Professional selling a trust based approach 4e fourth edition

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Fourth Edition Professional Selling A Trust-Based Approach Thomas N Ingram Charles H Schwepker Jr Colorado State University University of Central Missouri Raymond W LaForge Michael R Williams University of Louisville Illinois State University Ramon A Avila Ball State University Professional Selling: A Trust-Based Approach, Fourth Edition Thomas N Ingram, Raymond W LaForge, Ramon A Avila, Charles H Schwepker, Jr., Michael R Williams VP/Editorial Director: Jack W Calhoun Marketing Communications Manager: Sarah Greber Printer: West Eagan, MN Publisher: Neil Marquardt Content Project Manager: Patrick Cosgrove Art Director: Stacy Shirley Developmental Editor: Michael Guendelsberger Manager, Editorial Media: John Barans Internal Designer: Lou Ann Thesing Editorial Assistant: Clara Kuhlman Technology Project Manager: Pam Wallace Cover Designer: Lou Ann Thesing Marketing Manager: Nicole C Moore Senior Manufacturing Coordinator: Diane Gibbons Cover Illustration: Ted Knapke Marketing Coordinator: Sarah Rose Production House: International Typesetting and Composition COPYRIGHT # 2008 Thomson South-Western, a part of The Thomson Corporation Thomson, the Star logo, and South-Western are trademarks used herein under license ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means— graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, Web distribution or information storage and retrieval systems, or in any other manner—without the written permission of the publisher Printed in the United States of America 10 09 08 07 Student Edition: ISBN 13: 978-0-324-53809-0 ISBN 10: 0-324-53809-X For permission to use material from this text or product, submit a request online at http://www.thomsonrights.com Library of Congress Control Number: 2006908739 For more information about our products, contact us at: Thomson Learning Academic Resource Center 1-800-423-0563 Thomson Higher Education 5191 Natorp Boulevard Mason, OH 45040 USA To Jacque —Thomas N Ingram To Susan, Alexandra, Kelly, and in memory of my Mom and Dad —Raymond W LaForge To Terry, Sarah, Nathan, Anne, Ryan, Laura, Kate, and my parents —Ramon A Avila To Laura, Charlie III, Anthony, Lauren, my Mom, and in memory of my Dad, ‘‘Big C ’’ —Charles H Schwepker Jr To Marilyn, Aimee and Rodney, Kerri and Bart, my Mom, and in memory of my Dad —Michael R Williams This page intentionally left blank B r i e f C o n t e n t s Preface About the Authors Module 1- Overview of Personal Selling Appendix 1- Sales Careers Part 1- The Foundations of Professional Selling Module Module Module 2- Building Trust and Sales Ethics 3- Understanding Buyers 4- Communication Skills Part 2- Initiating Customer Relationships Module Module 5- Strategic Prospecting and Preparing for Sales Dialogue 6- Planning Sales Dialogues and Presentation Part 3- Developing Customer Relationships Module Module 7- Making the Sales Call: Creating and Communicating Values 8- Addressing Concerns and Earning Commitment Part 4- Enhancing Customer Relationships Module 9- Expanding Customer Relationships Module 10- Adding Value: Self-Leadership and Teamwork Experiential ExercisesGlossaryNotesIndex- xix xxvii 23 31 33 61 105 137 139 159 181 183 211 233 235 261 297 407 417 423 v This page intentionally left blank C o n t e n t s Preface About the Authors Module 1- Overview of Personal Selling Key to Sales Success: Talk With the Customer, not At the Customer Evolution of Personal Selling Origins of Personal Selling Industrial Revolution Era Post–Industrial Revolution Era War and Depression Era Professionalism: The Modern Era Contributions of Personal Selling Salespeople and Society Salespeople as Economic Stimuli Salespeople and Diffusion of Innovation Salespeople and the Employing Firm Salespeople as Revenue Producers Market Research and Feedback Salespeople as Future Managers Salespeople and the Customer Classification of Personal Selling Approaches Stimulus Response Selling Mental States Selling Need Satisfaction Selling Problem-Solving Selling Consultative Selling Sales Process Summary Making Professional Selling Decisions Case 1.1: Biomod, Inc Case 1.2: Plastico, Inc Appendix 1- Sales Careers Characteristics of Sales Careers Job Security xix xxvii 1 3 4 6 7 7 8 10 10 12 12 13 13 16 20 20 21 23 23 23 vii viii Contents Advancement Opportunities Immediate Feedback Prestige Job Variety Independence Compensation Classification of Personal Selling Jobs Sales Support New Business Existing Business Inside Sales Direct-to-Consumer Sales Combination Sales Jobs Qualifications and Skills Required for Success by Salespersons Empathy Ego Drive Ego Strength Interpersonal Communication Skills Enthusiasm Comments on Qualifications and Skills Part 1- The Foundations of Professional Selling Module 2- Building Trust and Sales Ethics Developing Trust and Mutual Respect with Clients What Is Trust? Why Is Trust Important? How to Earn Trust Expertise Dependability Candor Customer Orientation Compatibility/Likability Knowledge Bases Help Build Trust and Relationships Industry and Company Knowledge Product Knowledge Service Promotion and Price Market and Customer Knowledge Competitor Knowledge Technology Knowledge Sales Ethics Image of Salespeople Deceptive Practices Illegal Activities 23 24 24 25 25 25 25 26 26 27 27 27 27 28 28 29 29 29 30 30 31 33 33 35 35 36 36 37 38 38 39 40 41 42 42 43 43 44 45 45 47 47 49 Contents ix Module 3- Noncustomer-Oriented Behavior How Are Companies Dealing with Sales Ethics? Summary Making Professional Selling Decisions Case 2.1: Schmidt Business Forms Case 2.2: Sales Ethics: A Case Study Understanding Buyers Understanding Your Buyers Is the Key to Sales Success Types of Buyers Distinguishing Characteristics of Business Markets Concentrated Demand Derived Demand Higher Levels of Demand Fluctuation Purchasing Professionals Multiple Buying Influences Close Buyer–Seller Relationships The Buying Process Phase One—Recognition of the Problem or Need: The Needs Gap Types of Buyer Needs Phase Two—Determination of the Characteristics of the Item and the Quantity Needed Phase Three—Description of the Characteristics of the Item and the Quantity Needed Phase Four—Search for and Qualification of Potential Sources Phase Five—Acquisition and Analysis of Proposals Procedures for Evaluating Suppliers and Products Assessment of Product or Supplier Performance Accounting for Relative Importance of Each Characteristic Employing Buyer Evaluation Procedures to Enhance Selling Strategies Phase Six—Evaluation of Proposals and Selection of Suppliers Phase Seven—Selection of an Order Routine Phase Eight—Performance Feedback and Evaluation Understanding Postpurchase Evaluation and the Formation of Satisfaction The Growing Importance of Salespeople in Buyer’s Postpurchase Evaluation 49 49 51 57 57 58 61 61 62 64 64 64 64 64 65 65 65 67 68 69 71 71 71 71 72 72 73 74 74 75 75 75 418 Notes Thomas N Ingram and Charles H Schwepker Jr., ‘‘Perceptions of Salespeople: Implications for Sales Managers and Sales Trainers,’’ Journal of Marketing Management (Fall/Winter 1992–1993): Intercultural Disposition and Adaptive Selling Behavior in Developing Intercultural Communication Competence,’’ Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 29, (Fall 2001): 391–404 19 Katherine B Hartman, ‘‘Television and Movie Representations of Salespeople: Beyond Willie Loman,’’ Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 26 (Summer 2006): 283–292 Thomas N Ingram, ‘‘Relationship Selling: Moving from Rhetoric to Reality,’’ Mid-American Journal of Business 11 (Spring 1996): ‘‘Here’s to the Winners,’’ Sales & Marketing Management (July 1999): 66 Michael J Swenson, William R Swinyard, Frederick W Langrehr, and Scott M Smith, ‘‘The Appeal of Personal Selling as a Career: A Decade Later,’’ Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 13 (Winter 1993): 51 Emin Babakus, David W Cravens, Ken Grant, Thomas N Ingram, and Raymond W LaForge, ‘‘Removing Salesforce Performance Hurdles,’’ Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing 9, no (1994): 19 10 See Herbert M Greenberg and Jeanne Greenberg, What It Takes to Succeed in Sales (Homewood, IL: Dow-Jones Irwin, 1990) 11 James M Comer and Alan J Dubinsky, Managing the Successful Sales Force (Lexington, MA: D.C Heath and Co., 1985): 5; Steven P Brown, Thomas W Leigh, and J Martin Haygood, ‘‘Salesperson Performance and Job Attitudes,’’ in The Marketing Manager’s Handbook, 3rd ed., eds Sidney J Levy, George R Frerichs, and Howard L Gordon (Chicago: The Dartnell Corporation, 1994): 107 12 Babakus et al., ‘‘Removing Salesforce Performance Hurdles,’’ 19; Greg W Marshall, Daniel J Goebel, and William C Moncrief, ‘‘Hiring for Success at the Buyer-Seller Interface,’’ Journal of Business Research 56 (April 2003): 247–255 13 Rosann L Spiro and Barton A Weitz, ‘‘Adaptive Selling: Conceptualization, Measurement, and Nomological Validity,’’ Journal of Marketing Research 27 (February 1990): 61 14 Marshall et al., ‘‘Hiring for Success,’’ 251 15 Kevin J Corcoran, Laura K Petersen, Daniel B Baitch, and Mark F Barrett, High Performance Sales Organizations (Chicago: Irwin Professional Publishing, 1995): 77 16 Marshall et al., ‘‘Hiring for Success,’’ 251 17 Arun Sharma and Rajnandini Pillai, ‘‘Customers’ Decision-Making Styles and Their Preference for Sales Strategies: Conceptual Examination and an Empirical Study,’’ Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 16 (Winter 1996): 21 18 Victoria D Bush, Gregory M Rose, Faye Gilbert, and Thomas N Ingram, ‘‘Managing Culturally Diverse Buyer–Seller Relationships: The Role of Gabriel R Gonzalez, K Douglas Hoffman, and Thomas N Ingram, ‘‘Improving Relationship Selling Through Failure Analysis and Recovery Efforts: A Framework and Call to Action,’’ Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 25 (Winter 2005): 57– 66 Module Sherry Kilgus, ‘‘Building Trust into High Level Alliances,’’ NAMA Journal 34 (Winter 1998) Ibid John E Swan and Johannah Jones Nolan, ‘‘Gaining Customer Trust: A Conceptual Guide for the Salesperson,’’ Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management V, (November 1985): 39 Robert F Dwyer, Paul H Schurr, and Sejo Oh, ‘‘Developing Buyer–Seller Relationships,’’ Journal of Marketing 51 (April 1987): 11 This was the concluding point of the symposium on trust held by the National Account Management Association at Wake Forest University, September 24– 26, 1997 Interview with Missy Rust, GlaxoSmithKline, February 13, 2000 Robert Petersen, ‘‘Consultative Selling: A Qualitative Look at the Salesperson Credibility Requirements,’’ AMA Educator Proceeding Enhancing Knowledge Development in Marketing (1997): 224 Ibid From ‘‘Balancing Act: By Learning How to Balance Two Basic Drives—The Need to Close with the Need to Develop Relationships—Every Salesperson Can Become a Star’’ by L B Gschwandtner and Gerhard Gschwandtner from Selling Power (June 1996): 24 Reprinted with permission from Selling Power magazine 10 Interview with Doug Lingo, Hoechst Marion Roussel Pharmaceutical, May 23, 1997 11 Interview with Darrell Beaty, Ontario Systems Corporation, February 29, 2000 12 American Marketing Association’s Code of Ethics Reprinted by permission of American Marketing Association 13 Reprinted by permission of Sales & Marketing Executives International, Inc (http://www.smei org) ‘‘SMEI Certified Professional Salesperson’’ and ‘‘SCPS’’ are registered trademarks of Sales & Marketing Executives International, Inc 14 Ibid 15 Thomas Ingram, Scott Inks, and Lee Mabie, Sales and Marketing Executive Certification Study Guide (1994) Notes 16 Interview with John Huff, Shering-Plough, November 15, 2004 17 SMEI Accreditation Institute, The University of Memphis 419 S D Morgan, Selling with Integrity: Reinventing Sales Through Collaboration, Respect, and Serving (San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc., 1997) R L Jolles, Customer Centered Selling (New York: The Free Press, 1998) Ibid Module Thull, Jeff, Mastering the Complex Sale (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.) Adapted from Jagdish N Sheth, Bahwari Mittal, and Bruce I Newman, Customer Behavior: Consumer Behavior and Beyond (Fort Worth, TX: The Dryden Press, 1999); Jagdish N Sheth, Bruce I Newman, and Barbara L Gross, Consumption Values and Market Choice: Theory and Application (Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Publishing Co., 1991) Bixby Cooper, Cornelia Drodge, and Patricia Daughtery, ‘‘How Buyers and Operations Personnel Evaluate Service,’’ Industrial Marketing Management (February 1991): 81–85 Adapted from Michael A Humphreys and Michael R Williams, ‘‘Exploring the Relative Effects of Salesperson Interpersonal Process Attributes and Technical Product Attributes on Customer Satisfaction,’’ Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 16 (Summer 1996): 47–58; Michael A Humphreys, Michael R Williams, and Ronald L Meier, ‘‘Leveraging the Total Market Offering in the Agile Enterprise,’’ ASQ Quality Management Journal (1997): 60–74 D W Merrill and R H Reid, Personal Styles and Effective Performance (Radnor, PA: Chilton Book Company, 1981) Reprinted by permission of Growmark, Inc Neil Rackham, Spin Selling (New York: McGraw Hill, 1998) Thomas Ingram, Tubs Scott, and Lee Mabie, Certification Study Guide (New York: Sales and Marketing Executives International, 1994): 44–46 Jerry Acuff and Wally Wood, The Relationship Edge in Business (Hoboker NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2004): 149–150; Geoffrey James, ‘‘How to Build Customer Relationships—An Interview with Jerry Acuff,’’ Selling Power (March 2006): 43–46 T N Ingram, C Schwepker Jr., and D Huston, ‘‘Why Salespeople Fail,’’ Industrial Marketing Management 21 (1992): 225–230 R P Ramsey and R S Sohi, ‘‘Listening to Your Customers: The Impact of Perceived Salesperson Listening Behavior on Relationship Outcomes,’’ Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 25 (Spring 1997): 127–137 10 L Barker, Listening Behavior (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1971): 30–32 11 Castleberry and Shepherd, ‘‘Effective Interpersonal Listening and Personal Selling.’’ 12 From Effective Listening: Key to Your Success by L K Steil, L L Barker, and K W Watson: 21 Reprinted by permission of The McGraw-Hill Companies 13 Ibid.; Ramsey and Sohi, ‘‘Listening to Your Customers.’’ 14 Wesley J Johnston and Thomas V Bonoma, ‘‘The Buying Center: Structure and Interaction Patterns,’’ Journal of Marketing (Summer 1981): 143–156 Ibid., 72–73 15 J C Mowen and M Minor, Consumer Behavior (New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1997) 16 17 Jakki Mohr and John R Nevin, ‘‘Communication Strategies in Marketing Channels: A Theoretical Perspective,’’ Journal of Marketing (October 1990): 36–51 Rivchin, Jessica, ‘‘Staying Productive in a Mobile World,’’ Mobile Enterprise, July 19, 2006 http:// www.mobileenterprisemag.com/mobilizer/071906 leadsfory.shtml (accessed July 19, 2006) 10 Merrill and Reid, Personal Styles and Effective Performance; and G L Manning and B L Reece, Selling Today: Building Quality Partnerships (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001) G P Thomas, ‘‘The Influence of Processing Conversational Information on Inference, Argument Elaboration, and Memory,’’ Journal of Consumer Research 19 (June 1992): 83–92 R A Avila, T N Ingram, R W LaForge, and M R Williams, The Professional Selling Skills Workbook (Fort Worth, TX: The Dryden Press, 1996): 83 18 R A Peterson, M P Cannito, and S P Brown, ‘‘An Exploratory Investigation of Voice Characteristics and Selling Effectiveness,’’ Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 15 (Winter 1995): 1–15 19 20 Module Mark Shonka and Dan Kosch, Beyond Selling Value (Chicago IL: Dearborn Trade Publishing, 2002) Ibid Adapted from R M Rozelle, D Druckman, and J C Baxter, ‘‘Nonverbal Communication,’’ in A Handbook of Communication Skills, ed O Hargie (London: Croom and Helm, 1986): 59–94; T Alessandra and R Barrera, Collaborative Selling (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1993): 121–122 420 Notes 21 D Bonet, The Business of Listening: A Practical Guide to Effective Listening (Menlo Park, CA: Crisp Publications, 1988): 30–31 Approach (Fort Worth, TX: The Dryden Press, 1995): 410–412 Module Module Author: Interview with Gwen Tranguillo, Hershey Chocolate, U.S.A Author: Interview with Thomas Avila, Davis and Davis Author: Interview with Mark Thomas, United Insurance Agency Author: Interview with Kristen Solik, Walker Group Marc Deiner, ‘‘Don’t Know When to Cut Your Losses and Leave the Negotiating Table? Look for these Telltale Signs,’’ Entrepreneur Magazine (August 2003) Brad Huisken, ‘‘Saving the Sale: Objections, Rejections and Getting to Yes,’’ JCK, (January 2003): 62–63 Tom Reilly, ‘‘Why Do You Cut Prices?’’ Industrial Distribution (June 2003): 72 Module Robert Menard, ‘‘‘Cost’ Is About More Than the Price,’’ Selling (July 2003): Geoffrey James, ‘‘Tom Sant Demystifies the Mystery of Effective Proposals’’, Selling Power (June, 2004): 27–30 J Conlin, ‘‘The Write Stuff, ‘‘Sales & Marketing Management (January 1998): 71–75 Salespeople can forestall known concerns, but shouldn’t bring up issues that aren’t even a problem with a particular prospect Thus, the need for good precall information gathering becomes obvious See ‘‘Think Like a Consumer to Make Buying From a Cinch,’’ Selling (November 2004): From ‘‘Quality Selling through Quality Proposals, A Guide to Writing Winning Sales Proposals,’’ le by R F Kantin and M W Hardwick Copyright Ó 1994 Reprinted with permission of South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning: http://www thomsonrights.com Fax 800-730-2215 Neil Rackham, Spin Selling (New York: McGrawHill, 1988): 19–51 Adapted from A C Lowander, ‘‘How to Write Good (Uh, We Mean Well),’’ in ‘‘The Write Stuff,’’ Sales & Marketing Management (January 1998): 73 For more discussion of customer value propositions, see James C Anderson, James A Narus, and Wouter van Rossum, ‘‘Customer Value Propositions in Business Markets,’’ Harvard Business Review (March 2006): 91–99 Thomas N Ingram, Michael D Hartline, and Charles H Schwepker Jr., ‘‘Gatekeeper Perceptions: Implications for Improving Sales Ethics and Professionalism,’’ Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science (1992): 328 Mark Borkowski, ‘‘How to Succeed in Closing Deals, without Closing,’’ Canadian Electronics 19 (May 2004): Joan Leotta, ‘‘Effortless Closing,’’ Selling Power (October 2001): 28–31 Susan Del Vecchio, James Zemanek, Roger McIntyre, and Reid Claxton, ‘‘Updating the Adaptive Selling Behaviors: Tactics to Keep and Tactics to Discard,’’ Journal of Marketing Management 20 (2004): 859–875 Module Deloitte & Touche Survey, Selling Power (October 2001): 17 John Tashek, ‘‘How to Avoid a CRM Failure,’’ eWeek 18:40 (October 15, 2001): 31 Module Adapted from Brian Tracy, Advanced Selling Strategies (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995): 302 Author: Interview with Jamie Howard, August 1, 2004 Author: Interview with David Jacoby Jeffrey Jacobi, ‘‘Voice Power,’’ Selling Power (October 2000): 66 From ‘‘Missing the Point’’ by Mark McMaster from Sales & Marketing Management (September 2002): 23–24 Reprinted by permission of Reprint Management Services Adapted from Mary Ann Oberhaus, Sharon Ratliffe, and Vernon Stauble, Professional Selling: A Relationship Purchasing (November 27, 1997): 65 Interview with John Haack, Saint-Gobain Containers, April 19, 2000 Ontario Systems Marketing, Inc., in Customer Relationship Management: Transforming Transactions into Relationships (2000), NCR NCDM, in Customer Relationship Management: Transforming Transactions into Relationships (2000), NCR Yankee Research, in Customer Relationships Management: Transforming into Relationships (2000), NCR Frederick F Reichheld, The Loyalty Effect (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1998) Notes 10 Denise D Jackson, Director of Marketing Operations, Marriott Worldwide, ‘‘All-time SalesLogix Sales Leaders,’’ Sales & Marketing Managemets (March 2000): 29 11 The Forum Corporation, ‘‘Why Do Customers Stop Buying?’’ Sales & Marketing Management, (January 1998): 14 12 Chris Taylor, ‘‘The Art of the Winback,’’ Sales & Marketing Management 157 (April 2005): 30–34 13 ‘‘The Best Offense Is a Great Defense,’’ Personal Selling Power (September 1994): 56 14 ‘‘Consistent Success in an Inconsistent World: Solid Customer Relationships Are the Key,’’ Selling Power (May 1996): 28 15 ‘‘At Your Customer’s Service: The True Test of a Salesperson’s Value Comes after the Sale,’’ Selling Power (May 1996): 58 Module 10 S R Covey, The Habits of Highly Effective People, (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004) T Ingram, R W LaForge, R Avila, C H Schwepker Jr., and M Williams, Sales Management: Analysis and Decision Making, 4th ed (Fort Worth, TX: The Dryden Press, 2001) Copyright Ó 2001 Reprinted with permission of South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning: http://www.thomsonrights.com Fax 800-730-2215 B Kimball, AMA Handbook for Professional Selling (Chicago: American Marketing Association; Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Business Books, 1994) 421 W Ferguson, ‘‘A New Method for Routing Salespersons,’’ Industrial Marketing Management (April 1980): 171–178; ‘‘Planning a Road Trip?’’ An Executive Guide to Sales and Marketing Technology, a supplement to Sales & Marketing Management (June 1996): 39; E Strout, ‘‘Charting a Course,’’ Sales & Marketing Management (August 1999): 46–53 For a good discussion of selling technology, see D Peppers and M Rogers, ‘‘Marketing’s New Direction: How Campaigns Are Becoming Faster and More Precise through Automation,’’ Sales & Marketing Management (March 1999): 48–54 For a comprehensive and comparative guide to sales and marketing automation systems, technology, and software, see http://www.salesandmarketing.com/ more E Babakus, D W Cravens, K Grant, T N Ingram, and R W LaForge, ‘‘Removing Salesforce Performance Hurdles,’’ Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing 9, (1994): 19–29 J Attaway, M Williams, and M Griffin, The RimsQIC Quality Scorecard (Nashville, TN: The Quality Insurance Congress, 1998, 1999) James Champy, ‘‘Selling to Tomorrow’s Customer,’’ Sales & Marketing Management (March 1999): 28 10 Excerpt from The Habits of Highly Effective People, Ó 2004 Stephen R Covey The Time Management Matrix phrase and model are trademarks of Franklin Covey Co., http://www.franklincovey.com Used with permission All rights reserved 11 Covey, The Habits of Highly Effective People This page intentionally left blank Index A A T Kearney, 34 Abbot Laboratories, 159 ABC analysis, 266–267 Acceleration principle, 64 Account classification, 265–269 Account goals, 265 Acknowledgment, in LAARC method, 217 ACT! (software), 151, 156, 238, 239, 276, 278 Activation questions, 114, 115 Active listening, 118–120 Active Solutions, 187 ActiveSales (software), 276 Activity plans: establishing/ implementing, 269–270 task-driven, 261 Actual states, 66 Acuff, Jerry, 117 ADAPT questioning system, 112–116, 160, 174 Adaptive selling, Adding value, 261–284 case studies, 293–295 to create committed customers, 236 by following through on promises, 248 as priority, 244 as salesperson’s job, 242 self-leadership skills for, 262–279 T’s of sales success and, 261–262 through follow-up, 243 through teamwork, 279–284 Administrative support partnerships, 281 Advancement opportunities (in sales careers), 23, 24 Advertising inquiries, 144 AFFINA–The Customer Relationship Company, 61–62 After-sale activities (see Follow-up) AIDA (attention, interest, desire, and action), 10, 11 All Risk Insurance Company, 208–209 Altera Corp., 159 Altima Telecom, 282 American Airlines, 29 American Dental Association, 194 American Express salesforce, American Marketing Association’s Code of Ethics, 45–46 Amiables: as communication style, 81 responsiveness vs assertiveness of, 80 selling to, 83–85 Analogies, use of, 191–192 Analyticals: as communication style, 81 responsiveness vs assertiveness of, 81 selling to, 83–85 Anecdotes, use of, 191 Animation, use of, 197 Annual Survey of Buying Power, 146 Anticipate questions and objections section (Sales Dialogue and Presentation Planning Template), 174–175 Apologies, 284 Appointments, getting, 143, 175, 176 Arms, placement and movements of, 123 Arrival tactics (for groups), 199–200 Assertiveness: as communication style, 80 responsiveness and, 79 Assessing technique, 221, 222 Assessment: of customer satisfaction, 237 in LAARC method, 217–218 of performance and goal attainment, 279 Assessment questions, 112–114 Assistance (by salesperson), 251 AT&T Toll-free Internet Directory, 44 Attending to little things, 284 Attributes of products, 74–75 Audio-visual aids, 201 (See also Visual aids) Automation, 275–279 Autonomy (of salespeople), Avon, 27 B Bacon, Francis, 122 Balance sheet commitment, 225 Basis of the bargain, 49 Beaty, Darrell, 42, 237 Beginning the sales dialogue section (Sales Dialogue and Presentation Planning Template), 173, 174 Benefits, 172 potential and confirmed, 185– 187, 222 selling, 185–187 summarizing, 222 Best Buy, Billing errors, correcting, 245 Biomod, Inc., 20 BNI (Business Networking International), 144 Body language, 201 Body posture/orientation, 123 Boeing, 195 Boomerang method, 219–221 Booz Allen Hamilton, 194 Brainstorming sessions, 249 Brancaleone, 139 Bribes, 49 Building goodwill, 236 Building value through follow-up action section (Sales Dialogue and Presentation Planning Template), 175 Burchett, Greg, 147 Business buyers’ purchase process, 65–76 acquisition and analysis of proposals (phase five), 71–74 describing characteristics and quantities needed (phase three), 71 determining characteristics and quantities needed (phase two), 69, 71 evaluation of proposals/ selection of suppliers (phase six), 74 423 424 Index needs gap recognition (phase one), 66–70 performance feedback and evaluation (phase eight), 75–76 search for/qualification of potential sources (phase four), 71 selection of order routine (phase seven), 74–75 Business consultant, salesperson as, 13 Business markets, 63–65 Business Networking International (BNI), 144 Business-to-business marketing, Buyers, 61–65, 76–87 case studies, 101–103 communication styles of, 79–81 encouraging feedback from, 188 and flexing of seller’s communication style, 82–85 loyalty of, 214 multiple buying influences on, 82, 86–87 objections raised by, 212–217 pre-selling to, 199 questions for gaining trust of, 39 salespeople’s’ gifts to, 50 types of, 62–65 types of purchasing decisions made by, 76–79 unethical behavior initiated by, 50 (See also Sales prospects) Buyer-seller relationships, 65 Buying motives, 172 Buying process (see Business buyers’ purchase process) Buying teams/centers, 82, 86–87 C Candor, 34, 38 Canned sales presentations, 4, 10, 160–161 Captive agents, 278 Careers in sales (see Sales careers) Carroll, Robert, 215, 216 Case histories, as proof providers, 194, 195 (See also under specific topics) CDW Corporation, 190, 277 Cell phones, 278–279 Census Bureau, 194 Centers of influence, 143 Certification program for salespeople, Champy, James, 280 Charts, 197 Check-backs, 188 Circular routing plans, 273, 274 Closed-end questions, 109 Closing sales, 222–227 earning commitment, 223–226 probing, 226 traditional methods for, 226–227 Cloverleaf routing plans, 272–273 Codes of conduct, 45 (See also Ethics) Cody, Cliff, 282 Cognition, 119 Cold calling, 142, 143 Cold canvassing, 142–143 Collaborative communication, 1, 106 (See also Communication) Collaborative involvement, 249 Combination sales jobs, 27–28 Coming-to-that technique, 222 Commercial list providers, 145 Commitment(s): to buy, 222–227 (See also Closing sales) keeping, 284 Commitment signals, 223 Communication, 105–125 after the sale, 241–242 case studies, 134–135 as customer service dimension, 252 giving information, 120–122 in group presentations, 200–201 for handling complaints, 247–248 listening, 116–121 nonverbal, 122–125 in personal selling vs other marketing, questioning, 107–116 in transaction-focused vs trustbased selling, (See also Sales dialogue and presentation) Communication styles: of buyers, 79–81 flexing, 82–85 Communication styles matrix, 79, 80 Communication Styles Survey, 97–99 Company description (in proposals), 163 Company knowledge, 41–42 Company objections, 215, 216 Company property, misuse of, 49 Company records, 144 Comparisons, use of, 191–192 Compatibility, 39, 40 Compensation (in sales careers), 25 Compensation technique, 221 Competitive depositioning, 74 Competitive situation section (Sales Dialogue and Presentation Planning Template), 172–173 Competitor knowledge, 41, 44 Competitors, criticism of, 216 Complaints: causes of, 245, 246 resolving, 246–248, 251 typical kinds of, 245 Computer-based presentations, 197 Computers, 276 Concentrated demand, 64 Concentration, 118 Confidentiality, 34 Confio Software, 261–262 Confirmation, in LAARC method, 218 Confirmed benefits, 185–187, 222 Connection, in follow-up, 238, 239 Conrad, Blake, 16 Consultative selling, 8, 13, 14 Consumer markets, 63 Consumer Reports, 194 Contact management tools, 238, 239, 276 Continued affirmation, 10 Contour Plastics Corporation, 280 Convenience (of customers), 250 Conventions, 144, 145 Conversations: dominating, 107 sales, 160 sales dialogues vs., 165, 166 (See also Sales dialogue) Covey, Steven, 283–284 Crabtree, Chris, 250 Creativity, increased importance of, 90 Credibility, proof providers for, 194 Critical encounters, 246 CRM systems (see Customer relationship management systems) Customer Benefits Worksheet, 255–257 Customer knowledge, 43–44 Customer orientation, trust and, 38–39 Index Customer Profile, 152 Customer relationship management (CRM) systems, 239–240, 278 Customer relationships: enhancers/detractors for, 236, 240 expanding (see Follow-up) Customer satisfaction: assessing, 237 constant monitoring of, 249 follow-up visits for, 247 Customer service (see Service) Customer service partnerships, 282 Customer value, 2, 279–284 (See also Adding value) Customer value proposition, 170–171 Customer value proposition section (Sales Dialogue and Presentation Planning Template), 170–171 Customer-centricity initiative (Best Buy), Customers: post-sale dealing with (see Follow-up) potential (see Sales prospects) selling to (see Buyers) training personnel of, 244 D Daily Sales Plan Worksheet, 270, 271 Daily Time & Activity Log, 295 Darding, Kari, 105–106 Database America, 146 Databases, searchable, 266 Davenport, Kim, 38–39, 174 Deceptive practices, 47, 49, 50 Deciders, 86 Decision making: autonomy in, in purchasing, 76–79 in transaction-focused vs trust-based selling, Delay techniques, 213 Delighter attributes, 75 Delta Point–The Sales Agency, 117 Demand, in business markets, 64 Denial techniques, 220 Department of Commerce, 194 Dependability, 34, 37, 38 Derived demand, 64 Design partnerships, 281 Desired states, 66 Detailers, 26 Dialogue, 2–3 (See also Sales dialogue) 425 Diamond Equipment Corporation, 277, 278 Dichotomous questions, 109 Dieterle, Dan, Diffusion of innovation, salespeople and, Direct commitment, 225 Direct denial technique, 219, 220 Directories, 145 Directory of Corporate Affiliations, 146 Direct-to-consumer sales, 27 Discovery questions, 114 Disruptions (during sales calls), 192–194 Dow, 192 Drivers: as communication style, 81 responsiveness vs assertiveness of, 80, 81 selling to, 83–85 Dun and Bradstreet, 266 Dynamic Sag Corrector (DySC), 13 E E.A.R Indicators for Effective, Appropriate, and Responsive Customer Service Communication, 133 Earn prospect commitment section (Sales Dialogue and Presentation Planning Template), 175 Economic stimuli, salespeople as, EDI (electronic data interchange), 77 Edward D Jones & Co., 263, 264 Ego drive, 29 Ego strength, 29 Electronic data interchange (EDI), 77 Electronic media, in sales dialogue and presentation, 197–198 E-mail, follow-up via, 242 Emotional buying motives, 172 Empathy, 28–29, 247, 251 Employers, salespeople’s contributions to, 7, Encyclopedia of Associations, 146 Energizing presentations, 190 Engaging customers, 175–176 Enterprise Rent-a-Car, 214 Enthusiasm, 30 Epson, 207 Errors, billing, 245 Ethics: American Marketing Association Code of, 45, 46 defined, 45 SMEI Code of, 47, 48 uniform code for, (See also Sales ethics) Evaluating (SIER model), 120 Evaluation: of buyers’ objections, 214 of performance, 75–76 of proposals, 74 of suppliers and products, 71–74 two-factor model of, 75, 76 Evaluative questions, 109 Examples, use of, 191 Executive Jet International, 86–87 Executive summary (in proposals), 162–163 Expectations: about salespeople, of buyers, 251 clarifying, 284 establishing, 249 exceeding, 250 unrealistic, 248 Expediting orders, 243–244 Expense accounts, 50 Expertise, trust and, 36–37 Express warranty, 49 Expressives: as communication style, 81 responsiveness vs assertiveness of, 80 selling to, 83–85 External relationships, 280 Extranets, 238, 239, 277, 278 Eye contact, 200, 201 Eye movements, 122–123 F FAB (feature-advantage-benefit) job-search matrix, 18–19, 185 Facial expressions, 122 Facts, as proof providers, 194 Failure, poor listening skills and, 116 Fairness, 34 Feature-advantage-benefit job-search matrix (see FAB) Features, 172, 185–187 Federal Metal Products (FMP), 267, 269–270 Feedback: on performance, 75–76 in sales careers, 23, 24 in sales dialogue and presentation, 188 user-friendly systems for, 250 Feel-felt-found method, 222 First impressions, 173, 174 426 Index ‘‘The Keys to Successful Selling,’’ 107 Flanagan, Patrick, 159 Flexing communication style, 82–85 FMP (see Federal Metal Products) Follow-up, 235–252 adding value and enhancing mutual opportunities, 249–252 assessing customer satisfaction, 237 to build value, 175 case studies, 258–259 correcting billing errors, 245 encouraging critical encounters, 246 expanding collaborative involvement, 249 expediting orders, 243–244 importance of, 244 maintaining communication, 249 monitoring after-sale activities, 243–244 personal and phone visits, 245 providing useful information, 241–242 relationship enhancers and detractors, 236, 240–248 resolving complaints, 245–248 specific components of, 238, 239 training customer personnel, 244 in transaction-focused vs trust-based selling, using technology, 237–240 Forestalling, 218–220 Formula approach, 10 (See also Mental states selling) Fortune 500 companies, 237–240 Foster’s Promotional Goods, 139, 144 Friendliness, 251 Frito-Lay, 27 Fuji, 29 Functional needs, 69 G Gatekeepers, 86, 87 Gavic, Jim, 281 General Electric Appliances, 281 General Mills, 25 Gift giving, 50 Giving information, 120–122 GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare (GSK), 27–28, 198 Goals: assessing attainment of, 279 as desired outcomes, 263, 264 levels and types of, 265 required characteristics of, 264–265 setting, 263–265 Goldmine (software), 151, 238, 239 Goodwill, building, 236 Google, 159 Grammar, 121–122, 163 Graphs, 197 Graziano, John, 159 Great Depression, Great Lakes Trucking, 281 Group account planning, 261–262 Group sales presentations, 199–203 handling questions in, 201–203 tactics for, 199–201 Growmark, 82, 192 GSK (see GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare) H Haack, John, 237 Hands, placement and movements of, 123 Harden & Associate, Harris Directory, 146 Harvard Business Review, Head, placement and movements of, 123 Heffel, Jerry, Helpfulness, 251 Hershey Chocolate, U.S.A., 144 Hershey Foods Corporation, 43, 251 Hewlett-Packard, 189 Hoechst Marion Roussel Pharmaceutical, 39, 40 Honesty, 34 Hoovers, 266 Hormel, 144 Houston, Brett, 235–237 Howard, Jamie, 187 Hoyt, Charles W., The HR Chally Group, 183 Huff, John, 50 I IBM, 279 Ideal customer profile, 142 Illegal activities, 49, 50 Illustrations, 196 IMPAX Corporation, 108 Implication questions, 112 Importance weights, altering, 74 Inbound telemarketing, 144 Inc magazine Web site, 19 Independence (in sales careers), 25 Independent testing organizations/ labs, 194 Indirect denial technique, 219, 220 Industrial Revolution, 3–4 Industry knowledge, 41–42 The Industry Standard, 194 Influencers, 86 Information: to customer, post-sale, 241–242 giving, 120–122 on individual prospects, 148–150 on other buyers’ influences, 151, 152 on prospects’ organization, 150, 151 for territory analysis, 266 Information technology, 87, 88 Initiators, 86 Innovation, diffusion of, InquisLogic Inc., 267 Inside sales, 27 Installation, monitoring, 243–244 Integrity, 284 Intellicomm, 89 Intensity (of voice), 124–125 Interaction, in follow-up, 238, 239 Internal partnerships/teams, 279–280 Internal relationships, 280 The International Corporate 1000, 146 Internet, 87, 88, 239, 277, 278 Interpersonal communication skills, 29 Interpreting (SIER model), 119–120 Interruptions (during sales calls), 192–194 Intimate zone, 123, 124 Intranets, 238, 239, 277, 278 Introductions (to prospects), 143 J Jacobi, Jeffrey, 191 Jacoby, David, 190 James, Curtis, 281 James, Geoffrey, 277 Job security (in sales careers), 23 Job variety (in sales careers), 25 Jolles, Robert, 110 K Kehoe, Steve, 166, 167 Kehoe Financial Services, 166, 167 King Systems, 211 Klich, John, 143 Index Knowledge: in follow-up, 238, 239 increased importance of, 90 in transaction-focused vs trust-based selling, types of, 41–42 Knowledge bases, 40–45 Knowledge needs, 69 Kosch, Dan, 108 Krishnamurti, Jiddu, 117 L LAARC method, 217–218 Lanier, 250 Lead lists, 145–146 Leadership (see Self-leadership) Leapfrog routing plans, 273–275 Legal issues, knowledge of, 50–51 Legitimate choice, 225 Legs, placement and movements of, 123 Lewis, Greg, 33 Licensing bureaus, 194 Likability, 39, 40 Lingo, Doug, 39, 40 Linking buying motives, benefits, support information and reinforcement methods section (Sales Dialogue and Presentation Planning Template), 172 Listening, 116–121 active, 118–120 in handling complaints, 247 keys for effectiveness of, 116–118, 121 in LAARC method, 217 to maintain open communication, 249 SIER model, 119–120 using different types of, 118, 119 Location (of sales calls), 192 Lockheed, 49 Logical sequencing, 121–122 Long-term ally, salesperson as, 13 Loudness (of voice), 124–125, 191 ‘‘Low-Pressure Selling’’ (Harvard Business Review), Loyalty to present suppliers, 214 Lucent Technologies, 14 M McLuhan, Marshall, 183 McMahan, Shelly, 159 Mail, follow-up, 242 Major city routing plans, 274, 276 427 Managers, salespeople as, 7, Manual language, 122 Manufacturing partnerships, 281 Market knowledge, 43–44 Marketing: defined, personal selling in, 1, Marketing partnerships, 281 Markets, business vs consumer, 63 Marriott Worldwide, 240 Mary Kay, 27 Maschuzik, John, 25 Maximizer (software), 238, 239, 276 Meetings with buyer, 249 MEI (see Motivation Excellence Inc.) Mental states selling, 8–11 Merck, 192 Micklos, Jim, 33, 36, 243 Microsoft salesforce, Million Dollar Directory, 146 Misrepresentation, 49 Missionary salespeople, 26 Misuse of company assets, 49 MIT, 194 Mitchell, L A., 14 Mitsubishi Motor Manufacturing of America, 77–79 Mobile technology, 89 Modified rebuy decisions, 78, 79 Monitoring: of customer satisfaction, 249 of product installation, 243–244 Monsanto Agricultural Division, 215, 216 Moody’s Industrial Directory, 146 Moore Wallace, 147 Motivation, as customer service dimension, 252 Motivation Excellence Inc (MEI), 33–34, 243 MPRS Sales, Inc., 218 Multiattribute models, 72 Must-have attributes, 75 N National Assurance Corporation (NAC), 278 National Cash Register (NCR) Company, National Trade and Professional Associations, 146 NCR (National Cash Register) Company, Need objections, 214–215 Need satisfaction selling, 8, 12 Need-payoff questions, 112 Needs: gap in, 66 types of, 68–70 Needs and benefits analysis (in proposals), 163 Needs gap, 66–70 Need-satisfaction/consultative model, 166, 167 Needs-gap analysis, 184–185 Negligence, 49 Networking, 143–144, 262 New task buying decisions, 77–78 Newman, John, 34 Noncompeting salespeople, 144 Nonverbal clusters, 125 Nonverbal communication, 122–125 communication styles and, 79 defined, 122 Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL), 133 Northwestern Mutual Financial Network, 143 NWREL (Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory), 133 O Objections: anticipating, 174–175 company or source, 215, 216 evaluating, 214 need, 214–215 price, 216 product or service, 215 reasons for raising, 212–213 responding to, 218–222 time, 217 types of, 213–217 (See also Sales resistance) Objectives: as desired outcomes, 263, 264 required characteristics of, 264–265 of sales calls, 171–172 setting, 263–265 OneSource Information Services, 266 Online catalogs, 87, 88 Ontario Systems Corporation, 42, 44, 215, 237, 238, 244, 250 Open-end questions, 109, 224 Openness, 34 Order routines: selection of, 74–75 for straight rebuys, 77 Order-getters, 26 Orders, expediting, 243–244 Order-takers, 27 Organized sales dialogues, 166 Organized sales presentations, 166–168 Orientation of body, 123 428 Index Osterling, Kelly, 224, 244 Outbound telemarketing, 144 Out-salespeople: modified rebuy decisions strategies, 79 straight rebuy decision challenge for, 77, 78 Outsourcing, 89 Overhead transparencies, 198 P Pagers, 278–279 Partnerships: administrative support, 281 customer service, 282 design, 281 internal, 279–280 manufacturing, 281 marketing, 281 sales, 280 shipping and transportation, 281–282 Patterson, John H., Pause duration, 124 Peddlers, Pepsico salesforce, Performance assessment, 279 Performance feedback and evaluation, 75–76 Personal distance, 123, 124 Personal goals, 265 Personal Prospecting Log, 149 Personal selling, 1–15 case studies, 20–22 classification of approaches to, 8–9 classification of jobs in, 25–28 consultative selling, 13 contributions of, 6–8 customer value in, dialogue with customers in, 2–3 evolution of, 3–6 mental states selling, 10, 11 need satisfaction selling, 12 origins of, other types of marketing vs., problem-solving selling, 12–13 sales process in, 13–15 sales professionalism in, 5, stimulus response selling, 10 trust-based professional selling, Personal visits, post-sale, 241, 245 Personal zone, 123, 124 Pfizer, 192 Pharmaceutical industry, 26 Photographs, 196 Pictures, effectiveness of words vs., 120, 121 Pioneers, 26 Pitch (of voice), 124, 191 Pitches (sales), Plans, development/ implementation of, 269–276 Plastico, Inc., 21–22 Plato, Pocahontas Foods, 281 Polk City Directory, 146 Polling Company, 139 Portfolio analysis, 267–268 Positioning (in sales calls), 192–193 Postponement, 222 Post-purchase evaluation, 75–76 Post-sale follow-up (see Follow-up) Posture, 123 Potential benefits, 185, 186 PowerPoint, 276 Precall planning, 108 (See also Sales dialogue and presentation planning) Predictability, 34 Pre-selling, 199 presentersonline, 207 Prestige (in sales careers), 24 Price knowledge, 43 Price objections, 216 PricewaterhouseCoopers, 194 Pricing and sales agreement (in proposals), 163 Prime Resource Group, 65 Printed materials, 196 Probing questions, 109 Problem questions, 112 Problem solving, in relationship selling, 36 Problem-solving selling, 8, 12 Product demonstrations and models, 195 Product knowledge, 42 Product objections, 213, 215 Products: altering buyer’s beliefs about, 73–74 assessing performance of, 72–73 competitive depositioning of, 74 delivery of, 243–244 evaluating, 71–72 features and benefits of, 172 highlighting neglected attributes of, 74 importance of attributes, 74 modifying, 73 target prices for, 89–90 truth in presenting capabilities of, 246 Professional organizations, 194 Professionalism, sales, 5–6 Profit, from customer service, 250 Projection questions, 114, 115 Promotion knowledge, 43 Proof providers, 194–195 Proper, Cole, 61–62 Proposal Writing Scorecard, 164–165 Proposals: evaluating, 74 requests for, 69 written, 161–165 Prospect information section (Sales Dialogue and Presentation Planning Template), 170 Prospecting, 139–140 (See also Strategic prospecting) Prospects (see Sales prospects) Proxemics, 123, 124 Psychological attributes, 75 Psychological needs, 69 Public zone, 123, 124 Published sources, for prospecting, 145–147 Purchasers, 86–87 Purchasing: by buying teams/centers, 82, 86–87 current developments in, 87–90 process for (see Business buyers’ purchase process) types of decisions in, 76–79 Purchasing professionals, 64 Q Qualifying sales leads, 142 Questioning, 107–116, 221, 222 ADAPT system for, 112–116 categories of, 108–111 combining types of questions in, 110 to maintain open communication, 249 to obtain information on buyer, 150 pre-call planning of, 108 SPIN system for, 111–112 strategic application of, 111 Questions: anticipating, 174–175 check-backs and response-checks, 188 to gain commitment, 224 in group presentations, 201–203 guidelines for answering, 202 restating, 201–202 R Rational buying motives, 172 Reaction Design, Reactive questions, 110, 111 Index Rebuying decisions: modified, 78, 79 straight, 77–78 Red light statements (closing), 224 Referrals, 143 Reist, Marty, 215, 218, 220 Relating, in follow-up, 238, 239 Relationship selling, 36, 53 increasing emphasis on, 88 post-sale work in, 244 and retention of customers, 247 skills and activities inherent to, 36 Reliability, 34, 251 Reputation, 250 Requests for proposals (RFPs), 69 Research companies, 194 Resilience, 252 Resistance (see Sales resistance) Resolving complaints, 245–248, 251 Responding (SIER model), 120 Response (LAARC method), 218 Response-checks, 188 Responsiveness: assertiveness and, 79 as communication style, 80, 81 Restating questions, 201–202 Revenue producers, salespeople as, RFPs (requests for proposals), 69 Risk, reducing, 249 Risk and Insurance Management Society, 194 Rockwell International, 49 Roe, Steve, 211 Rogers, Geoff, Routing plans (see Territory routing plans) R.R., 224 RubiconSoft, 139 Rust, Missy, 36–37 S Saint-Gobain Containers, 237 Sales & Marketing Management magazine, 146 Sales aids (see Sales tools and aids) Sales and Marketing Executives International (SMEI), 47 Sales call goals, 265 Sales call objective section (Sales Dialogue and Presentation Planning Template), 171–172 Sales calls: defined, 160 429 setting for, 192–194 (See also Sales dialogue and presentation) Sales careers, 23–31 characteristics of, 23–25 qualifications/skills for success in, 28–30 types of personal selling jobs, 25–28 Sales conversations, 160 Sales dialogue, 183–203 benefit selling in, 185–187 case studies, 208–209 defined, 3, 160 electronic media in, 197–198 encouraging buyer feedback in, 188 focus of, for groups, 199–203 key behaviors for, 183 keys to success in, 184 needs-gap analysis in, 184–185 organized, 166 planning beginning of, 173 preparing for, 142, 148–152 (See also Sales dialogue and presentation planning) proof providers in, 194–195 purposes of, setting for, 192–194 tools for maximizing effectiveness of, 189–190 value creation in, 185 verbal support in, 189–192 visual aids in, 195–197 Sales dialogue and presentation planning, 159–176 case studies, 180 for engaging the customer, 175–176 importance of questions in, 108 organized dialogues/ presentations, 166–168 other sales communications formats and, 160–165 template for, 168–175 Sales Dialogue and Presentation Template, 168–175 anticipating questions and objections section in, 174–175 beginning the sales dialogue section in, 173–174 build value through follow-up action section in, 175 competitive situation section in, 172–173 customer value proposition section in, 170–171 earning prospect commitment section in, 175 form for, 168–170 linking buying motives, benefits, support information and reinforcement methods section in, 172 prospect information section in, 170 sales call objective section in, 171–172 value of, 168 Sales ethics, 45–51 American Marketing Association Code of, 45, 46 behaviors contrary to, 47, 49, 50 case study, 58–59 deceptive practices and, 47, 49 how companies deal with, 49, 50 illegal activities and, 49 image of salespeople and, 47 non-customer-oriented behavior and, 49, 51 SMEI Code of, 47, 48 uniform code for, Sales funnel, 140–141 Sales leads, 141, 142 Sales Logix (software), 276 Sales objectives, questions related to, 111 Sales partnerships, 280 Sales pipeline, 140 Sales presentation, 183–203 benefit selling in, 185–187 canned, 4, 10, 160–161 case studies, 208–209 defined, 160 electronic media in, 197–198 encouraging buyer feedback in, 188 focus of, for groups, 199–203 key behaviors for, 183 keys to success in, 184 needs-gap analysis in, 184–185 organized, 166 preparing for, 148–152 (See also Sales dialogue and presentation planning) proof providers in, 194–195 setting for, 192–194 tools for maximizing effectiveness of, 189–190 value creation in, 185 verbal support in, 189–192 visual aids in, 195–197 Sales process, 13–15 traditional vs relational, 241 transaction-focused, Sales professionalism, 5–6 Sales prospects, 142 430 Index earning commitment of, 175 engaging, 175–176 objections raised by, 212–217 prioritizing, 142 recording information on, 170 Sales resistance, 211–227 addressing concerns, 211 anticipating/negotiating concerns and resistance, 211–212 case studies, 231–232 reasons for raising objections, 212–213 securing commitment and closing, 222–227 summarizing solutions to confirm benefits, 222 traditional methods for, 218–222 types of objections, 213–217 using LAARC process, 217–218 Sales skills, Sales support offices, high-tech, 279 Sales support personnel, 26 Sales tools and aids, 189–199 electronic media, 197–198 proof providers, 194–195 sales call setting, 192–194 technology and automation tools, 275–279 using in presentation, 198 verbal support, 189–192 visual aids, 195–197 Sales training programs, 41 Salesman (as term), Salespeople: autonomy of, in buyer’s post-purchase evaluation, 75–76 careers for, 23–31 in consultative selling, 13 credentials of, customers’ expectations of, 8, 251 in employing firms, 7–8 ethical code for, evolution of job, 3–6 image of, 47 in mental states selling, 11 in need satisfaction selling, 12 next generation of, occupational outlook for, 24 in problem-solving selling, 12, 13 sales process role of, 15 in society, 6–7 as source of customer advantage, 65 in stimulus response selling, 10 in transaction-focused vs trust-based selling, SAMA (Strategic Account Management Association), Sandia, 194 Sant, Tom, 162 Schering-Plough Pharmaceutical Company, 38–39, 174 Schmidt Business Forms, 57–58 Scott paper, 29 Sealy, 195 Seating arrangements, 192–193 Security, 34 Self-efficacy, 29 Self-leadership, 262–279 assessing performance and goal attainment (stage five), 279 defined, 262 development/implementation of strategies and plans (stage three), 269–276 setting goals and objectives (stage one), 263–265 tapping technology and automation (stage four), 275–279 territory analysis and account classification (stage two), 265–269 Selling function, Selling points, 187, 198 Selling Power magazine, 277 Selling process, comparison of buying process and, 67 Selling smarter, 262 Selling technology and automation tools, 275–279 Seminars, 145 Sensing (SIER model), 119 Serious listening, 118 Service: dimensions of, 252 inconsistency in, 251 objections related to, 213–214 quality of, as competitive edge, 249–251 unrealistic expectations of, 248 Service issues, 42, 43 Service motivation, 30 Service objections, 215 Service strategy, 251, 252 Setting for sales calls, 192–194 Shipping partnerships, 281–282 Shonka, Mark, 108 Shukla, Anu, 139 Siebel Systems (software), 276 SIER model, 119–120 Simmons, 195 Singh, Harprit, 89 Single-factor analysis, 266–267 Situation questions, 111–112 Situational needs, 69 SkyTel, 278 Slides, 198, 201 Smart Design, Inc., 159 Smartphones, 278 SMEI (Sales and Marketing Executives International), 47 SMEI Certified Professional Salesperson1 Code of Ethics, 47, 48 SnowRunner Company, 66 Social listening, 118 Social needs, 69 Social zone, 123, 124 SoftSwitching Technologies, 13 Solutions, gaining agreement on, 248 Sony, 29 Source objections, 215, 216 Southwestern Company, Southwestern School Supply, 282 Spangler, Adam, 263, 264 Speaking rates, 124, 191 Specificity of goals, 264, 265 Spelling, importance of, 163 SPES Sequence, 198 SPIN questioning system, 111–112, 174 Spirit, service enthusiasm and, 250–251 Standard & Poor’s, 266 Standard & Poor’s Register of Corporations, Directors, and Executives, 146 Standards, establishing, 249 Statistics, as proof providers, 194 Stimulus response selling, 8, 108 Straight rebuy decisions, 77–78 Straight-line routing plans, 272 Strategic Account Management Association (SAMA), Strategic goals of customers, 13, 37 Strategic orchestrator, salesperson as, 13 Strategic prospecting, 139–152 case studies, 157–158 defined, 140 gathering prospect information, 148–152 locating prospects, 142–147 process for, 140–142 strategic prospecting plan for, 147–149 Strategic prospecting plan, 147–149 Strategies, development/ implementation of, 269–276 Stryker Medical, 216 Success story commitment, 225, 226 Index Suggested action and timetable (in proposals), 163, 165 Sullivan, John, 65 Summary commitment, 225 Suppliers: assessing performance of, 72 buyers’ loyalty to, 214 evaluating, 71, 72 outsourcing to, 89 selection of, 74 Supply chain management, 88–89 Suspects (sales leads), 141 T T-account commitment, 225, 226 Tactical questions, 109–110 Target pricing, 89–90 Task plans, 269–270 Task-driven activity plans, 261 Teamwork, 261–262 administrative support partnerships, 281 building skills in, 282–284 customer service partnerships, 282 design and manufacturing partnerships, 281 importance of, increasing customer value through, 279–284 internal partnerships and teams, 279–280 marketing partnerships, 281 need for, sales partnerships, 280 shipping and transportation partnerships, 281–282 Teamwork skills, 283–284 Technical support salespeople, 26 Technology: to enhance follow-up, 237–240 and sales efficiency/ effectiveness, 277 selling technology and automation tools, 275–279 Technology knowledge, 45 Telemarketing, 10 canned sales presentations in, 161 inbound vs outbound, 144 Telephone(s): cell phones, 278–279 follow-up via, 242, 245 getting appointments via, 143 voice mail, 279 Telephone book, identifying prospects from, 145 Territory analysis, 265–269 431 Territory goals, 265 Territory routing plans, 270–276 circular, 273, 274 cloverleaf, 272–273 leapfrog, 273–275 major city, 274, 276 straight-line, 272 Testimonials, as proof providers, 194, 195 Texas Paint & Coatings (TPC), 208 Thank-you cards, 242 Third-party reinforcement, 221, 222 The Thomas Register, 266 Thomas Register of American Manufacturers, 146 Time Activity Chart, 289–290 Time management, 264 Time Management Skills Worksheet, 288–289 Time objections, 217 Tools (see Sales tools and aids) TPC (Texas Paint & Coatings), 208 Tracking systems, 147, 243 Tracy, Brian, 183 Trade shows, 144, 145 Trade Shows & Professionals Exhibits, 146 Training: current focus of, 53 of customer’s personnel, 244 in ethics, 49, 50 topics in sales training programs, 41 Transaction-focused traditional selling, Transition questions, 116 Translation method, 219–221 Transparencies, use of, 198 Transportation partnerships, 281–282 TransWestern Publishing, 221 Trial commitments, 223, 224 Trust, 33–45 buyers’ meanings of, 34–35 candor and, 38 case study, 57–58 compatibility/likability and, 39 customer orientation and, 38–39 defined, 34 dependability and, 37–38 earning, 36–40 expertise and, 36–37 first impressions and, 173, 174 gaining, 39 importance of, 35–36 knowledge bases for building, 40–45 Trust-based professional selling, Trust-based relationship selling, 9, 166 Trust-based sales communication, 106, 107 (See also Communication) Trust-based selling: effective listening in, 117 sales process in, 14–15 Tupperware, 27 ‘‘Twelve Simple Rules for Writing,’’ 163, 165 Two-factor model of evaluation, 75, 76 U Understanding, as teamwork skill, 283–284 Underwriters Laboratory, 194 Unethical sales behaviors, 47, 48, 50 United Insurance Agency, 144 Users, 86 V Value, building, 175 Value creation, 185 (See also Adding value) Verbal communication: communication styles and, 79 giving information, 120–122 listening, 116–121 questioning, 107–116 Verbal support, 189–192 Video presentations, 197, 198 Visual aids: integration of verbal communication and, 121 in sales dialogue and presentation, 195–197 Voice characteristics, 123–125, 190–191 Voice mail, 279 Vuteq, 77, 78 W Walker Group, 150 Wallace, 244, 245, 281 Wal-Mart, 251 Waugh, David, 261–262 Web Resource Associates, LLC, 267 Web sites: attracting customers through, 147 intranets and extranets, 277, 278 Wells Fargo Financial, 105–106 Wheat, Dave, 221 432 Index Williams, Cap, 282 Words: abstract vs specific, 121 effectiveness of pictures vs., 120, 121 World Scope: Industrial Company Profiles, 146 World Wide Web, 277, 278 Written sales proposals, 161–165 company description in, 163 executive summary in, 162–163 needs and benefits analysis in, 163 pricing and sales agreement in, 163 scorecard for, 164–165 suggested action and timetable in, 163, 165 X Xerox Corporation, 29, 53, 110, 157–158 XL Capital, 280 Y Yellow Book USA, 13 Young, Jon, 44 [...]... the Year, and the Dean’s Teaching award every year since its inception in 1987 Ramon also sits on five editorial review boards Ramon’s primary research is in personal selling and sales management His work has appeared in the Journal of Marketing Research, Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, The Journal of Management, Industrial Marketing Management, The Marketing Management Journal, and the... format and Adobe Acrobat format  Downloadable PowerPoint presentation files are available in Microsoft PowerPoint format Videos In response to many requests for contemporary, relevant, and up-to-date videos, the authors and a team of experienced selling educators have updated the video package specifically designed for Professional Selling: A Trust- Based Approach, Fourth Edition The videos illustrate... Thomas A Ingram Raymond W LaForge Ramon A Avila Charles H Schwepker, Jr Michael R Williams MODULE FORMAT Professional Selling: A Trust- Based Approach was written for students Therefore, its aim is to provide comprehensive coverage of professional selling in a manner that you will find interesting and readable Each module blends recent research results with current professional selling practice in a format... marketing major with a concentration in personal selling and sales management Dave Wheat is an area manager for TransWestern Publishing in Muncie, Indiana He has held various sales and marketing positions throughout his career Dave has a B.S in marketing from Ball State University Jon Young is a National Account Manager with Ontario Systems Corporation, Muncie, Indiana He is responsible for the western half... editorial review boards of the Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice, Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, Journal of Relationship Marketing, Journal of Selling and Major Account Management, and the Southern Business Review, and has twice won awards for outstanding reviewer He is a coauthor of Sales Management: Analysis and Decision Making Ramon A Avila... about and answer We have found the video package to be an effective learning aid in our professional selling classes We are excited about the fourth edition of Professional Selling: A Trust- Based Approach We have used the text successfully in our professional selling classes Students find the book to be readable and interesting, like the many examples and active-learning exercises, and many indicate... regional proceedings, and books including Marketing Communications Classics and Environmental Marketing He has received both teaching and research awards, including the James Comer Award for best contribution to selling and sales management theory awarded by the Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management and two ‘‘Outstanding Paper’’ awards at the National Conference in Sales Management, among others He... is a district sales manager for Wallace Computer Services in Ft Wayne, Indiana He supervises four salespeople who sell commercial printing and supplies to businesses and organizational customers Greg has a B.S in marketing from Indiana University, Bloomington Kari Darding is a manager at Wells Fargo Financial Kari and her sales team utilize the trustbased, collaborative selling process to provide a. .. editor of the Marketing Education Review, founding executive editor of the Sales Educator Network, has served as associate editor for the Sales Education and Training section of the Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, has coauthored Marketing: Principles & Perspectives, Sales Management: Analysis and Decision Making, Professional Selling: A TrustBased Approach, The Professional Selling Skills... Sales Management, International Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management, Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, Quality Management Journal, and Journal of Industrial Technology His work has also received numerous honors, including Outstanding Article for the Year in Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, the AACSB’s Leadership in Innovative Business Education Award, and the Marketing
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