Taylor, Charles R., 289 Teague, Paul, EN-11 Teams negotiation, 328–330 sales, 10, 455–456 Technical influencer, 75 Technology ability to use, 18 for activity planning, 419 communication via, 116–120, 456 conferencing, 194 to display visuals, 241–244 expert systems and, 142–143 to increase efficiency, 359 knowledge management, 359 for lead qualification and management, 170 to prepare for objections, 270 sales productivity and, 457 Telemarketing, 166 Telephone communication cultural differences and, 121 customer contact using, 423–424 guidelines for, 116–117 limitations of, 166 for sales appointments, 195 Tellefsen, Thomas, 372 Temkin, Bruce, 29 TePoel, Jon, 145 Territory management goal setting and, 407–411 performance evaluation and, 425–428 resource allocation and, 411–418 time and, 406–407, 418–425 Terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, 252–253 Testimonials, 241, 277 Test results, 241 Tests, recruitment, 472 Theriault, Michel, 258 Third-party-testimony method, 277 Thomas, Jim, EN-9 Thomas, Kenneth, 331, EN-9 Thomson, D., 29 Thorn, Jeremy G., 346 Thornton, Emily, EN-7 Thornton, Sean, 317 Thwaites, Des, 125 Tickler file, 420 Tietje, Brian C., 258 Time allocated for negotiation, 326–327 objections related to, 268 for sales appointments, 193, 204–205 value of, 406–407 Time management daily activity planning for, 418–419 guidelines for, 419 importance of, 418 to include more sales calls, 421–424 for paperwork and reports, 424–425 planning for, 419–421 Title, 49 Tolle, Norman L., EN-12 Tomas, G., 97 Totten, Jeff, 431 Totten, Pierce, 431 Trade fairs, 162, 163 Trade salespeople, 12 Trade secrets, 47 Trade shows, 162, 163 Training programs adaptive selling, 142–143 expert systems, 142–143 product-related, 486 in relationship-building environment, 368 sales managers’ role in, 448 Trainor, Kevin, 318, EN-8 Trerotola, Steve, 367 Trial close, responses to, 221–222, 300 Trial order, 302 Troilo, Gabriele, 28, EN-1, EN-11 Trump, Donald, 136 Truss, Rob, 379, EN-10 Trust explanation of, 362 factors related to, 362–365 in relationships, 42, 362 in salespeople, 18 Truthfulness, 272–273 Tsalikis, J., EN-2, EN-10 Tsang, Alex S L., 61, EN-2 Tse, David K., 176 Tuleja, Tad, 201, EN-3, EN-6 Tung, Feng-Cheng, 372 Turner, Mike, 433, EN-11 Turner, Roger, 318 Turnover, product, 65–66 Index cas30018_idx_I1-I18.indd I17 I-17 18/10/10 11:35 AM Rev Confirming Pages Turnover (TO), account, 266 Turpin, Joanna R., EN-8 Twain, Mark, 195, 210 24/7 service, Twitter, 81, 118–120, 122–123, 160–161, 270, 385 Two-way communication, 100 See also Communication Tying agreements, 52 Ukens, Lorraine, EN-4 Ulaga, Wolfgang, 433 Uncles, M., 29 Underwood, Anne, EN-2 Uniform Commercial Code (UCC), 48–50 Upgrading, 388 Urban, Glen L., EN-10 Urbaniak, Anthony, EN-12 Ury, William, EN-9 Users, 74 Valentine, Sean, 61, EN-12 Valenzuela, Leslie M., 495 Value creation of, 7–9 establishment of, 218–222, 236, 281–283 explanation of, of time, 406–407 Value analysis cost-benefit analysis and, 249 customer value proposition and, 248–249 explanation of, 79–80, 247–248 net present value and, 251 opportunity cost and, 251 payback period and, 250–251 resellers and, 251–253 return on investment and, 249–250 Value proposition See Customer value proposition Vandenbempt, Koen, 258 van Diepen, Katherine, 296 Van Hulse, J., 147 van Raaij, Erik M., 372 van Triest, Sander, 372 VanWinkle, Jennifer, 203 Variable call patterns, 422 Vazquez, Rodolfo, 372 Veiga, Ricardo T., EN-10 Vendor analysis, 84, 86 Vendors See also Suppliers interaction with, 10 loyalty of, 81 outside, 153 Venkatesan, Rajkumar, 28, EN-9 Venkatesh, R., 346 Verbal probing, 221–222 Vernooij, Maarten J A., 372 Versatility, 140–141 Veverka, Mark, EN-12 I-18 cas30018_idx_I1-I18.indd I18 Videoconferencing, 194 Videos, as sales aids, 242 Vieira, Valter A., EN-10 Vilela, Belen Bande, 463 Vincent, Lynn, EN-6 Virtual sales calls, 194 Visual presenters, 243 Visual tools catalogs and brochures as, 239, 240 graphics and charts as, 238–239 models, samples, and gifts as, 239 photos, illustrations, ads, and maps as, 239, 241 testimonials and test results as, 241 using media to display, 241–244 Voice characteristics, 102 Voice mail messages, 116–117 Vollmann, Thomas E., 231 Vorhies, Douglas W., EN-12 Wachner, Trent, 147 Wagner, Judy A., EN-7 Wagner, Marvin, 414, EN-3 Wakefield, Kirk L., 61 Wald, M., 257 Walker, Beth A., 463 Walker, Gail, 388 Wand, Yair, EN-5 Wang, Jingguo, 346 Wang, Mo, EN-12 Wang, Wen-Hung, EN-9 Wang, Xuan Lorna, EN-10 Warranties, 50 Watson, Neil, 352 Waymon, Lynne, 176 Webcasting, 194 Web conferencing, Weber, Jenna, 63–64, 89 Weber, John A., 318 WebEx, 194, 198, 456–457, 484 Webinars, 164 Weeks, William A., 61 Weilbaker, Dan C., 3, 463 Weinrauch, J Donald, 495 Weitz, Barton A., 258, EN-9 Weitzel, Sloan R., 147 Wellner, Alison Stein, EN-6 Werb, Jessica, 177, EN-5 West, Vicki, 127, 179, 261, 389, EN-4 Westerlund, Mika, 97 Whipple, Judith M., EN-10 White, Judith, 346 White, Lisa, EN-12 Widing, Robert E., 147 Wiedenkeller, Keith, EN-4 Wikipedia, 296 Wiley, Kim Wright, 352 Willars, Antonio, 340–341 Williams, Brian C., EN-5, EN-10 Williams, Robin, 258 Wilson, David James, 177 Winfrey, Oprah, 145 Win–lose negotiation dealing with, 335–339 explanation of, 322, 332, 333 Win–win negotiation, 322, 336, 338 Win–win not yet negotiating, 340 Win–win relationships, 355 Wise, Jorge, EN-11 Wittmann, C Michael, 201, EN-3 Wolvin, Andrew D., 125 Wong, Y H., EN-9 Wood, John Andy, 231, 346 Woods, Tiger, 278 Woonbong, Na, 97 Word choice cultural differences and, 120 explanation of, 101–102 Word pictures, 103, 237 Work hours, 45 World Wide Web See Internet Wotruba, Thomas, EN-2 Wright, Emily, 125 Wright, Ian, 295 Written agreements, 49 Written proposals, 246–247 Wu, C., 147 Wu, Yung-De, EN-9 Wyzga, Diane F., EN-4 Xi, Youmin, EN-2 Xie, Yi, 231 XLR8 (Accelerate) Workflow, 500–501 Xu, Jun, 177 Xu, Xiaowei, EN-3 Yeck, Dean, 311, EN-8 Yee, Siew Min, EN-9 Yeung, Rob, 125 Yildirim, Osman, EN-2 Yoki, Robert T., EN-3 Young, Alicia, EN-3 Young, Clifford E., 415 Young, Louise, EN-1 Yuan, Fang, 403 Yuan, Jing, 403 Zallacco, Ronald, 318, 433 Zhan, Yujie, EN-12 Zhang, Lida L., 403 Zhu, Zhen, EN-9 Zhuang, Guijun, 61, EN-2 Zielinski, Dave, EN-4 Ziglar, Zig, 486 Zimmer, George, EN-1 Zimmerman, Kevin, 177, EN-7 Zinkhan, George M., 125, EN-3 Zionts, Stanley, 346 Zolkiewski, Judy, 403 Zoning, 423 Zubko, Nick, EN-3 Index 18/10/10 11:35 AM [...]... 128 Standard Memorized Presentation Outlined Presentation 128 Customized Presentation 128 Adaptive Selling and Sales Success 128 129 Knowledge Management 130 Product and Company Knowledge 131 Knowledge about Sales Situations and Customers 131 How to Create Knowledge 132 Retrieving Knowledge from the Knowledge Management System 132 The Social Style Matrix: A Training Program for Building Adaptive Selling. .. both capable and easy to work with Suresh Babu is the media project manager, and we hope to lean on his talents to continue to provide you with excellent media resources Several people assisted in research and manuscript preparation, and we gratefully appreciate their help: Jeannie Castleberry and W.T Tanner Students who made helpful comments and reviewed for us include Joanna Browne and John R Tanner... book have reviewed it and offered suggestions, and we have taken their comments seriously What is different is that sales executives and field salespeople who are locked in the daily struggle of adapting to the new realities of selling also reviewed Selling: Building Partnerships They have told us what the field is like now, where it is going, and what students must do to be prepared for the challenges... carefully and completely rewritten Questions are directly tied to the learning goals presented at the beginning of each chapter and the material covered in the questions and problems In addition, key terms are covered in the test questions Application questions are available so students can demonstrate their understanding of the key concepts by applying those selling principles • The Web site, www.sellingbuildingpartnerships... articles in the Journal of Marketing Education, Business Case Journal, and Marketing Education Review, that describe his teaching style and methods Dr Castleberry s research has been published in many journals, including the Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, Industrial Marketing Management, Journal of Selling and Major Account Management, Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, Journal... this popular text builds on that foundation with updated content, improved handson exercises, and powerful technology that’s sure to make the material more engaging for professors and students alike The chapter opening profiles in this edition are the product of strong selling partnerships Faculty from around the country introduced Steve Castleberry and Jeff Tanner to their former students who had gone... students with an earlier edition and understand the philosophy of this book Students can easily relate to these young professionals who have benefited from wonderful faculty and Selling: Building Partnerships PROFILE “Buyers will object when they think you are DUMB, which means that the salesperson Doesn’t Understand My Business.” Rachel Gober PROFILE My name is Rachel Gober, and I graduated from Texas State... which are integrated into our teaching notes • Slides are available in PowerPoint, but given feedback from users (and our own experience), we’ve simplified their presentation They are easily adapted to your own needs, and you can add material as you see fit • NEW video clips are on the Instructor’s DVD Several companies have graciously offered video segments, plus we’ve recorded and produced our own in... Social Styles 137 Social Styles and Sales Presentations 138 Versatility 140 The Role of Knowledge 141 How and Where to Obtain Prospects 155 Satisfied Customers 156 Endless-Chain Method 157 Networking 157 Social Media 160 Other Internet Uses 161 Ads and Direct Mail 162 Shows, Fairs, and Merchandise Markets 162 Webinars and Seminars 164 Lists and Directories 164 Data Mining and CRM Systems 164 Cold Calling... the small township he lives in He and his wife currently own and operate a publishing company, marketing and distributing popular press books internationally scastleb@d.umn.edu www.d.umn.edu/~scastleb JOHN F TANNER, JR Dr Tanner is the research director of Baylor University’s Center for Professional Selling and associate dean of research and faculty development He earned his PhD from the University of
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