Marketing communications integrating offline and online with social media 5th ed paul r smith and ze zook

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i Marketing Communications ii THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iii FIFTH EDITION Marketing Communications Integrating offline and online with social media PR Smith & Ze Zook iv Publisher’s note Every possible effort has been made to ensure that the information contained in this book is accurate at the time of going to press, and the publishers and authors cannot accept respon­ sibility for any errors or omissions, however caused No responsibility for loss or damage occasioned to any person acting, or refraining from action, as a result of the material in this publication can be accepted by the editor, the publisher or any of the authors First published by Kogan Page Limited in 1993 Second edition published in 1998 Third edition published in 2002 Fourth edition published in 2004 Fifth edition published in 2011 Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only be repro­ duced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms and licences issued by the CLA Enquiries concerning reproduction outside these terms should be sent to the publishers at the undermentioned addresses: 120 Pentonville Road London N1 9JN United Kingdom www.koganpage.com 1518 Walnut Street, Suite 1100 Philadelphia PA 19102 USA 4737/23 Ansari Road Daryaganj New Delhi 110002 India © P R Smith 1993, 1998, 2002, 2004, 2011 The right of P R Smith and Z Zook to be identified as the authors of this work has been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 ISBN 978 7494 6193 E-ISBN  978 7494 6194 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Smith, P R (Paul Russell), 1957Marketing communications : integrating offline and online with social media / Paul R Smith, Ze Zook – 5th ed p cm Includes index ISBN 978-0-7494-6193-5 – ISBN 978-0-7494-6194-2  1.  Communication in marketing.  I.  Zook, Ze.  II.  Title HF5415.123.S65 2011 658.8′02–dc22 2010045798 Typeset by Graphicraft Ltd, Hong Kong Print production managed by Jellyfish Printed and bound in Great Britain by Ashford Colour Press v Dedicated to the memory of Chris Berry Chris had the courage of his convictions and was champion of the underdog He was generous in every conceivable way – the kindest man I ever knew A genius in writing, teaching and marketing, a gentleman and a true friend There’ll never again be anyone quite like Christopher Granville Berry Pa u l S m ith vi THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii CO N T E N T S Foreword  xii Acknowledgements  xiii About the authors  xv How to use this book  xvi PA R T O N E   Communications Background and Theories  01 New marketing communications  The revolution has started  Marketing utopia has arrived  10 The ladder of engagement  17 The race is on  22 References and further reading  28 Further information  29 02 Branding  31 Introduction to branding  32 Brand components  37 The branding process  41 Brand summary and the challenges ahead  55 Conclusion  58 References and further reading  58 03 Customer relationship management  61 Introduction to CRM  62 CRM components required  68 CRM creation and maintenance  80 CRM summary and challenges  84 References and further reading  86 Further information  87 04 Customer psychology and buyer behaviour  89 Introduction to understanding customer buying behaviour  90 Models of buyer behaviour  97 The intervening psychological variables  103 Summary and conclusion  112 Appendix 4.1: Hofacker’s online information processing  114 Appendix 4.2: The post-PC customer  115 viii Contents References and further reading  116 Further information  117 05 Customer communications theory  119 Introduction to communications theory  120 Communications models  123 Future communications models  131 References and further reading  134 Further information  135 06 Marketing communications research  137 Introduction to market research  138 Types of research  141 The market research process  151 In conclusion  158 References and further reading  158 Further information  159 07 Media buying and planning  161 Introduction – the challenge of the media mix  162 Which medium?  168 Which media and which vehicle?  170 Summary  179 References and further reading  179 Further information  180 08 Marketing communications agencies  181 Agency types  182 Agency structure  184 Agency remuneration  187 Agency relationships – selection and retention  189 References and further reading  202 Further information  203 09 International marketing communications  205 The globalization of markets  206 International difficulties  210 International mistakes  214 Strategic global options  215 In conclusion  222 References and further reading  222 Contents  10 The marketing communications plan  225 Outline marketing communications plan: the SOSTAC® planning system  226 Situation analysis  229 Objectives  233 Strategy  235 Tactics  237 Action  237 Control  240 References and further reading  244 Further information  244 11 The changing communications environment  245 Introduction  246 Politics (regulations and laws)  246 Economics  251 Social change  253 Technology  256 Summary  259 References and further reading  260 Further information  261 PA R T T WO   Communications Tools  263 12 Selling, sales management and key account management  265 Introduction  266 Managing the sales force  270 Extending the sales force  273 Advantages and disadvantages  278 Summary  278 References and further reading  279 Further information  279 13 Advertising online and offline 281 Introduction  282 New advertising  283 Managing an advertising campaign  289 Case study 13.1: T-Mobile  300 Case study 13.2: HEA drug education  304 Advantages and disadvantages  308 References and further reading  308 Further information  309 ix 472 Index selection process overview  189 structure of  184–87, 184 traffic department  187 Ahonen, T  209 AIDA communication model  234, 269, 417 see also objectives Allen, Brady & Marsh (ABM) advertising agency  188, 193, 201, 255 Allen, J  64, 84 Amazon  8, 33, 35, 39, 47, 53, 228, 276 ratings and reviews for customer engagement  19 Ambler, T  243 American Express  78, 257, 343, 344, 347 Anderson, C  36, 37 Anning, P  248, 249 Apple  5, 21, 39, 167, 286 apps  5, 13, 92, 162, 166–67, 195, 282, 284 as new ads/media  167, 283, 286–87 The Art of War  229 see also Sun Tzu Atkinson, S  84 August, A  66 awareness trial reinforcement (ATR) model  98, 98, 299 B2B  70, 72, 127, 383 buyers  93, 451 markets  126 selling  267 B2C  127, 383 BA (British Airways)  77, 193, 199, 226 Balancing the Selling Equation  266 Bashford, S  190 BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation)  9, 22, 124, 167, 213, 246, 249, 286, 446 Becht, B  221 Beck, S  Beenstock, S  57 Bell, R  33 Berners-Lee, T  132, 133, 258 Bernstein, D  51 Berry, C  106, 236 Berry, J  122 Bird, D  383, 387 Bird, J  359 Blackwell, R D  99 blogs/blogosphere  11, 128, 313, 328 Bogle, N  194 Bolger, A  331 Bond, C  363 Boshoff, A  351 Bossidy, L  7, 454 Boston Matrix  55 Bové, J  55 Bradshaw, P  284 Bradt, G  156 Braganza, A  65 brand awareness, overemphasizing importance of  95 brand components  37–41 emotional connection  38 equity  38–39 essence  39 experience  39 identity  39 personality  39 positioning  39–40 promise  40 rational and emotional appeals  38 role  40 values  40 vision  40–41 brand names  17, 20–22, 34, 50, 54, 90, 141, 167, 191, 211, 276, 286, 329, 432 development of  45–46 mistakes in  214 negative meanings of  37, 46, 214 Branding  50 see also Murphy, J branding  31–59 see also brand components; branding process and brands and brand summary/challenges ahead  53–58 company benefits from  32–34 and definition of brand  32, 37–38 power of  32–37 see also brands branding process (and)  41–55, 41, 42 see also brand maintenance; brands and logos aspects that drive brand behaviour  43 brand name development  45–46 brand policing  49–51 brief for  44–45 cost-effective high-impact brand moments  44 critical brand moments/ touchpoints  44 developing understanding of customer  43 emotions that drive brand behaviour  43–44 logos  46–48, 47, 51, 52 long-term profitable customers  43 mobilizing staff/channelling partners  49 motivating and training staff  48–49 personality, values, associations and promise  44 brands (and)  32–37 the anti-brand  55–56 boosting balance sheets, profits, relationships and sales  33–34 as bridge between marketing, finance and boardroom  57–58 corporate and sub-  51 creation of sustainable competitive advantage  32 customer experience/ engagement  53–54 disadvantages of weak  35 extensions and portfolio  54–55 investment in brand asset  51 maintenance of  49–54 see also customer engagement policing  49–51 promotions  359 reduction of perceived risk  35 reviewing  51–52 rise of own  56 roll-out/delivery of  48–49 satisfying aspirations  35 saving customers’ time  34–35 self-destruction  36–37 angry customers  36 bad marketing  36 Index global niches  37 internet business dynamics  37 short-term sales vs long-term brand building  56 strong survival of  58 Branson, R  45 Braun, T  40 Brinker, S  133 British Advertisers, Incorporated Society of  (ISBA)  190 British Petroleum (BP)  38, 334, 429 and environmental crises  315, 331, 333 British Rate and Data (BRAD)  171, 177, 187 Brogan, C  15 Brøndmo, H  254 Broom, G  120 Brown, P  215 Brown, S  316 Browne, Sir J  38 Bryson York, E  285 budgets  227–29 allocating between customer retention and acquisition  228 between on and offline marketing  228 to social media  228–29 setting  227–28 Burnett, L  186 Butler, J  69 buying/buyer behaviour (and)  89–117 attitudes  110 buying situations  96 communication tools  110, 111 the complex burger buyer  90–91 customer reasoning/brain science  94–96 decision-making units  92 group influence  110 Hofacker’s online information processing  114 identifying customers  91–92 key questions for  90 learning  105–07 see also main entry models of  97–103 black-box  100–101, 101 buying process  97–99, 97, 98 complex  102–03, 102 linear additive  101 personal-variable  101 response hierarchy  99–100, 100 threshold  101–02 trade-off  102 motivation  107–10, 109 see also Maslow, A and the invisible badge  109 perception  103–05 the post-PC customer  115 privacy  96 the rational–emotional dichotomy  93–94 reasons for buying  93 time  96 trust  96–97 buying processes extensive problem solving (EPS)  96 limited problem solving (LPS)  96 routinized response behaviour (RRB)  96 Buzan, T  270 Byron, D  258, 461 Cadbury/Cadbury Schweppes  38, 200, 288, 315, 360, 362, 363 Caldicott, S  25, 26 case studies (for) advertising  300–307 HEA drug education  304–07, 305, 306, 307 T-mobile  300–304, 301, 302, 303 direct mail: Acronis automated marketing campaign  392, 397, 393, 394, 395, 396 exhibitions: Sedgwick at RIMS Monte Carlo  410–12 merchandising: Thomson Tours  422–23 packaging: brand range development in India  438–41, 439, 440 publicity: Virgin Mobile’s new tariff  334, 336, 335, 337 473 sales promotions Muzu.TV film soundtrack promotion  374–75, 375 rap anti-knife campaign  371–74, 372, 373 V&A digital art promotion  370–71 social media Minime – social networking app  464–67, 464, 465, 466 using social media/UGC movies  461–64, 462, 463 sponsorship: TSB’s Roy of the Rovers  352–53 websites American Greetings e-cards  454–57, 455, 456 Times Online microsite  452–54, 453 Castling, J  366 Center, A  120  Chaffey, D  53, 66, 70, 72, 77, 206, 364, 383, 384, 386, 444, 446, 448 Charan, R  454 Charan, R  Chisholm, S  318 Chisnall, P 103, 104 Christensen, C  26, 155–56 churning/churn rate  68, 71, 76–77, 193, 300 Clifton, R  33 Coca-Cola  32–36, 38, 44, 46, 107, 155–56, 185–86, 214–17, 233, 256, 283–84, 299, 345–46, 349, 351, 360, 361, 363, 430–31, 433 sponsorships  342 Colitt, R  349 Collins, S  151, 152 colour blocking  420–21 and Lüscher colour test  431 perception and meaning of  46–47, 48, 104, 207, 211, 255, 384, 392, 430, 431–32 Colvin, G  316 Commission Junction  276–77 Commonsense Direct Marketing  383 see also Bird, D 474 Index communications environment, the changing (and)  245–61 advertising – press and print  250 advertising – television  250–51 breach of privacy regulations, costs of  248–49 codes of practice: selfregulation  248–49 direct marketing  251 economic effects on markets/ communications  252 economics  261–53 laws and regulations  246–51 see also EC directives; EU directives and legislation macro-political effects  251 recession-induced pyschological change  252–53 social change  253–56 see also main entry technology  256–58, 258 and semantic web  257–58 communications models  123–34, 123 adoption  129, 129 and diffusion of innovations  129–31, 130 accelerating  131 future  131–34 linear funnel  131–32 multi-step linear  126–27, 126, 127 and the semantic web  132–33 single-step  123–24, 124 two-step linear  125–26, 125 communications theory (and)  119–35 see also communications models message source credibility  121–22 need for new marketing communications skills  see marketing communication skills non-verbal and non-symbolic communications  120–21 opinion formers, leaders and connectors  122–23 symbolic and semiotic communications  121 Considine, R  67 consumer franchise-building (CFB) promotions  359 control/control systems (and)  240, 242–43, 240, 241 monitoring scores  242 return on investment  243 social media monitoring  242–43 Coopere, G  111 corporate social responsibility (CSR)  313, 318, 333, 338 Court, D  131, 132, 416 cultural differences  see also globalization and international difficulties/ mistakes festivals and celebrations  212 gestures and behaviour  207–08, 211–12 meaning of colour  211 between US and the world  212 Cummins, J  365, 367 customer engagement  17–22, 53–54 through collaborative cocreation (and)  19–22, 22 brand names  20 ideas  19 products and services  20–22 TV ads  19–20 through identifying engaged customers  17–18 and the ladder of engagement  18–19, 18 see also main entry customer feedback and complaints  74 customer experience management (CEM)  62, 68–69 customer relationship management (CRM)  9, 61–87, 85 architecture (IT and human)  68–69 boosts profits and sales  63 and building a profile with data/ fields  72–73, 72 challenges for  84 costs/timescales for  74, 82–83 creates database asset  63 development of credibility and trust for  79–80, 79 data analytics  70 data mining  71–72, 74 database  69–70 controlling  83–84 management of  82 detailed contact strategies for  75–77 defectors’ process/ churn  76–77 marketing automation  77 defining  62 failure of  84–86 and dominance trap  84–85 reasons for  85–86 general processes for  74–75 and measuring customer satisfaction  83–84, 85 and personalization  77–78 philosophy of  87, 87 power of  62 predictive analytics for  73–74 profiling  70–71 resources required for  83–84 strengthens brands  63 success of  86–88 system creation, development, testing and rollout  81–82, 81 writing brief for  80–81 and scope creep  81 using SOS 3Ms in  81 customer service  6–7 customer surveys  6–7 see also surveys National Customer Satisfaction Index (UK)  customer retention programmes  383 Cuthbertson, C  33 Cutlip, S  120 DAGMAR (defining advertising goals for measuring advertising results)  99, 148–49, 234 Dahlstrom, P  151, 152 Darwin, C  Data Protection Registrar  248 data security disasters  249 data/database mining  71–74, 153 Davis, S  44, 57 decision-making units  229,  256 Index definition of brand  35 CRM  62 diffusion  129 gestalt  104 mashable  134 semantic web (BernersLee)  258 sponsorship  343 Dichter, E  108, 426, 429, 432 digital body language  257 and joined-up marketing  269 reports  269 direct mail/e-mail  379–99 see also case studies advantages/disadvantages of  398 advantages over advertising/ sales management  391–92 availability of lists and databases for  381–82 campaign management for see direct mail campaign management co-branded  385 cost-effectiveness (per order) of  382–83 and customer retention and acquisition  385 integrated systems for  382 and mobile messaging  385 opt-in see also e-mail, opt-in profiling technology for  380–81, 380 tailor-made technology for  380 direct mail campaign management (and)  386– budgeting  388–89, 390 creative mailing tactics 387 integrating systems  387 objectives of 386 situation analysis  386 strategy for  386 testing  390–91, 391 timing  387–88, 389 Doctoroff, T  218 dominance trap  64–65 Doyle, P  57 Drucker, P  4, 27 Dudley, J W  212, 410 Dulux  98–99, 416, 444, 445–46 Dunkley, C  156 Dwight, M  254 Earls, M  6, 65  EC directives see also legislation Electronic Commerce Regulations (2002)  247 Economist  9, 35, 43, 50, 56 Edison, T  25, 26 Edwards, A  18 Egan, J 93 Ehrenberg, A  98, 299, 431 and awareness trial reinforcement (ATR) model  98, 98 Einstein, A  25 e-mail, opt-in (and)  383–85 see also direct mail/e-mail co-branded  385 cold e-mail campaign  385 creative execution  384 relevance of offers  383–84 response mechanism  384 response rates for  384 targeting  384 testing – split and multivariate  384 third-party e-newsletters  385 e-mail  see direct mail/e-mail eMarketing eXcellence  66, 385, 448 see also Chaffey, D and Smith, P R Engebretson, D  406 Engel, J  99, 121, 236 Enterprise Risk Management Framework (2004)  252 ethics  83, 246, 249–50, 254–55, 313, 316 EU directives see also legislation Privacy and Electronic Communications Regulations (PECR)  247 Telecommunications Data Protection Directive  248 Unfair Commercial Practices Directive (2005)  247 European Interactive Advertising Association (EIAA)  165 Execution: The discipline of getting things done  see also Bossidy, L and Charan, R exhibition(s)  401–13 see also case studies 475 12 reasons for poor performance at  410 advantages and disadvantages of  412 costs of  408–09 daily checklist for  407 design strategy for  404–05 experimental non-attendance at  410 finalizing action plan for  406–07 and percentage of sales  409 post-show evaluation of  408 and post-show follow-up  407–08 pre-show promotional tactics for  405–06 press coverage for  409–10 prioritizing objectives for  402–03 and prospective buyers  406 return on investment for  409 selection checklist for  403–04 strategy for  403 training staff for  406 value analysis  408 Farey-Jones, D  184 Farrell, D  264 Farrell, S  41 Fast Food Nation  55 see also Schlosser, E Fauconnier, C  43 feedback  6, 10, 36, 47, 57, 68, 78, 80, 123–24, 126–27, 131, 141, 152, 156, 226, 243, 270, 292, 285, 286, 454 Fehle, F  57 Ferraro, G P  207–08, 212 figures adoption model  129 affiliate network programme  277 affiliate programme, inhouse  277 agencies – articles by Len Weinrich  197, 198 anti-knife campaign  372, 373 awareness questionnaire  148 awareness trial reinforcement (ATR) model  98 back-up and recovery guide for SMBs  394 476 Index bar codes  433 black box model, enlarged  101 black box model  101 brand development process  41 brand development process (complete)  42 brand development process including research  41 business traveller segments and communications mixes  233 buying process for highinvolvement purchase, model of  97 Cadbury’s drum-playing gorilla  287 checklist for exhibitions  407 choosing an agency – assessment form  196 collaborative co-creation  19 collaborative co-creation: products  20 communication process (based on Schramm’s 1955 model)  124 communications model, advanced web  128 communications model, multi-step (a)  126 communications model, multi-step (b)  127 communications model, one-step  124 communications model, simple  123 communications model, simple web  128 communications model, two-step with opinion leaders  125 communications model, two-step with opinion leaders and opinion formers  125 communications objectives  291 communication tool – action plan for (mailshot)  239 communication tools, tactical timings of different  238 communications tools  24, 112 concepts for shower gel packs  146 constant change  259 control systems  240 cost per order/cost per customer acquisition  241 CRM development process  81 data loss and loss of time for IT managers  393 design tweaks (Heinz beans)  428 diffusion of innovations  130 diffusion of innovations: chasm between the segments  130 direct mail budgeting worksheet  390 direct mail variables, impact of  391 drug education  305 drug education: campaign press ad  307 drug education: media schedule  306 eating experiences and occasions  145 e-mail – contact workflow strategy  396 e-mail – invitation to a webinar  395 hand-held torch of learning (NUT)  52 hours spent per week using media  164 Hovis commercial  293, 294, 295, 297 Howard and Sheth model, complete  102 Howard and Sheth model, simplified version of  102 ladder of loyalty  67 lifestyle data from the TGI  147 mailing schedule example  389 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs  109 media planning process  298 media source by generation  163 Muzu.TV film soundtrack promotion  375 network of trusted professionals  14 new release – Wall Street Journal  330 on the air  22 optimum shelf stocking printout  420 original logotype vs new identity  439 packaging: Boro Plus Antiseptic Cream 440 packaging: Boro Plus Healthy Skin  440 packaging design  436 packaging design process  437 Paddy Power ad  288 photography 10 Downing Street image  321 Admiral Lord Nelson  322 Archaos fish diet  323 Dom Pedro  320 ‘Don’t forget planes’ campaign  321 Friends of the Earth rainforest-free lunches  322 Jarvis Cocker’s blue beard  320 PR mix  314 promotion sales  359 proposed media schedule for an Orange campaign  176 Prudential logo  47 publicity stunts fuel poverty stunt at Royal Courts of Justice  324 Mortascreen  326, 327 Razorlight at the Science Museum  324 real-world presentation  12 recognisable product shape  430 repositioning European newspaper  235 repositioning from traditional medical product to beauty product  439 repositioning: perceptual map of Lucozade’s classic repositioning  230 response hierarchy models  100 Shanks logo  47 Shell logo and its redesigns  52 speed of adoption of new ideas  258 strategic ladder of engagement  18 Index structure of large advertising agency  184 T-Mobile’s Life for Sharing  301, 302, 303 tailor-made products  380 Times Online microsite timetable  453 Virgin Mobile campaign  335 Virgin Mobile campaign timescale  337 virtual-world presentation  12 Financial Times  5, 121, 312, 331 Fisbhein, M  99, 101 Fischer, B  139 Fletcher, W  8, 33 Ford, H  26, 155 Forsyth, J  92, 95, 96 Fournier, S  57, 65 Foxall, G  100, 112 Fradette, M  25 Frank, O  92 Frank, R  55 Freud, S  107 further information see addresses and resources (for) Galante, N  92, 95, 96 Garrahan, M  349 Garvey, D  26 Geertz, C  208 Ghai, S  254 Gladwell, M  122, 131 global marketing and advertising strategies  216–22 using agencies  220–21 central and decentralized strategy and production  217–18 central strategy with central and local production  218 and central production, advantages and disadvantages of  218–20 and local production  218 and successful central communications  221–22 globalization (and) below-surface similarities and differences  209–10 elite global players  209 forces driving  208–09 global marketing and advertising strategies  216–19 see also main entry of markets  206–10 opportunity  206 Godin, S  67, 235 Goldstein, D  253 Google  9–12, 104, 166, 188, 312, 313 Alert  258, 333, 457 Earth/Maps  10, 11–12 News  258, 317, 318 Voice  133 as world’s first $100 billion brand  34 Gordon, W  144, 149 Gouzeta, R  93 Grande, C  Gray, R  152, 155 Great Moments of Sportsmanship  21 Greenfield, S  25, 27 Griffin, C  124 Guild, T  92, 95, 96 Guinness  37, 38, 54, 123, 129, 190, 434 Gwyer, M  255 Hall, C  20 Hamilton, B  64 Hampp, A  285 Hancock, M  267 Handbook of Consumer Motivations  108 see also Dichter, E Hart, N  313 Harvey-Jones, J  209 Heinz  105, 360, 366, 428–29, 428 Hendler, J  132 Henkle, K M  50 The Hidden Persuaders  55 see also Packard, V Hochman, L  62 Hofacker, C  99, 114 Hoffman, D  Holloway, P  364–65, 369 Hoover  359, 360–61, 366 How to Understand and Manage Public Relations  313 see also White, J Howard, J A  99, 102–03 Hyslop, R  363, 366 477 IBM  45, 46, 48, 50, 63, 127, 130, 216, 256, 266, 331 and Linux  21 Independent  332 Independent on Sunday  325 The Innovator’s Dilemma  156 see also Christensen, C international difficulties and mistakes  210–15, 222 competition  213 cost structures  213 and the global web  215 international mistakes  214–15 in language and literacy  210, 211, 213 legal restrictions  213 the media  212–13 negative meanings of brand names  214 original national identity  212 product mistakes  215 strapline mistakes  214 International Financial Reporting Standards  34, 247 international marketing and advertising strategies  216–19 central strategy with central and local production  218–19 advantages of  218–19 disadvantages of  219 central strategy and production/ local production  217–18 decentralized strategy and production  218 global  216–17 international marketing communications  205–23 see cultural differences; globalization and international difficulties and mistakes strategic global options for see global marketing and advertising strategies Interviewer Quality Control Scheme (IQCS)  154 Jacobson, T  54 Jaworski, D 162 Jefkins, F  348 Jenkinson, A  John, R  267 478 Index Johnson, B  192 Joint Industry Council for Radio Audience Research (JICRAR)  176 Jones, H  95, 288 Kanter, B  228 Kanter, R  52, 154, 231, 213, 216, 217 Kao, J  23, 25 Kapferer, J  38, 93 Katz, E  125 Kaunk, L L  95 Keegan, V  250 Keegan, W J  216 Keen, A  254 Keller, E  122 Kelman, H  121 Kellogg’s  38, 46, 48, 58, 363 Kemp, M  185, 186 Kennedy, J  21, 104, 167, 285, 286 key account management (KAM)  266, 267–69, 269 10 steps towards developing  268 alternative approach to  269 key points for advertising  308 agencies  202 branding  58 buying/buyer behaviour  113 changing communications environment  259 communications theory  134 customer relationship management (CRM)  85 direct mail  398 exhibitions  412 international marketing communications  222 market research  158 marketing communications plan  243 media planning  179 merchandising  423 packaging  441 publicity and public relations  338 sales promotions  376 selling; sales and key account management  279 social media  468 sponsorship  353 websites  468 Kievman, N  258, 461 Kim, P  185, 186 Kimmel, M  111, 142 Kinnear, T  121, 236 Kipling, R  43, 220 Klein, N  48, 55, 313, 315, 350 Knapp, K  54 Knave, M  144 Kohler, E  284 Kollatt, D T  99 Kotler, P  74, 123, 128, 155, 226, 364 Kramer, R  213, 216, 217 Krigsman, M  64 Krugman, P  257 ladder of engagement  18–19, 18, 166, 457 Laing, R D  158 Lanier, X  18 Larkin, J  315 Lassila, O  132 laughter as antidote to stress  140 Lazarsfeld, P  125 Le Pla, F J  44 Learmonth, M  166, 199, 282 learning  52, 90, 103, 112, 127, 243, 457 cognitive  107 and collaboration  69 connectionist theories of  105–06 and e-learning  130–31, 465, 467 stimulus-response theories of  106–07 legislation Bribery Act (2011)  278 Business Protection from Misleading Marketing Regulations (2008)  247 Communications Act (2003)  247 Consumer Protection (Distance Selling) Regulations (2000)  247 Consumer Protection from Unfair Tading Regulations (2008)  247 Control of Misleading Advertisements Regulations (1988)  247, 250 Data Protection Act (1998)  247 Data Protection and Privacy Regulations (1999)  247 Digital Economy Act (2010)  247 Enterprise Act (2002)  247 German environmental  434 London Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Act (2006)  248 Olympic Symbol etc (Protection) Act (1995)  248 Sale of Goods Act (1979)  247 Telecommunications Act (2003)  250 Trade Descriptions Act (1968)  247 Trade Marks Act (1994)  247 Trading Schemes Regulations (1997)  275 Levine, R  Levitt, T  210 Levy, A  253 Lewis, M  429 Lilley, A  13 Lindstrom, M  40, 48, 150, 253 logos  46–48, 47, 51, 52, 437 Luckett, T  332 Luxury Fever  55 see also Frank, R McDonald, M  268 McDonald’s  46, 90, 91, 106, 107, 220, 331, 351, 361 McGovern, G  7, 139, 448, 450 McKenna, R  133, 282 McKinsey  25, 36, 43, 67, 131, 132, 271 see also surveys MacNamara, B  252 Madden, T  57 Mahoney, M  64, 65 Majaro, S  217, 220 market research (and)  137–60 see also research agency selection  154–55 briefs  153–54 defining necessary information for  151–52, 153 information overload  139–40 marketing intelligence and information system  157–58 Index new ideas  155–56 online vs offline research  152–53 prioritization of information  140 problems for  156–57 relevant information for  138–39 research proposal  154 Target Group Index (TGI)  146–47, 147 types of research  141–51, 142–43, 145, 146 concept  144–45 focus groups  144 geodemographics  147 home audits  149 neuroscience  150 opinion-forming panels  150 qualitative  142, 144 quantitative  145–46 retail audits  149 using secondary data sources  151 social media audits  149–50 test marketing  147–48 tracking studies  148, 148–49 Marketer  106 marketing see also affiliate marketing automation (MA)  77 cause-related  315 field  274 guerrilla  353 joined-up  4, 451–52 multi-level  275 objectives  291 permission-based  249 tele-  274–75 viral  325, 327–28 Marketing Breakthrough  361 Marketing Business  418 marketing communications plan (and)  225–44 3Ms  226–27 see also main entry action  237–38, 239 budgeting for  227–29 see also budgets control/control systems  240–43, 240, 241 see also main entry objectives  233–35 see also main entry situation analysis  229–33 see also main entry SOSTAC® planning system for  226–29 see also SOSTAC® strategy  235–37 tactics  237, 238 marketing communication skills  133–34 agile project management  133 analytical pattern skills  133 experimental curiosity and rigour  133–34 mashable software fluency  134 systems thinking  134 marketing intelligence and information system (MIIS)  156–58, 246 Marketing Magazine: weekly brand awareness results  149 Marketing Week  381 Markiewicz, P  162 Markoff, J  133 Marsden, P  122, 131, 150 Marsh, P  193 Maslow, A  90, 108, 110, 272 hierarchy of needs  109, 110, 272 Mason, R  167 Mathur, S  270 Mead, G  212 media jargon/vocabulary  177–79 burst  178 continuous patterns  178 cost per thousand (CPT)  177–78 cover and reach  177 drip  178 environment  179 flighting patterns  178 frequency  177 impacts  178 opportunities to see (OTSs)  177 position  178–79 pulsing  178 TV rating points (TVRs)  178 media planning (and)  161–71, 176, 176–80 see also media jargon/vocabulary 479 ambient media  168 apps as new media  167 audience size, type and state of mind  169 booking space/airtime  171 changing media consumption  162–3, 165–66, 163, 164 choice of medium  168–70 costs of production, space and per thousand  169–70 the internet  168 lead times and ease of buying  170 media buying  170, 171 media characteristics  172–75 the message  170 mixed media  166–67 print  168 research/research bureaux  171, 176–77 shift in vision and philosophy  166 merchandising  415–24 see also case studies advantages and disadvantages of  423 distributor empathy required for  417 measuring effectiveness of  421–22 point of sale materials  416, 417 retail strategies for  419–21 colour blocking  420–21 merchandise ranges  420, 420 POS displays/retail sales promotions  421 sound, scents and mindshare  421 store image and layout  419–20 new technology/techniques for  418–19 tools for  417–19 Metcalf, B  13 Mexican wave  14, 110 Meyer, E  299 Microsoft  46, 50, 104, 127, 131, 148, 150, 215 Millman, T  269 mindshare  277–78, 421 Mitchell, A  350 mobile messaging  162, 385 480 Index models AIDA  234, 269, 417 awareness trial reinforcement (ATR)  98, 98, 299 of buying/buyer behaviour  97–103 communications  123–34, 123 Mole, J  210 Monty, S  17 Moog, C  121 Moore, A  209 Morris, K  48 Mose, M  40 motivation  107–10, 109 see also Maslow, A and the invisible badge  109 Murphy, D  250 Murphy, J  50 Murray, R  155 National Semiconductor  4–5, 444, 445 Neff, J  416 Nicholas, R  434 Nielsen  18, 130, 157, 162, 163, 189 new marketing communications (and)  3–30 accelerated change and hyper-competition  7–9 communication tools  23, 24 customer service/customer surveys  6–7 customer engagement  17–22 see also main entry innovations and customer needs  26–27 opportunities missed  27 opportunity and social media  27–28 morphing with experiences  5–6 see also social media and marketing’s antithesis  race is on  22 relevance and creativity  23, 25–26 revolution in  4–10 and the colouring department  4–5 social media  6, 9–17 see also main entry virtual reality  12–13, 12 see also main entry winning customers  22–23 New Media Age  78 New York Sales and Marketing Association  270 New York Times  133 Nike  5, 38, 46, 78, 349, 350–51 No Logo: Taking aim at the brand bullies  55–56, 313 see also Klein, N Nurden, R  140 Oakes, S  106 objectives  233–35, 235 communications  234–35 AIDA and DAGMAR  234 marketing  233–34, 291 SMART  233, 290–91 Observer  348 O’Dea, A  20 Office of Fair Trading (OFT)  247 Ogilvy, D  35, 120, 168 Ohmae, K  25, 236, 246 Ohnemus, I  57 Olins, W  35, 51 Oliver, B  418 Olsen, K  26 opinion formers (OF) and leaders  125–26 Orwell, G  52 packaging  425–42 see also case studies advantages and disadvantages of  441 convenience of  427 communication functions of  427–28 corporate identity/ endorsements  429 design development and change  428–29, 428 design process see packaging design process and brief designer’s tools  429–35 colour/colour codes  431–32 graphics  432–34, 433 materials  434 shape  430–31, 430 smell  434–35 size  431 environmentally friendly  434 importance of  426 as opportunity  426 as protection  426–27 and overpackaging  428 packaging design process and brief  107, 435–38, 436, 437 contact names  438 measurement  436 minutes  436 money  436 objectives  435 situation/background  435 strategy for  435 Packard, V  55, 91, 108 Parker, L  44 Patel, K  166 Patterson, M  25 Pavlov, I  105 and his dog  90, 106, 359 Penn, D  94–95 Pepsi  107, 351, 360, 363 PEST (political, economic, social, technological) analysis  158, 229, 246, 259 Peters, T  38 Pike, K  208 Pilditch, J  428, 429, 430, 431, 432, 433 Pohl, M  248 point of sale (POS)  416, 417, 421, 423 and EPOS  421, 433 privacy, invasion of  83, 211 Procter & Gamble (P&G)  21, 51, 127, 128, 131, 148, 150, 185, 243, 252 Public Relations, Institute of (IPR)  312 Public Relations Consultants Association (PRCA)  251 public relations (PR) (and)  312–38 advantages/disadvantages of  328–34, 338 higher credibility  329 lack of control  329, 331–34, 330 no media cost  329 control by measuring media relations  333–34 crisis management for  332 marketing  312 Index mix  313, 314, 316–17 as more than communications  313–16, 314 new releases  317–18 online newsroom  318 photography  319–20, 320, 321 see also publicity press conferences/ interviews  318 product and corporate  312–13 publicity  317 see also main entry syndicated radio and down-theline-interviews  319 video news releases  318–19 publicity  323–28 see also case studies advantages and disadvantages of  338 via blogs, Facebook and Twitter  328 controlled integration of  332 stunts  323, 325, 323, 324, 326, 327 uncontrollable  331–32 and reducing lack of control  331–32 through viral marketing  326–28 Pulford, A  106, 236 Raphel, M  67 recency, frequency, monetary value (RFM) analysis  72, 72 Reed, D  13 references/further reading for  28–29 agencies  202 advertising  308–09 branding  58–59 buyer behaviour  116–17 changing communications environment  260 communications theory  134–35 customer relationship management (CRM)  86 direct mail  399 exhibitions  413 international marketing communications  222–23 market research  158–59 marketing communications plan  244 media planning  179 merchandising  424 packaging  442 publicity and public relations  339 sales promotions  377 selling, sales management and key account management  279 sponsorship  354 websites and social media  468 Reichheld, F  64, 84, 127, 228, 242, 243 research (on)  41 children growing old younger (Milward Brown)  253 consumer research and trend identification (Ogilvy & Mather)  290 CRM  (Forrester Research, 2009)  66 decoding drunken messages (University of Bath)  124 media  171, 176–77 poor performance at exhibitions (Dudley, 1990)  410 qualitative research  145 sales of batteries  91–92 salesperson’s time spent in selling  267 use of response-handling mechanisms (Euro RSCG Direct)  387 research companies Burke (BASES test)  141 Nielsen (QUARTZ model)  141 Research International (MICROTEST)  141 Reynolds, J  33 Rich, F R  312 Richards, J  132 Riezebos, R  55 Rijkens, R  209, 217, 218 risk management  248, 252, 253, 410–11 Roberts, K  22, 23, 56, 93, 96, 105, 292 Robles, P  459 Rogers, D  333 Rogers, E  129, 130 Ronay, A  33 481 Rose, B  134 Rothery, G  5, 48, 150 Royer, L  23 RSS feeds  11, 67, 134, 313, 333, 451 Saatchi, M  221 Saatchi & Saatchi  23, 56, 182–83, 300, 302, 304 M&C Saatchi  193 Saatchi Worldwide  93, 105 sales force management (and)  269–79 see also affiliate marketing and marketing 7P approach to selling skills  271 advantages and disadvantages  278 control  272 distributors’ sales assistants  277–78 integrating sales force with communications mix  269 motivation  271–72 multi-level marketing  275 own sales force  274 recruiting  270 time  273 training  270–71 types of sales force/ people  270, 273–74 Sales Promotion (ISP), Institute of  251 sales promotions  357–77 see also case studies action and checklist for  368–69 advantages and disadvantages of  358–59, 376 control and measurement for  369–70 creative  361–62 damaging/ineffective  359–61, 359 integrated  364 joint  363 managing  364–70 objectives of  365, 366, 367 researching for  364–65 short-term tactical approach for  368 social-media-driven  363–64 482 Index strategy/strategic approach for  365–68 virtual gifts  362–63 Sandler, D  351 Sarnoff, D  13, 26 Schafter, P  127 Schifman, I G  95 Schlegelmilch, B B  216 Schlossberg, H  351 Schlosser, E  55 Fast Food Nation  55 Schrum, R  258, 461 scope creep  81, 448 search engine optimization (SEO)  11, 457, 459 search engine results page (SERP)  459 segmentation  229–33, 235  use pdfs and analysis  232–33 B2B (industrial)  232, 233 B2C (consumer)  231 criteria for  230–31 and decision-making units  231 global  231 selling, sales management and key account management see digital body language; key account management (KAM); sales force management and selling selling  266–67 consultative  267 functions of  267 semantic web  12–13, 132–33, 256, 257, 258 Seybold, P  445 Shani, D  351 Shavers, T  254 Shaw, R  98 Sherman, N  162 Sheth, J N  99, 102–03 The Silent Salesman  428 see also Pilditch, J Singel, R  317 Singer, M  151, 152 situation analysis  229–33 see also segmentation; target marketing Skinner, Dr and his rats  106, 358 Smallbone, D  120 SMART  233, 290–91 Smith, D  254, 362 Smith, P R  4, 53, 54, 66, 70, 72, 77, 106, 186, 206, 236, 259, 364, 383, 384, 385, 444, 446, 448 social change (and)  253–56 ageing populations  254, 255 demographics  255–56 ethics  254–55 see also main entry social media  6, 9–17, 457– see also case studies; Google and social media sites advantages/disadvantages of  457 and benefits of business online  460–61 blogs  10 cultural and organizational shift of  14–15 development of listening systems  15 development of knowledge assets  15 integration into business processes, ten steps for  457–58 marketing benefits of  27–28 mistakes  459–60 optimization (SMO)  459 process, ten steps for  15–17 social media optimization (SMO)  457, 459–61 as new SEO  459–61 social media sites Facebook  10 passim; 152, 166, 167, 194, 312 passim; 457 Flickr  passim; 149, 319 passim; 457, 461 LinkedIn  11 passim; 312 passim Myspace  10, 133, 313 Twitter  10 passim; 128, 149, 167, 194, 313 passim; 370, 457 YouTube  9, passim; 149, 162, 182, 325, 457, 461 social networks  13–14, 14 and group behaviour  13–14 Metcalf network  13 online  36 Reed network  13 Sarnoff network  13 Solis, B  242, 457 Sorrell, Sir M  182, 199, 252, 282 SOSTAC®  45, 81, 226–29, 153 plus 3Ms  81, 153, 345, 364, 386 Spitznagel, M  253 sponsorship  341–55 see also case studies and SOSTAC® advantages and disadvantages of  349–51, 353 and ambush marketing  350–51 agreements for  347 budgets  349 definition of  343 monitoring, measuring and evaluation for  348–49 new and old tools for  343–45 objectives of  345–46 pilot scheme for  347 and roll-out  348 strategy for  346–47 tactical plans for  347 target audiences for  345 unusual types of  344–45 standard industrial classification (SIC) codes  72 Stengel, J  185, 199 Stone, M  64, 133 Strategic Marketing Communications  236 strategy for marketing communications  235–37 Sun Tzu  229 surveys (on)  6–7 addiction to internet information (Reuter)  140 benefits from social media (McKinsey 2009)  27 brands and subjectivity (Milward Brown Optimor BrandZ 2010)  32, 34 CRM (Standish Group and Gartner Group, 1980)  66 National Readership Survey (NRS)  177 sales executives at Fortune 1000 companies (McKinsey)  267 trust in global companies (survey for World Economic Forum)  315 sustainable competitive advantage (SCA)  8–9 SWOT analysis  158, 229, 246 Index tables 20 ways to develop credibility, boost online trust and drive repeat visits  79 customer sensitivity quotient  85 key account management (KAM), stages of  268 market research process  153 media characteristics, summary of  172–75 pre-pitch agency initiatives  192 pros and cons of different working relationships  183 sales promotions: linking objective to mechanics  367 sales promotions: matching promotion with objectives  366 types of research or information available  142–43 using RFM analysis  72 Taleb, N  253 Target Group Index (TGI)  141, 171, 230 target marketing  229–30, 235 see also segmentation Taylor, D  55 Tesco  76, 95–96, 113, 257 Computers for Schools  359 Direct  450 and dunnhumby  113 e-mail contact strategies  451 Fresh & Easy  95 Thomaselli, R  342, 347 Tipping Point  122, 131 see also Gladwell, M Toffler, A  256 Topalian, A  435 trademarks  8, 40, 46, 350, 351, 447 applications for  247 Tranfield, D  65 UK Affiliates  276 understanding agencies – agency relationships see agencies Unilever  5, 51, 55, 84, 104, 127, 131, 166, 199 unique selling propositions (USPs)  191, 271, 275, 289, 369, 419, 426, 435 United Kingdom (UK) Patent Office: trademark division  447 Trade & Investment  449 United Protection of Traders Association  381 user-generated content (UGC)  36, 447, 457 and pods4jobs  21 systems  20–22 values, attitudes and lifestyles (VALs)  231 Veblen, T  109 Virgin  21, 35, 39, 40, 51, 55 virtual reality (and)  10, 12–13, 12, 313 customer service avatars  12 massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs)  12 Second Life  12, 313 virtual press conference in  318 Wii games  12 Walker, R  109 Wall Street Journal  329 Warden, J  431 Warner, H M  26 Warshaw, M  121, 236 Watson, T  26 Web 2.0  10, 36, 356 Web 3.0 (semantic web)  12–13, 132–33, 256, 257, 258 Webber, A L  194 websites (and)  443–69 see also case studies and social media advantages and disadvantages of  467 converting visitors to customers (by/with)  449–52, 456–57 contact strategy  451 digital body language/ joined-up marketing  451–52 incentives  449 price lining  449 483 reducing anxiety  451 relevant landing pages  452 simplified processes  449–51 try and buy options  449 customer satisfaction  444 successful social media  457–61 visitor satisfaction with  444–48 customer engagement  447 high quality content  444 navigation  447–48 scenario planning and personas  444–46 sizzle  446–47 their top tasks  448 Weinrich, L  195, 197, 198 Welch, J  8, 25 Whatmough, D  286 White, D  193 White, J  313 Wilde, O  112 Williams, H  194 Williams, K C  101, 104, 105, 110 Williams, T G  432 Wilson, K  269 Wing, R L  229 Wojcik, P  267 Wollfall, A  332 Woodburn, D  268 Woodcock, N  64 Woods, A  450 Woods, S  257, 269 word of mouth  127–28 web (WOMWeb)  62, 68 World Assembly of PR Associations  312 and ‘Mexican Statement’  312 The World Is Not for Sale  55 see also Bové, J Wright, H  66, 81 Yahoo  187, 199, 243, 246, 313, 317 Yang Gang  199 Yeong, C L  33 Young, L  206, 207 Young, M  67 Yu, H-y  33 Zeisser, M  362, 363 484 THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 485 THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 486 THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK [...]... sponsors such as Sainsbury’s and The Prince’s Trust He has also worked with PR Smith for over 20 years on projects ranging from an award-winning, innovative, 3 screen PR Training video to the Chartered Institute of Marketing s online eLearning programmes developed with PR Smith s eLearning company to writing and researching innovative marketing projects Having started as a video/digital media producer and. .. Nightmare on Banking Street  28 Social media cultural shift  14 The social media process  15 The ladder of engagement  17 Customer engagement creates stronger brands and more advocates  17 References and further reading  28 Further information  29 4 Part 1  Communications Background and Theories The revolution has started A new marketing era, long overdue, was heralded in when social media emerged as a real... of creative marketing that delivers results offline or online at www Facebook.com/PRSmithMarketing What’s new in this 5th edition? Emerging creative marketing talent, Ze Zook, has co-authored this edition, which incorporates new chapters on Branding, Relationship Marketing and of course, Social Media (and websites) In Part 2, the ten communications tools all have online and social media integrated with. .. Marketers who understand and influence customer engagement better than their competitors are more likely to develop stronger brands and more loyal customers Engaged customers are more likely to become brand zealots Therefore it is important to identify engaged customers and start a brand ambassador programme to further strengthen the relationship and energize their word of mouth The ideal customer, or most... conferences, workshops, webinars or virtual events, his presentations are engaging, entertaining and carefully structured to embed immediate improvements Visit www.PRSmith.org or www.Facebook.com/PRSmithMarketing Ze Zook Ze Zook is an up and coming integrated market­ ing author, lecturer and consultant specializing in the creative industries He has worked with ballet, film and music, working with sponsors... or Google? Social media has arrived and customers love it Social media gives customers control Marketing has been democratized courtesy of the internet and social media And within the mass of customers lie the new opinion formers and opinion leaders: bloggers and twitterers Marketers have a choice: join the conversation or fail to communicate Old mass communications interruption models like TV advertising... higher levels of involvement ‘Joined-up marketing brings the old ‘outbound marketing (eg advertising, direct mail, telemarketing, etc, sending out messages) together with inbound marketing (where social media brings conversations to the organization) Integrating inbound and outbound with online and offline communications delivers higher impact and more cost-effective ‘joined-up marketing Marketing communications. .. videos) and Flickr photos: these are social media tools And customers, not companies, are controlling the flow of marketing information as they shut out interruption marketing and use, instead, social media to find products, ratings and reviews 9 Outbound marketing (the old interruption marketing model of advertising, direct mail and telesales) has suffered as audiences switch channels or fast-forward through... with experiences  5 The customer service time bomb  6 Accelerated change and hyper-competition  7 Social media   9 Marketing utopia has arrived  10 The race is on  22 Cut through the clutter  22 Be there, be relevant and be creative  23 Open and integrate your new toolkit  23 Why social media works  10 The creative age is here  23 How social media works  10 Enter the boardroom  27 Social networks  13... blogs, micro-blogs (Twitter), forums, social networks and online news media Not everything comes down to ROI ‘What’s the ROI for putting on your pants every morning? But it’s still important to your business.’ Scott Monty, Digital Communications Manager, Ford 17 Social media is not for the pure mercenary busi­ ness They are for organizations that are truly customer orientated Social media, for them,
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