B2B brand management kotler waldemar pfoertsch

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B2B Brand Management Philip Kotler ´ Waldemar Pfoertsch B2B Brand Management With the Cooperation of Ines Michi With 76 Figures and Tables 12 Philip Kotler S C Johnson & Son Distinguished Professor of International Marketing Kellogg School of Business Northwestern University 2001 Sheridan Rd Evanston, IL 60208, USA p-kotler@kellogg.northwestern.edu Waldemar Pfoertsch Professor International Business Pforzheim University Tiefenbronnerstrasse 65 75175 Pforzheim, Germany waldemar.pfoertsch@pforzheim-university.de ISBN-10 3-540-25360-2 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York ISBN-13 978-3-540-25360-0 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York Cataloging-in-Publication Data Library of Congress Control Number: 2006930595 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in data banks Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer-Verlag Violations are liable for prosecution under the German Copyright Law Springer is a part of Springer Science+Business Media springeronline.com ° Springer Berlin ´ Heidelberg 2006 Printed in Germany The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use Hardcover-Design: Erich Kirchner, Heidelberg SPIN 11408604 43/3100-5 ± Printed on acid-free paper Foreword Brands are an important part of all cultures across the planet, as well as in the business world Brands help people make decisions, small ones, as well as big ones They enable you to trust the Bordeaux you drink, the Mercedes you drive, and the GE Jet Engine that lifts the plane you count on to take you places Brands are the ideas, perceptions, expectations and beliefs that are in the mind of consumers, your potential customers or any individual who can effect your enterprise We live in an interconnected world, made more transparent by the proliferation of new communications technologies Today, a person, a company, a brand, even a nation, is increasingly accessible and exposed to the observation of the citizens of the world Strong brands go far beyond just creating awareness; they accurately expose the corporate soul and brand promise for all to see I believe consumer understanding dominates everything in the business world Today, consumers have greater access and control over the information from which their perceptions about a brand are created The ideas and impressions we might hope the consumer to have about our brands are subject to the competing ideas, which are available for consumer perception This is a new age of consumerism, one that has evolved into a higher order of brand relationship and accountability It is a business world where examples like Enron have resulted in greater consumer mistrust of the information coming from brands and companies It is a business environment I call ecologism – where a brand, a company or its leaders cannot hide behind inaccurate pretenses The truth about your company will always be discovered It VI Foreword is simply no longer an option to be silent about exposing what your company values, mission or relevancy is While there are only local consumers, the accessibility of information, this transparency, makes all brands globally susceptible to scrutiny The best brands consistently win two crucial moments of truth The first moment occurs when customers choose, select or sign the contract to buy after having evaluated all other offerings of the competition The second moment occurs at the customers’ homes, offices or production sites when they use the brand, when they experience it and are satisfied or not satisfied Brands that consistently win these moments of truth earn a special place in the customers’ minds and hearts These brands are remembered and the re-buy occurs more readily and more profitably The value of trust earned between the brand promise and the brand experience realized has always been the simple foundation in any sustainable commercial endeavor Some industrial brands focus intensely on winning these moments of truth They this by being in touch with their clients and customers, and by understanding not only their engineering and application requirements but also their brand expectations We have learned that brands like IBM don’t stand only for mainframe computer servers or IT software, but for operating a bank or airline 24 hours and 365 days Apple is more than its technology; it is a brand that continuously thinks differently P&G goes beyond making everyday household and personal care products, by touching lives, improving life Nissan shifts things – a person, a life, the world, or simply the way you move through it It’s no coincidence that many of these brands are thriving after their management has listened to the speeches or lectures of Philip Kotler or Waldemar Pfoertsch Many have read the books and articles of the authors and come back to their workplaces inspired to apply their management principles Their passionate belief in marketing and brand management is inspirational and effective It is helping reinvent how we think about creating and fostering our own B2B brands Foreword VII This first comprehensive book on B2B brand management will provide even the most experienced business manger with a new way of looking at B2B branding It provides proven case studies that bring B2B brand management to life It will provoke the reader to think about a systematic approach to branding, based on facts, rather than personal judgment Focused branding moves you closer to your customers Professors Kotler and Pfoertsch encourage us to look for more differentiation without neglecting the competition and they encourage us to get top management attention for the branding decisions on a continuous basis In short, this is the ultimate book for managers and customers in the B2B2C value chain Tim Love Vice-Chairman Omnicom Group New York, NY, U.S.A Adel Gelbert Managing Partner BBDO Consulting Munich, Germany June 2006 Preface Brand building goes far beyond creating awareness of your name and your customers promise It is a voyage of building a corporate soul and infectiously communicating it inside and outside the company to all your partners, so that your customers truly get what your brand promises Although one of the authors wrote this statement many years ago, we are all still committed to it The world around us has changed and is constantly changing – every year, every month, and every day Technologies/products and services/marketplaces emerge, evolve, and disappear Along with globalization and hyper competition has come the explosion of choices in almost every area Business-to-Consumer (B2C) companies have identified and applied branding and brand management decades ago to adapt to these changes Many Business-to-Business (B2B) companies still regard such effort as irrelevant for them Recently though, B2B brand management has been given more and more attention by researchers as well as practitioners all over the world Following up on this recent development, we offer the following central tenet: Brand management for industrial goods and services represents a unique and effective opportunity for establishing enduring, competitive advantages Whether you are selling products or services, a strong brand is the most important and sustainable asset your company can have Your brand strategy should always be the guiding principle behind every decision and every action This book aims to put B2B brands and branding into their actual context It describes current thinking and X Preface best practice, draws comparisons and highlights differences to B2C, and ventures thoughts about the future of B2B Branding is not only about creating fancy names and logos To equate branding with such superficial cosmetic effort is like judging a book merely by its colorful cover It is absolutely crucial to understand that there is more to brands than meet the eye Just take one moment and try to imagine a world without brands There would be no Porsche, Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Volvo, Chrysler, and no Ford, just a variety of automobiles that are more or less alike Which would you buy? Which company would you trust? On which attributes would you make your purchasing decision? Such a world would lack much more than just fancy brand names and logos – it would lack one of the most important factors that simplify our life in an increasingly complex environment: Orientation Brands differentiate, reduce risk and complexity, and communicate the benefits and value a product or service can provide This is just as true in B2B as it is in B2C! Philip Kotler Evanston, IL U.S.A Waldemar Pfoertsch Pforzheim, Germany June 2006 Acknowledgements Our cumulative experience with marketing, branding and brand management amounts to more than 70 years Nonetheless, this book wouldn’t have been possible without the help and guidance of various people When we started work on this book, some people asked us why we wanted to write a book on branding, an area already inundated with many valuable publications When we clarified that our focus would be on business-to-business and not on business-to-customer brand management, a few surprised seconds of silence were followed by a storm of questions Judging from the nature of these questions, we realized that there was a great need from managers to understand this area in a practical way without reducing the complexity of the subject matter Our understanding of marketing and branding, acquired through years of research, teaching and listening to people, forms the foundation of this book Additional reading, and even more research was necessary to come up with a running theme for this book Thanks to Jim Collins’ most successful book Good to Great – Why Some Companies Make the Leap … and Others Don’t, we got the inspiration to create guiding principles, a step-by-step approach for achieving or maintaining a successful brand management for B2B companies Creating this book has been a demanding task: the subject is a complex and moving one, drafted in a global environment, researched on three continents: America, Asia, and Europe, and produced in real-time through Internet platforms or constant e-mail communication Microsoft Word reached its limit many times and drove us up 342 Bibliography Internet Adresses Accenture, www.accenture.com Acme Brick Company, www.brick.com Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., www.amd.com BASF Corporation, www.basf.com British Airways Plc., www.britishairways.com Caterpillar Inc., www.cat.com Covad Communications, www.covad.com FedEx Corp., www.fedex.com Herman Miller, www.hermanmiller.com IBM Corporation, www.ibm.com Infineon Technologies, www.infineon.com Intel Corporation, www.intel.com Klueber, www.klueber.com Lapp Cable, www.lapp.de Magna International Inc., www.magna.com MTU Aero Engines GmbH, www.mtu.de Online Encyclopedia, www.answers.com SAP AG, www.sap.com Singapore Airlines Ltd., www.singaporeair.com Swarovski AG, http://business.swarovski.com United Parcel Service of America, Inc., www.ups.com Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., www.walmartstores.com Company and Brand Index A Arcelor Steel 265, 269 A Brilliant Choice 139 Ashok Leyland 268 A.P Møller-Mærsk A/S 37 Aston Martin 75 Accenture 19, 97, 124, 142, 192, 290, 292, 293 Atari 233 AtlasCopco 179 Acme 77 Aviagen 177 Acres 177 Advanced Circuits 177 B AdWords 144 B.U.T 177 Agilent 97, 101 Bank of America 146 Air France 32 Barrierta 33, 85 Airbus A380 18, 27, 31 BASF 97, 283 Alcatel 312 Bayer 246 Al-Fanar 231 Bayer Chemicals 246 Amazon.com 224 BBDO 97 AMD 38, 134, 289 Bell & Gossett 85 American Banker 238 BenQ 40, 315 Amphenol-Tuchel Electronics 115 Bloomberg 3, 317 Andersen Consulting 19, 290 BMW 42, 48, 87 AOL 2, Boeing 2, 27, 31, 145 AOL Time Warner 221 Bombardier 58, 318 APL 36 Bosch 48, 50, 79, 87, 128, 133, 315 Apple 1, 8, 97, 233, 321 British Airways 96, 145 Arbor 177 BlueScope Steel 268 344 Company and Brand Index C Caliber System Inc 211 Canon 125 Caterpillar 16, 17, 18, 50, 52, 59, 72, 96, 101, 124, 126, 127, 145, 179, 317, 318, 321 Cemex 208, 224–32 Cemex Aridos 230 Cemex Hormigon 230 Cemex Morteros 230 Cemex Way 225, 230 Ceran 281, 282 Cessna 59 Change for Good 145 Chevrolet 98 DaimlerChrysler 18, 42, 48, 76, 87, 179 DEC 97 Del Monte 133 Dell 2, 68, 79, 238 Detroit Diesel 172 Deutsche Aerospace (DASA) 18 Deutsche Post 119 Deutsche Telekom 96 DHL 97, 119, 130, 321 Discover Dean Witter 75 Disney 134 Dodge 179 Dolby 130, 135 Dole 133 Chevy Nova 98 Domino’s Pizza 105 Chinese Academy of Science 250, 251 Dow Chemical 83 Draeger 172 Chiquita 133 Dreamliner 2, 31 Cisco 2, 112, 114, 148 DucatiMotor 87 Citibank 81, 82 DuPont 145, 146, 181, 182 Coca Cola 134 DuPont – The miracle of science 181 Commodore 233 Compaq 233 Construrama 229 Corfam 181 Covad 77, 120 Covisint 112 E E.ON 282 EADS 18, 27, 97, 145 EFQM 145 Crystallized with Swarovski 139 EMC 238 D Emirates Airlines 27 Daewoo 98 Enduring Passion 170 Daimler 50 Emerson 101 Enron 98 Company and Brand Index Enteron 98 General Motors 42, 50, 318 Erco 86 GF Georg Fischer 87 ERCO 77 Gilfillan 85 Ernst&Young 50 Goodyear 50 eServers 78 Google 144 EvoBus 87 Gore-Tex 130, 133 Exxon 97 Goulds Pumps 85 F Falcon 58 FAW 313 345 Grainger.com 51 Gucci 86 Gyunggi-do 223 FDX Corp 211 H FedEx 2, 50, 72, 103, 117, 145, 177, 208, 209–15, 210, 317, 318, 321 Haier 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 309 FedEx Corporation 211 FedEx Kinko's 212 Fengxing 252, 254 Festool 77 First to Fly 31 Fischer Automotive Systems 87 Fly Higher 116 Flygt 85 Ford X, 2, 42, 75, 79, 267 Ford Ka 75 Freightliner 43, 179 Fuso 179 G Galanz Group 307 GE 21, 97, 101, 145, 179, 188, 192, 246, 322 General Electric 2, 18, 50, 52, 96, 124, 145, 318 Hannover Fair 116 Harley Davidson Hazet Tools 317 Herman Miller, Inc 314 Hilti 318 Hitachi Metals 125 Hoechst 98 Hotemp 33, 85 Houston Natural Gas 98 HP 2, 8, 50, 78, 79, 97, 101, 103, 124, 145, 233 HSBC 53, 81, 82, 97, 102, 124, 171 Hwasung 223 I I.D 317 IBM 2, 8, 34, 39, 41, 50, 52, 58, 59, 68, 77, 78, 79, 96, 97, 100, 124, 145, 159, 179, 188, 192, 208, 232–38, 318, 322 346 Company and Brand Index Ikea Landor Associates 19, 292 iMac 137 Lanxess 97, 208, 246–49 Inc magazine 238 Lapp Cable 116 Infineon Technologies 133 Lear Jet 58 Intel 2, 38, 51, 52, 77, 79, 114, 121, 124, 133, 135, 288, 289 Legend 305 Intel Inside 137, 282 Liebherr 305 Inter North 98 Lincoln 75 Interbrand 124, 137, 215, 224, 232, 245, 288 Lucent Technologies 221 International Business Machines 96 Lycra 130, 133 Isoflex 33, 85 ITT Industries 85 J Jaguar 75 Jiefang 313 Joe Gibbs Racing 214 Lenovo 179, 208, 237, 303 Lufthansa Airlines 27 M Magna International 42 Magna Steyr 42 Mahler AGS 144 Makrolon 133 MAN 18 John Deere 96, 177, 317 Marketing Centrum Muenster (MCM) K Marquardt 87 Keiper-Recaro 133 Kendrion N.V 179 Klueber Lubrication 33, 85 Kodak 101 Kohlberg Kravis Roberts (KKR) 19 Komatsu 52 Kraft Foods 190 L L.I.R 177 Land Rover 75 Marriott International 188 Mars 84 Maruti 267 Master Yachting 117 Mazda 75 MBE 198 MBtech 76 McDonalds 134 McGraw-Hill 120 McKinsey 43, 46 McKinsey&Company MCM 43, 46 Company and Brand Index Mercedes-Benz 43, 76, 159, 160, 169, 179 Merck 146 Mercury 75 Miba 87 Michelin 103, 104 Microban 130 Microsoft 2, 79, 114, 124, 145, 159, 233, 318 Mittal 269 Morgan Stanley 75, 124 O O&M 234, 237 Oklahoma Steel & Wire 175 On Demand 236 One Siemens 239, 240, 241 Oracle 2, 97, 114, 124 Osborne 233 Oshkosh 179 P Motorola 128, 224 P&O Nedlloyd 37 MP3 219 Penske 104 MTU Friedrichshafen 18, 19 Penske Racing 104 MTU Munich 18 Pentium 51 N PepsiCo 287 Philips 102, 315, 317 Napster 219 Pierburg 87 Nascar 214 Pitney Bowes 129 NEC 97 Porsche Consulting 87 NewCo 246 Posco 261 Nicholas 177 Pratt & Whitney 18 Nike 287, 317 Nippon Steel 261 R Nokia 1, 124, 160 Rackspace web hosting 177 NOL 36 RCA 311 Northwestern University 182 Recaro 87 Novartis 124 Reuters 124 Novell 101 RMC 225 Nucor 6, 261 Rolex 86 NutraSweet 130, 133, 135 Rolls-Royce 18, 86 Nylon 133, 181 Ross 177 Royal Mail 130 347 348 Company and Brand Index S Saatchi and Saatchi 59 Saint-Gobain 50 Samsung 208, 215–24, 289 Sanyo Corporation 308 SAP 2, 41, 45, 79, 97, 114, 124, 176 Staburags 33, 85 Stainmaster 130 Starbucks 1, 287, 321 Starbucks Frappuccino 287 Sterling 179 Styrofoam 83 Sun 238 Schott 281, 282 Sun Microsystems 78 S-Class 169 Sunkist 133 Scott & White Healthcare System 239, 245 Super Bowl 293 Scott Bedbury 287 Swareflex 138 Severstal 261 Swarovski 77, 138, 140 SGL Carbon Graphite 172 Swarovski Optik 138 Shell 179 Synergy 278 Shimano 53, 130, 133 Shipbuilding for Tomorrow 313 SupplyOn 112 T SI- 279 Tandy 233 Siemens 2, 40, 50, 79, 83, 96, 124, 208, 239–46, 315 Tata Agrico 57, 264, 267 Siemens Automation Systems 279 Tata Pipes 264 Signity 138 Tata Steel 57, 208, 261–69, 322 Silicon Valley 288 Singapore Airlines 27, 31, 79 Six Sigma 128 Smart 87 Smart Power 318 SMS 239 Soarian 245 Software Evangelist 237 Tata Bearings 57, 264 Tata Shaktee 57, 264 Tata Steelium 57, 264 Tata Tiscon 57, 264, 267 Tata Wiron 57, 264 TCL 303, 305, 309, 310, 311, 312 TCL International Holdings 310 TechnoBrands 168 Techron 130, 133 Sony 68, 289 Techtronic Industries Co Ltd 309 SPX Corporation 48 Teflon 130, 133, 135, 181 Company and Brand Index Telco 267, 268 Tetra Pak 50 The Body Shop 145 The Man in the Chair 120 The UPS Store 198 ThinkPad 78 Thomson 311 Time Warner 219 Titan 231 Tsingtao 303 Tyco 51 Tyrolit 138 Tyvek 181, 182, 183 U V Varta 48 Vencemos 231 Volvo 43, 75 VW 48, 87 W Wall Street Journal 142 Wal-Mart 127 Woolmark 133 WorkOut 127 WSD 261 WTO 35 Wuerth 48, 51 UBS 118 X Uncle Ben's 84 Xerox 97, 101, 124 UNICEF 145 349 Unilever 191, 290 Y United Technologies 101 Yahoo 9, 144 UPS 50, 97, 99, 100, 124, 145, 197, 198, 199, 210, 211 Young & Rubicam Advertising 19 Usinor 261, 265 Z Zeiss 59 ZF 87 Subject Index A Brand appearance 113 Acceleration 11, 157 Brand approach 15, 46, 157, 289 Accountability 7, 67, 240, 262, 301 Acronym 96, 97, 211 Advertising 3, 5, 19, 65, 68, 82, 89, 97, 101, 110, 112, 113, 114, 118, 121, 136, 143, 148, 171, 213, 214, 234, 235, 238, 266, 283, 290, 302 Advertising campaign 100, 119, 122, 139, 213, 249, 282, 285, 293, 315 Brand architecture 73–91, 168, 178–81, 183, 184, 188, 192, 319, 320 Brand associations 70, 94, 133, 167, 169, 170, 182, 183, 192, 265, 279 Brand audit 160, 191–99 Brand awareness 73, 220, 221, 248, 249, 282, 285, 304 Brand building 160, 181–91 Brand building block 184 Approvers 26 Brand building processes 160 Authenticity 113, 139, 159, 162, 163, 169, 175 Brand building tools 110–22 B Brand checklist 56 Brand champion 185, 320 B2B  B2C 20 Brand communication 106–22, 208, 232, 246, 277, 280 B2B markets 20–34 Brand consolidation 159, 180 Bamily brand strategy 83 Brand contract fulfillment 196 Best talent 39 Brand core 169, 170, 184 Blogging 148 Brand coverage 166, 312 Brand ambassador 107, 109, 128 Brand creation 82, 91, 181 Brand analysis 160, 163–68, 164, 168 Brand definition Brand depth 77, 91 352 Subject Index Brand distinction 73–105 Brand dominance 166 Brand elements 67, 73, 74, 92– 105, 107, 163, 168 Brand emotions 184 Brand equity 6, 51, 69, 70, 79, 81, 92, 93, 110, 123, 133, 136, 166, 168, 174, 188, 190, 191, 192, 193, 208, 223, 224, 226, 235, 245, 279, 294 Brand equity charter 192 Brand essence 69, 92, 102, 108, 173, 237, 287 Brand Evaluation 123–24 Brand extensions 84, 287 Brand functions 8, 43, 45, 46, 47, 285 Brand hierarchy 74, 78 Brand history 50 Brand identity 94 Brand image 53, 93, 111 Brand imagery 167, 184 Brand judgment 184 Brand juvenation 197 Brand knowledge 160, 166, 279 Brand leadership 159, 321 Brand name X, 4, 36, 68, 84, 85, 89, 92, 95, 96, 97, 98, 101, 102, 119, 168, 188, 212, 279, 281, 292, 309, 312, 315 Brand performance 167, 184 Brand personality 70, 92, 164, 176, 186, 196 Brand planning 160–63 Brand portfolio 9, 55, 68, 75, 76, 78, 124, 165, 171, 178, 180, 188, 189, 190, 191, 196, 211, 212, 229, 234, 264, 280 Brand portfolio management 188 Brand positioning 86 Brand potential 52 Brand power 50–59, 133, 165, 166 Brand preferences 53 Brand promise IX, 5, 44, 53, 71, 108, 147, 168, 176, 177, 185, 208, 211, 247, 279, 298 Brand pyramid 184, 190 Brand relationship 74, 111, 167, 180, 182, 183, 287 Brand relationship spectrum 75, 77 Brand length 77, 91 Brand relevance 8, 11, 34–50, 45, 48, 164, 282, 285 Brand loyalty 1, 53, 70, 73, 166, 226 Brand resonance 167, 184 Brand salience 167, 184 Brand management 55 Brand Score Card 192 Brand measurement 124, 192 Brand Specialties 124–48 Brand metrics 123, 193, 197, 280 Brand steward 235 Brand mission 101, 164, 168, 174, 175, 217 Brand story 92, 103, 104, 105 Brand leadership 163 Subject Index Brand strategy IX, 2, 8, 11, 19, 66, 68, 70, 73, 75, 88, 90, 110, 160, 161, 164, 357, 197, 217, 224, 226, 232, 249, 288, 293, 320 Buying process 47, 48 Brand stretch 166, 199 C Brand transfer 91, 220 Brand values 68, 105, 107, 109, 111, 126, 164, 167, 169, 175, 216 Brand width 77, 91 353 Buying situation 25, 26, 31, 49 Buying stages 28, 50 Capital items 21, 132 Cause promotions 301 Cause-related marketing 301 Brand-driven customer acquisitions 196 CBBE model 166, 167, 183, 184, 279, 285 Brand-driven customer loyalty 196 CBO 159 Celebrities 89, 121, 147 Brand-driven customer retention 196 Clarity 159, 160, 162, 242 Brand-driven organization 125 CMO 159, 197, 289 Branded house 74, 75, 188, 208, 209, 212 Co-branding 129, 133, 134, 268 Branding Commodities 56 Branding decision 10, 15, 81, 189, 190, 213 Branding dimensions 11, 60–148 Branding in China 298, 302–14 Branding principles 162 Classic brand 87, 91 Collaborators 55, 67, 107 Community volunteering 301 Competitive advantage IX, 6, 7, 37, 40, 67, 69, 79, 125, 172, 173, 189, 210, 226, 251, 298 Complexity 22, 24, 34, 41, 47, 95, 285 Branding triangle 55, 67, 108, 109 Compliance audit 193 Brandmark 315 Component parts 133 Bullwhip effect 23 Consistency 159, 160, 162, 169, 242 Business Intelligence 188, 193, 194 Component materials 133 Consistent impression 71, 72 Buyers 26 Containerization 35 Buying center 26, 27, 28, 30, 33, 42, 47, 48, 121 Continuity 44, 81, 160, 161, 162, 242 Buying decision 2, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 44, 49, 80, 93, 142 Cooperative marketing 136 354 Subject Index Corporate brand 51, 55, 74, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 91, 178, 181, 211, 226, 227, 229, 231, 232, 265, 281 Direct mail 143, 213 Corporate brand strategy 17, 79, 82, 170, 224, 226, 287 Dual branding 208, 224, 227 Corporate branding 79, 80, 81, 82, 170, 171, 289 E Corporate citizenship 301 Corporate culture 92 Corporate identity 247 Corporate mission 105, 164, 174 Corporate philanthropy 301 Corporate social marketing 301 Corporate Social Responsibility 12, 144, 267, 298, 299–302, 301 Direct marketing 110, 111, 112, 113 E-business 112 Emotional appeal 59, 118, 144 Emotional benefit 143 Emotional brand attributes 58 Employee motivation 129 Endorsed brands 74 ERP 45, 175 EVA 187, 262 Corporate socially responsible business practices 301 Evaluation of potential suppliers 29 Corporate values 82, 99, 157, 247 Exchangeable market offering 34 Corporate vision 79, 105, 164, 174 Exhibitions 110, 114 CRM 41, 45 External marketing communications 55 D F Deciders 26 Fabricated names 97 Decision-making process 1, 5, 51, 107, 320 Family brand 74, 78, 79, 83, 84, 91 Decommoditize 52 Farm products 133 Deregulation 37 Derived demand 22, 23 Descriptive names 96 Design 298 Design and Branding 314–20 Diagnostic Metrics 188 Differentiation 44, 52, 125, 145 Financially-driven approaches 123 G Gatekeepers 27 General need description 29 Global brand manager 235 Global brand strategy 89, 235 Subject Index Global branding 23 Globalization 35, 36, 37, 40, 249, 297, 299, 308 355 Information efficiency 8, 43, 46, 285 Ingredient branding 121, 129–40 Guiding principle IX, 12, 158 Initiators 26, 27 H Inspirational Vision Statement 186 Hard facts 30 Internal marketing communication 56 Hedgehog concept 173 Holistic branding 5, 10, 11, 16, 43, 59, 71, 174, 322 International brand 88, 91 International brand strategy 88 Holistic marketing 16 Internationality 23 House of brands 74, 188, 208, 209 Internationalization 89, 91, 178, 304 Human factors 29, 125 Hybrid forms 74, 75, 90 Hybrid structures 179 Hypercompetition 37, 40 I Identity 93 Image benefit creation 44, 46, 285 InBrand 131, 132, 139 InBranding 129, 130, 136 Individual brand 74 Individual brand strategy 85 ission statement 228 L Liberalization of trade 35 Logo X, 2, 4, 5, 17, 31, 66, 68, 89, 92, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 126, 132, 134, 136, 199, 211, 217, 224, 226, 227, 228, 230, 282, 287, 288, 289, 290, 292, 298, 313 Lovemarks 59, 71, 298, 321–22, 321 M Individual brands 77, 80, 81, 82, 83, 85, 86, 190, 191, 193, 226, 227, 278 M&A 35 Industrial goods 132 Materials and parts 21, 132 Industrial Products 21 Metaphors 97 Inelastic demand 23 Middlemen 24 Influencers 26, 28 Model-Based Marketing Planning 187 Influential dimensions on the buying center 30 Master brand 75, 79, 82, 188, 213, 234, 289 Modified re-buy 25 356 Subject Index Multidomestic brand strategy 90 Multi-stage branding 130 N Name awareness 70 National brand 87, 91 Natural products 133 New task 25, 26, 50 O Obsessive Implementation 187 OEM 24, 42 Order-routine specification 29 Proposal solicitation and analysis 29 Pull strategy 131 Push strategy 131 R Re-branding 8, 19, 78, 197, 199, 211, 231, 280, 288, 290, 291, 294 Research-based evaluation 123 Retail value management 267 Risk reduction 8, 33, 44, 46, 285 ROBI 195 ROI 6, 116, 158, 188 Organizational buying 24–29 ROS 195 Organizational buying process 28, 50 S P Sales force 122, 213 Sales promotion 110, 122 Patronymic brand 79 Sales representative 122 Perceived quality 70 SCM 41, 45 Performance review 29 Single-stage marketing 130 Personal selling 110, 111, 112 Slogan 82, 89, 92, 101, 171, 213, 228, 283 PLC 37, 40 PR 110, 113, 114, 119 Social Branding 144 Premium brand 86, 87, 91, 215, 222 Soft facts 30 Price premium 53 Sponsoring 117 Price pressures 34, 43, 285 Sponsorships 117, 213 Problem recognition 28 Stereotypical name 96 Product brand 91 Storytelling 103 Product specification 29 Straight re-buy 25, 26, 50 Professional buyer 30 Strategic alliances 35 Proliferation of similar products and services 34, 40, 285 Strategic branding options 73, 74 Specialized press 119 Subject Index Subbrand 74, 212, 237, 265, 278 U Supplier evaluation and selection 29 User 24, 26 Supplier structure 47 Supplies and services 21 Synergy 235, 236, 270, 320 Synergy effects 81, 82, 178, 234 Synergyeffects 247 T Tagline 31, 92, 101, 102, 135, 170, 199, 213, 237, 263, 287, 289 USP 94 V Value added 8, 44, 46, 94, 285 Value creation 67 Value delivery 67 Value exploration 67 Value opportunities 67 Visibility 47, 162, 163 Think global, act local 247 Visual identity 92, 99, 198 Think local, act local 303 Visual identity code 92 Three C’sof branding 162 Volatile demand 23 Time pressure 25, 30, 39, 40 Trade show 116, 122 Trade shows 110, 114, 115 Transformational Strategy 186 Transnational brand strategy 89, 226 W Word-of-Mouth 146–48, 184 357 [...]... Through Branding Branding Dimensions B2B Branding Decision Branding Pitfalls Time Fig 2 Guiding principle (structure of the book) B2B Branding Decision – First of all, we are going to bombard you with arguments and evidence that clearly highlight the importance and relevance of brands in B2B markets whether you already have brands or if you are looking for guidance with the decision to brand Brands... Distinction 73 3.2 Brand Communication 106 3.3 Brand Evaluation 123 3.4 Brand Specialties 124 Chapter 4 Acceleration Through Branding 157 4.1 Brand Planning 160 4.2 Brand Analysis 163 4.3 Brand Strategy 168 4.4 Brand Building 181 4.5 Brand Audit 191 XVI Contents Chapter 5 Success Stories of B2B Branding 207 5.1... knowledge of B2B branding We hope you share this opinion Contents Foreword V Preface IX Acknowledgements XI Chapter 1 Being Known or Being One of Many 1 Chapter 2 To Brand or Not to Brand 15 2.1 B2B  B2C 20 2.2 B2B Brand Relevance 34 2.3 Power of the Business Brand 50 Chapter 3 B2B Branding Dimensions 65 3.1 Brand Distinction... holistic brand approach, companies can accelerate and increase their overall success Numerous, very successful B2B brands are the “smoking gun” for this theory While some of them tapped into branding rather by accident, the majority made a conscious decision for B2B branding They identified the great potentials that a well-managed B2B brand can offer them at an early stage 16 To Brand or Not to Brand. .. and misconceptions related to B2B branding and branding in general One frequently mentioned branding myth is the assumption that brand is simply a name and a logo Wrong! Branding is much more than just putting a brand name and a logo on a product or service Take one moment and try to think about what brand means to you personally Without a doubt certain products, brand names, logos, maybe even... proof that branding efforts in B2B can be successful some business companies would probably never think of creating brands themselves In this chapter we will provide you with some insights into strongly branded B2B companies from various industries Although no company can be successful by imitating the brand management of another business it can gain valuable information and hints for their own brand Important... brand can offer them at an early stage 16 To Brand or Not to Brand Company Success Future Perspective Success Stories Acceleration Through Branding Branding Dimensions B2B Branding Decision Branding Pitfalls Time Fig 3 Guiding principle B2B branding decision Holistic Branding If you are wondering what is meant by the holistic approach that we are advocating in this book, the answer to your question is... holistic branding efforts? Chapter 5 provides illustrative brand success stories At the same time it is important to be realistic and acknowledge that there are many things that can go wrong – so be aware of branding pitfalls! Chapter 6 focuses on five pitfalls of branding Finally, the future perspective will be dealt with in chapter 7 Key trends and developments related to B2B branding and branding... work? We don’t think so Is branding relevant to B2B companies? Microsoft, IBM, General Electric, Intel, HP, Cisco Systems, Dell, Oracle, SAP, Siemens, FedEx, Boeing – they are all vivid examples of the fact that some of the world’s strongest brands are B2B brands Although they also operate in B2C segments, their main business operations are concentrated on B2B Then why are so many B2B companies spurning... if the brand is monitored and championed closely by the top management of an organization.17 To appoint a Vice President of Branding, someone who is responsible solely for brand management would be an important step No matter what the actual title, this person should be the one person taking the required actions for keeping the brand in line Strong leaders demonstrate their foresight for the brand,
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